Prevalence and trends in the childhood dual burden of malnutrition in low- and middle-income countries, 1990-2012.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:To describe trends in country- and individual-level dual burden of malnutrition in children <5 years, and age-stratified (<2 years, ?2 years) country-level trends, in thirty-six low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). DESIGN:Using repeated cross-sectional nationally representative data, we calculated the prevalence of malnutrition (stunting, wasting, overweight) at each survey wave, annualized rates of prevalence change for each country over time, and trends before and after 2000, for all children <5 years and separately for those
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>For over 20?years, Madagascar has been challenged by continued high prevalence of stunting, underweight and wasting among children under 5 years of age. Yet, nutritional status of post-under-five age group has never been assessed in the country, despite its importance in relation not only to physical health but also to cognitive capacity and educational achievements of children. This study aims to estimate prevalence of malnutrition among schoolchildren aged 5-14?years in Madagascar. It further attempts to identify the possible risk factors for their malnutrition. This is the first study that estimates prevalence of malnutrition among school-aged children in Madagascar.<h4>Methods</h4>A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in Antananarivo-Avaradrano district, Analamanga region, Madagascar. The study targeted 393 first and second graders 5-14?years of age enrolled at 10 primary schools, where school-feeding was implemented. Data were collected from anthropometric measurements, their subsequent household structured interviews and observations. Bivariate (Chi-square test or Mann-Whitney's U test) and multivariable (logistic regression) analyses were performed, to identify the possible risk factors associated with malnutrition.<h4>Results</h4>The overall prevalence rates of stunting, underweight and thinness were 34.9%, 36.9% and 11.2%, respectively. Nineteen children (4.8%) suffered from all the three forms of undernutrition. Older schoolchildren had a significantly greater likelihood of being stunted, underweight and thin. The greater number of members a household had, the higher likelihood of being stunted and thin its schoolchild had. Children having lower Household Dietary Diversity Score were more likely to be underweight. Yet, 'Had lunch at school yesterday' was associated neither with being stunted nor with being underweight and thin. This implies room for improvement of the current school feeding program.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Prevalence rates of stunting and underweight among 393 children examined were as high as the national averages among children under 5 years of age. Adequate food availability and dietary diversity over a sufficient period (incl. 5-14?years of age) are necessary for increasing likelihood of catch-up in height-for-age and weight-for-age, which are expectable during adolescence. To supplement inadequate household dietary diversity practices, school-feeding program may need to use more animal-protein ingredients.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The double burden of malnutrition affects many low and middle-income countries. This study aimed to: a) determine temporal trends in the prevalence of underweight, stunting, and at risk of overweight/ overweight or obesity in Indonesian children aged 2.0-4.9 years; and b) examine associated risk factors. DESIGN:A repeated cross-sectional survey. This is a secondary data analysis of waves 1, 2, 3, and 4 (1993, 1997, 2000, and 2007) of the Indonesian Family Life Survey, which includes 13 out of 27 provinces in Indonesia. Height, weight and BMI were expressed as z-scores (2006 WHO Child Growth Standards). Weight-for-age-z-score <-2 was categorised as underweight, height-for-age-z-score <-2 as stunted, and BMI-z-score >+1, >+2, >+3 as at-risk, overweight and obese, respectively. RESULTS:There are 938, 913, 939, and 1311 separate children in the 4 waves, respectively. The prevalence of stunting decreased significantly from waves 1 to 4 (from 50.8% to 36.7%), as did the prevalence of underweight (from 34.5% to 21.4%). The prevalence of 'at-risk'/overweight/obesity increased from 10.3% to 16.5% (all P<0.01). Stunting and underweight were related to lower birth weight, being breastfed for 6 months or more, having parents who were underweight or had short stature, and mothers who never attended formal education. Stunting was also higher in rural areas. Being at-risk, or overweight/obese were closely related to being in the youngest age group (2-2·9 years) or male, having parents who were overweight/obese or having fathers with university education. CONCLUSIONS:The double burden of malnutrition occurs in Indonesian children. Development of policy to combine the management of chronic under-nutrition and over-nutrition is required.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Households from vulnerable groups experiencing epidemiological transitions are known to be affected concomitantly by under-nutrition and obesity. Yet, it is unknown to what extent this double burden affects refugee populations dependent on food assistance. We assessed the double burden of malnutrition among Western Sahara refugees living in a protracted emergency.