Hepatic Diacylglycerol-Associated Protein Kinase C? Translocation Links Hepatic Steatosis to Hepatic Insulin Resistance in Humans.
ABSTRACT: Hepatic lipid accumulation has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance, but translational evidence in humans is limited. We investigated the relationship between liver fat and tissue-specific insulin sensitivity in 133 obese subjects. Although the presence of hepatic steatosis in obese subjects was associated with hepatic, adipose tissue, and peripheral insulin resistance, we found that intrahepatic triglycerides were not strictly sufficient or essential for hepatic insulin resistance. Thus, to examine the molecular mechanisms that link hepatic steatosis to hepatic insulin resistance, we comprehensively analyzed liver biopsies from a subset of 29 subjects. Here, hepatic cytosolic diacylglycerol content, but not hepatic ceramide content, was increased in subjects with hepatic insulin resistance. Moreover, cytosolic diacylglycerols were strongly associated with hepatic PKC? activation, as reflected by PKC? translocation to the plasma membrane. These results demonstrate the relevance of hepatic diacylglycerol-induced PKC? activation in the pathogenesis of NAFLD-associated hepatic insulin resistance in humans.
Project description:Mice overexpressing acylCoA:diacylglycerol (DAG) acyltransferase 2 in the liver (Liv-DGAT2) have been shown to have normal hepatic insulin responsiveness despite severe hepatic steatosis and increased hepatic triglyceride, diacylglycerol, and ceramide content, demonstrating a dissociation between hepatic steatosis and hepatic insulin resistance. This led us to reevaluate the role of DAG in causing hepatic insulin resistance in this mouse model of severe hepatic steatosis. Using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps, we studied insulin action in Liv-DGAT2 mice and their wild-type (WT) littermate controls. Here, we show that Liv-DGAT2 mice manifest severe hepatic insulin resistance as reflected by decreased suppression of endogenous glucose production (0.8 ± 41.8 vs. 87.7 ± 34.3% in WT mice, P < 0.01) during the clamps. Hepatic insulin resistance could be attributed to an almost 12-fold increase in hepatic DAG content (P < 0.01) resulting in a 3.6-fold increase in protein kinase C? (PKC?) activation (P < 0.01) and a subsequent 52% decrease in insulin-stimulated insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS-2) tyrosine phosphorylation (P < 0.05), as well as a 64% decrease in fold increase pAkt/Akt ratio from basal conditions (P < 0.01). In contrast, hepatic insulin resistance in these mice was not associated with increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress or inflammation. Importantly, hepatic insulin resistance in Liv-DGAT2 mice was independent of differences in body composition, energy expenditure, or food intake. In conclusion, these findings strengthen the link between hepatic steatosis and hepatic insulin resistance and support the hypothesis that DAG-induced PKC? activation plays a major role in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)-associated hepatic insulin resistance.
Project description:Insulin resistance is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and is a major factor in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. The development of hepatic insulin resistance has been ascribed to multiple causes, including inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and accumulation of hepatocellular lipids in animal models of NAFLD. However, it is unknown whether these same cellular mechanisms link insulin resistance to hepatic steatosis in humans. To examine the cellular mechanisms that link hepatic steatosis to insulin resistance, we comprehensively assessed each of these pathways by using flash-frozen liver biopsies obtained from 37 obese, nondiabetic individuals and correlating key hepatic and plasma markers of inflammation, ER stress, and lipids with the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance index. We found that hepatic diacylglycerol (DAG) content in cytoplasmic lipid droplets was the best predictor of insulin resistance (R = 0.80, P < 0.001), and it was responsible for 64% of the variability in insulin sensitivity. Hepatic DAG content was also strongly correlated with activation of hepatic PKC? (R = 0.67, P < 0.001), which impairs insulin signaling. In contrast, there was no significant association between insulin resistance and other putative lipid metabolites or plasma or hepatic markers of inflammation. ER stress markers were only partly correlated with insulin resistance. In conclusion, these data show that hepatic DAG content in lipid droplets is the best predictor of insulin resistance in humans, and they support the hypothesis that NAFLD-associated hepatic insulin resistance is caused by an increase in hepatic DAG content, which results in activation of PKC?.
Project description:Hepatic steatosis is strongly associated with insulin resistance, but a causal role has not been established. In ob/ob mice, sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) mediates the induction of steatosis by upregulating target genes, including glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase-1 (Gpat1), which catalyzes the first and committed step in the pathway of glycerolipid synthesis. We asked whether ob/ob mice lacking Gpat1 would have reduced hepatic steatosis and improved insulin sensitivity.Hepatic lipids, insulin sensitivity, and hepatic insulin signaling were compared in lean (Lep(+/?)), lean-Gpat1(-/-), ob/ob (Lep(ob/ob)), and ob/ob-Gpat1(-/-) mice. RESULTS Compared with ob/ob mice, the lack of Gpat1 in ob/ob mice reduced hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG) content 59 and 74%, respectively, but increased acyl-CoA levels. Despite the reduction in hepatic lipids, fasting glucose and insulin concentrations did not improve, and insulin tolerance remained impaired. In both ob/ob and ob/ob-Gpat1(-/-) mice, insulin resistance was accompanied by elevated hepatic protein kinase C-epsilon activation and blunted insulin-stimulated Akt activation.These results suggest that decreasing hepatic steatosis alone does not improve insulin resistance, and that factors other than increased hepatic DAG and TAG contribute to hepatic insulin resistance in this genetically obese model. They also show that the SREBP1-mediated induction of hepatic steatosis in ob/ob mice requires Gpat1.
Project description:Comparative gene identification 58 (CGI-58) is a lipid droplet-associated protein that promotes the hydrolysis of triglyceride by activating adipose triglyceride lipase. Loss-of-function mutations in CGI-58 in humans lead to Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome, a condition in which triglyceride accumulates in various tissues, including the skin, liver, muscle, and intestines. Therefore, without adequate CGI-58 expression, lipids are stored rather than used for fuel, signaling intermediates, and membrane biosynthesis. CGI-58 knockdown in mice using antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) treatment also leads to severe hepatic steatosis as well as increased hepatocellular diacylglycerol (DAG) content, a well-documented trigger of insulin resistance. Surprisingly, CGI-58 knockdown mice remain insulin-sensitive, seemingly dissociating DAG from the development of insulin resistance. Therefore, we sought to determine the mechanism responsible for this paradox. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies reveal that the maintenance of insulin sensitivity with CGI-58 ASO treatment could entirely be attributed to protection from lipid-induced hepatic insulin resistance, despite the apparent lipotoxic conditions. Analysis of the cellular compartmentation of DAG revealed that DAG increased in the membrane fraction of high fat-fed mice, leading to PKC? activation and hepatic insulin resistance. However, DAG increased in lipid droplets or lipid-associated endoplasmic reticulum rather than the membrane of CGI-58 ASO-treated mice, and thus prevented PKC? translocation to the plasma membrane and induction of insulin resistance. Taken together, these results explain the disassociation of hepatic steatosis and DAG accumulation from hepatic insulin resistance in CGI-58 ASO-treated mice, and highlight the importance of intracellular compartmentation of DAG in causing lipotoxicity and hepatic insulin resistance.
Project description:CONTEXT:Excessive adipose glucocorticoid action is associated with insulin resistance, but the mechanisms linking adipose glucocorticoid action to insulin resistance are still debated. We hypothesized that insulin resistance from excess glucocorticoid action may be attributed in part to increased ectopic lipid deposition in liver. METHODS:We tested this hypothesis in the adipose specific 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (HSD11B1) transgenic mouse, an established model of adipose glucocorticoid excess. Tissue specific insulin action was assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps, hepatic lipid content was measured, hepatic insulin signaling was assessed by immunoblotting. The role of hepatic lipid content was further probed by administration of the functionally liver-targeted mitochondrial uncoupler, Controlled Release Mitochondrial Protonophore (CRMP). FINDINGS:High fat diet fed HSD11B1 transgenic mice developed more severe hepatic insulin resistance than littermate controls (endogenous suppression of hepatic glucose production was reduced by 3.8-fold, P?<?0.05); this was reflected by decreased insulin-stimulated hepatic insulin receptor kinase tyrosine phosphorylation and AKT serine phosphorylation. Hepatic insulin resistance was associated with a 53% increase (P?<?0.05) in hepatic triglyceride content, a 73% increase in diacylglycerol content (P?<?0.01), and a 66% increase in PKC? translocation (P?<?0.05). Hepatic insulin resistance was prevented with administration of CRMP by reversal of hepatic steatosis and prevention of hepatic diacylglycerol accumulation and PKC? activation. CONCLUSIONS:These findings are consistent with excess adipose glucocorticoid activity being a predisposing factor for the development of lipid (diacylglycerol-PKC?)-induced hepatic insulin resistance.
Project description:Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been shown to contribute to various metabolic diseases, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes. Reduction of ER stress by treatment with chemical chaperones or overexpression of ER chaperone proteins alleviates hepatic steatosis. Nonetheless, X-box binding protein 1s (XBP1s), a key transcription factor that reduces ER stress, has been proposed as a lipogenic transcription factor. In this report, we document that XBP1s leads to suppression of lipogenic gene expression and reduction of hepatic triglyceride and diacylglycerol content in livers of diet-induced obese and genetically obese and insulin-resistant ob/ob mice. Furthermore, we also show that PKC? activity, which correlates with fatty liver and which causes insulin resistance, was significantly reduced in diet-induced obese mice. Finally, we have shown that XBP1s reduces the hepatic fatty acid synthesis rate and enhances macrolipophagy, an initiating step in lipolysis. Our results reveal that XBP1s reduces hepatic lipogenic gene expression and improves hepatosteatosis in mouse models of obesity and insulin resistance, which leads us to conclude that XBP1s has anti-lipogenic properties in the liver.