<h4>Methods and findings</h4>We implemented a stratified nutrition survey in October-November 2010 in the four Western Sahara refugee camps in Algeria. We sampled 2,005 households, collecting anthropometric measurements (weight, height, and waist circumference) in 1,608 children (6-59 mo) and 1,781 women (15-49 y). We estimated the prevalence of global acute malnutrition (GAM), stunting, underweight, and overweight in children; and stunting, underweight, overweight, and central obesity in women. To assess the burden of malnutrition within households, households were first classified according to the presence of each type of malnutrition. Households were then classified as undernourished, overweight, or affected by the double burden if they presented members with under-nutrition, overweight, or both, respectively. The prevalence of GAM in children was 9.1%, 29.1% were stunted, 18.6% were underweight, and 2.4% were overweight; among the women, 14.8% were stunted, 53.7% were overweight or obese, and 71.4% had central obesity. Central obesity (47.2%) and overweight (38.8%) in women affected a higher proportion of households than did GAM (7.0%), stunting (19.5%), or underweight (13.3%) in children. Overall, households classified as overweight (31.5%) were most common, followed by undernourished (25.8%), and then double burden-affected (24.7%).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The double burden of obesity and under-nutrition is highly prevalent in households among Western Sahara refugees. The results highlight the need to focus more attention on non-communicable diseases in this population and balance obesity prevention and management with interventions to tackle under-nutrition. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To determine the association between malnutrition and early childhood caries (ECC) in children resident in sub-urban, Nigeria. METHODS:This study was a subset of a larger cross-sectional study the data of which was generated through a household survey conducted in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study's explanatory variable was malnutrition (underweight, overweight, wasting and stunting) and the outcome variable was ECC. Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the association between ECC and malnutrition. Variables (sex, frequency of sugar consumption, maternal knowledge of oral hygiene, oral hygiene status) associated with ECC in the primary study were adjusted for to obtain the adjusted prevalence ratio (APR). RESULTS:Of the 370 children, 20 (5.41%) were underweight, 20 (5.41%) were overweight, 67 (18.11%) were wasting, 120 (32.43%) were stunted and 18 (4.86%) had ECC. Factors associated with ECC were being stunted, underweight, overweight and fair oral hygiene. The prevalence of ECC was lower in children who were stunted (APR: 0.14; 95% CI: 0.03-0.69; p?=?0.02), almost seven times higher in children who were overweight (APR: 6.88; 95% CI: 1.83-25.85; p?<?0.001), and predictively absent in children who were underweight (APR: 0; 95% CI: 0-0; p?<?0.001) when compared with children who had normal weight. Non-significant risk indicators for ECC included consuming sugar between meals three times a day or more, having low socioeconomic status and being female. CONCLUSIONS:For this study population, the indicators of malnutrition - being stunted, underweight, overweight - and fair oral hygiene were risk indicators for ECC. The frequency of sugar consumption was not a significant risk indicator when malnutrition was included as an explanatory variable for ECC in the study population.
Project description:Background:Despite continued efforts to address malnutrition, there is minimal reduction in the prevalence rates of stunting in developing countries, including Ethiopia. The association between nutritional and socioeconomic factors collected from a national survey in Ethiopia and stunting have not been rigorously analyzed. Therefore, this study aims to model the effect of nutritional and socioeconomic predictors using 2016 Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey (EDHS) data. Methods:This study is a secondary data analysis of the 2016 EDHS survey, which included 7909 children aged 6 to59 months. Descriptive statistics using frequency and percentage for categorical data and mean and standard deviation for metric data were conducted. Linearity, confounding, and multicollinearity were checked. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression were carried out. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. A receiver operative curve was built to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the model. Results:The study identified that 39.2% of children included in this analysis were stunted. Furthermore, 76.47, 84.27, and 92.62% of the children did not consume fruits and vegetables, legumes and lentils, or meat and its products, respectively. Children aged 24?months to 59?months were found to be at 9.71 times higher risk of being stunted compared to their younger counterparts aged 6-24?months (AOR: 9.71; CI: 8.07, 11.6 children). Those children weighing below 9.1?kg were at 27.86 odds of being stunted compared to those weighing 23.3?kg and above. Moreover, mothers with a height below 150?cm (AOR: 2.01; CI: 1.76, 2.5), living in a rural area (AOR: 1.3, CI: 1.09, 1.54), and being male (AOR: 1.4; CI: 1.26, 1.56) were factors associated with stunting. The predictive ability of the model was 77%: if a pair of observations with stunted and non-stunted children were taken, the model correctly ranks 77% of such pair of observations. Conclusion:The model indicates that being born male, being from a mother of short stature, living in rural areas, small child size, mother with mild anemia, father having no formal education or primary education only, having low child weight, and being 24-59?months of age increases the likelihood of stunting. On the other hand, being born of an overweight or obese mother decreases the likelihood of stunting.