Project description:Muscle insulin resistance is a key feature of obesity and type 2 diabetes and is strongly associated with increased intramyocellular lipid content and inflammation. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for causing muscle insulin resistance in humans are still unclear. To address this question, we performed serial muscle biopsies in healthy, lean subjects before and during a lipid infusion to induce acute muscle insulin resistance and assessed lipid and inflammatory parameters that have been previously implicated in causing muscle insulin resistance. We found that acute induction of muscle insulin resistance was associated with a transient increase in total and cytosolic diacylglycerol (DAG) content that was temporally associated with protein kinase (PKC)? activation, increased insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 serine 1101 phosphorylation, and inhibition of insulin-stimulated IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and AKT2 phosphorylation. In contrast, there were no associations between insulin resistance and alterations in muscle ceramide, acylcarnitine content, or adipocytokines (interleukin-6, adiponectin, retinol-binding protein 4) or soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Similar associations between muscle DAG content, PKC? activation, and muscle insulin resistance were observed in healthy insulin-resistant obese subjects and obese type 2 diabetic subjects. Taken together, these data support a key role for DAG activation of PKC? in the pathogenesis of lipid-induced muscle insulin resistance in obese and type 2 diabetic individuals.
Project description:Although mutations in the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway are linked with the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in humans, the mechanism is unclear. High-fat-fed male C57BL/6 mice were treated for 4 wk with a 2'-O-methoxyethyl chimeric antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) to decrease hepatic and adipose expression of ?-catenin. ?-Catenin mRNA decreased by ?80% in the liver and by 70% in white adipose tissue relative to control ASO-treated mice. ?-Catenin ASO improved hepatic insulin sensitivity and increased insulin-stimulated whole body glucose metabolism, as assessed during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in awake mice. ?-Catenin ASO altered hepatic lipid composition in high-fat-fed mice. There were reductions in hepatic triglyceride (44%, P < 0.05) and diacylglycerol content (60%, P < 0.01) but a 30% increase in ceramide content (P < 0.001). The altered lipid content was attributed to decreased expression of sn-1,2 diacylglycerol acyltransferase and mitochondrial acyl-CoA:glycerol-sn-3-phosphate acyltransferase and an increase in serine palmitoyl transferase. The decrease in cellular diacyglycerol was associated with a 33% decrease in PKC? activation (P < 0.05) and 64% increase in Akt2 phosphorylation (P < 0.05). In summary, Reducing ?-catenin expression decreases expression of enzymes involved in hepatic fatty acid esterification, ameliorates hepatic steatosis and lipid-induced insulin resistance.
Project description:Alterations in mitochondrial function have been implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, it is unclear whether the reduced mitochondrial function is a primary or acquired defect in this process. To determine whether primary defects in mitochondrial beta-oxidation can cause insulin resistance, we studied mice with a deficiency of long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD), a key enzyme in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. Here, we show that LCAD knockout mice develop hepatic steatosis, which is associated with hepatic insulin resistance, as reflected by reduced insulin suppression of hepatic glucose production during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. The defects in insulin action were associated with an approximately 40% reduction in insulin-stimulated insulin receptor substrate-2-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity and an approximately 50% decrease in Akt2 activation. These changes were associated with increased PKCepsilon activity and an aberrant 4-fold increase in diacylglycerol content after insulin stimulation. The increase in diacylglycerol concentration was found to be caused by de novo synthesis of diacylglycerol from medium-chain acyl-CoA after insulin stimulation. These data demonstrate that primary defects in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation capacity can lead to diacylglycerol accumulation, PKCepsilon activation, and hepatic insulin resistance.
Project description:States of insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and hepatic steatosis are associated with increased secretion of triglycerides (TG) and apolipoprotein B (apoB), even though insulin targets apoB for degradation. We used hepatic-specific "phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10" (Pten) knockout (hPten-ko) mice, with increased hepatic insulin signaling, to determine the relative roles of insulin signaling and hepatic TG in regulating apoB secretion.TG and apoB secretion was elevated in hPten-ko mice. When hepatic TG was reduced by inhibition of diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1/diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 or sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, both TG secretion and apoB secretion fell without changes in hepatic insulin signaling. Acute reconstitution of hPten reduced hepatic TG content, and both TG and apoB secretion fell within 4 days despite decreased hepatic insulin signaling. Acute depletion of hepatic Pten by adenoviral introduction of Cre into Pten floxed mice caused steatosis within 4 days, and secretion of both TG and apoB increased despite increased hepatic insulin signaling. Even when steatosis after acute Pten depletion was prevented by pretreatment with SREBP-1c antisense oligonucleotides, apoB secretion was not reduced after 4 days. Ex vivo results were in primary hepatocytes were similar.Either hepatic TG is the dominant regulator of apoB secretion or any inhibitory effects of hepatic insulin signaling on apoB secretion is very short-lived.