Project description:Many low- and middle-income countries are undergoing a nutrition transition associated with rapid social and economic transitions. We explore the coexistence of over and under- nutrition at the neighborhood and household level, in an urban poor setting in Nairobi, Kenya.Data were collected in 2010 on a cohort of children aged under five years born between 2006 and 2010. Anthropometric measurements of the children and their mothers were taken. Additionally, dietary intake, physical activity, and anthropometric measurements were collected from a stratified random sample of adults aged 18 years and older through a separate cross-sectional study conducted between 2008 and 2009 in the same setting. Proportions of stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight/obesity were dettermined in children, while proportions of underweight and overweight/obesity were determined in adults.Of the 3335 children included in the analyses with a total of 6750 visits, 46% (51% boys, 40% girls) were stunted, 11% (13% boys, 9% girls) were underweight, 2.5% (3% boys, 2% girls) were wasted, while 9% of boys and girls were overweight/obese respectively. Among their mothers, 7.5% were underweight while 32% were overweight/obese. A large proportion (43% and 37%%) of overweight and obese mothers respectively had stunted children. Among the 5190 adults included in the analyses, 9% (6% female, 11% male) were underweight, and 22% (35% female, 13% male) were overweight/obese.The findings confirm an existing double burden of malnutrition in this setting, characterized by a high prevalence of undernutrition particularly stunting early in life, with high levels of overweight/obesity in adulthood, particularly among women. In the context of a rapid increase in urban population, particularly in urban poor settings, this calls for urgent action. Multisectoral action may work best given the complex nature of prevailing circumstances in urban poor settings. Further research is needed to understand the pathways to this coexistence, and to test feasibility and effectiveness of context-specific interventions to curb associated health risks.
Project description:Stunting or reduced linear growth is very prevalent in low-income countries. Recent studies have demonstrated a causal relationship between alterations in the gut microbiome and moderate or severe acute malnutrition in children in these countries. However, there have been no primary longitudinal studies comparing the intestinal microbiota of persistently stunted children to that of non-stunted children in the same community. In this pilot study, we characterized gut microbial community composition and diversity of the fecal microbiota of 10 children with low birth weight and persistent stunting (cases) and 10 children with normal birth weight and no stunting (controls) from a birth cohort every 3 months up to 2 years of age in a slum community in south India. There was an increase in diversity indices (P <0.0001) with increasing age in all children. However, there were no differences in diversity indices or in the rates of their increase with increasing age between cases and controls. The percent relative abundance of the Bacteroidetes phylum was higher in stunted compared to control children at 12 months of age (P = 0.043). There was an increase in the relative abundance of this phylum with increasing age in all children (P = 0.0380) with no difference in the rate of increase between cases and controls. There was a decrease in the relative abundance of Proteobacteria (P = 0.0004) and Actinobacteria (P = 0.0489) with increasing age in cases. The microbiota of control children was enriched in probiotic species Bifidobacterium longum and Lactobacillus mucosae, whereas that of stunted children was enriched in inflammogenic taxa including those in the Desulfovibrio genus and Campylobacterales order. Larger, longitudinal studies on the compositional and functional maturation of the microbiome in children are needed.
Project description:The double burden of malnutrition, an emerging concern in developing countries, can exist at various levels: individual, household, and population. Here, we explore the nutritional status of Tajik women (15-49 years) and children (5-59 months) focusing on overweight/obesity along with undernutrition (underweight, stunting, and micronutrient deficiencies). For this, nutritional markers (haemoglobin (Hb), transferrin receptor (TfR), serum ferritin (Sf), retinol binding protein (RBP), vitamin D, serum folate, and urinary iodine), height, and weight were assessed from 2,145 women and 2,149 children. Dietary intake, weaning, and breastfeeding habits were recorded using a 24-hr recall and a questionnaire. Overweight (24.5%) and obesity (13.0%) are increasing among Tajik women compared with previous national surveys (2003 and 2009). Prevalence of iron deficiency and anaemia was 38.0% and 25.8%, respectively; 64.5% of women were iodine deficient, 46.5% vitamin A deficient, and 20.5% had insufficient folate levels. Women in rural areas had significantly lower iron status and body mass index and higher iodine intake compared with urban areas; 20.9% of children were stunted, 2.8% wasted, 6.2% underweight, 52.4% iron deficient, and 25.8% anaemic; all more prominent in rural areas. Dietary diversity was higher among urban women. Intraindividual or household double burden was not seen. In summary, double burden of malnutrition constituted an increase in overweight among women, especially in urban areas, and persisting levels of undernutrition (stunting, iron, and vitamin A deficiency), predominately in rural areas. A holistic, innovative approach is needed to improve infant and young children feeding and advise mothers to maintain an adequate diet.
Project description:Stunting remains a major public health concern worldwide. Although its global prevalence is slowly decreasing, the actual number of affected children is still rising in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the Central African Republic (CAR), about one third of all children below the age of five are stunted. Stunting is correlated with many long-term consequences, including poor cognitive development and a higher rate of morbidity and mortality, making stunting a major contributor to poverty. In CAR, little is known about the factors that contribute to stunting. This study aimed at analysing, in a cross-sectional study, the main factors associated with stunting in a group of 414 children recruited between December 2011 and November 2013, aged five years or less and living in Bangui. For all children, demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric data were recorded and asymptomatic enteropathogen carriage was assessed in stool samples using classical microbiological assays. The study group had a mean age of 14.2±10 months. Fifty-eight percent (292/414) were boys, and 36 percent (148/414) exhibited stunted growth. Of the stunted children, 51% (75/148) showed a moderate delay in linear growth for their age group [height-for-age z-score (HAZ) between -2 and -3 SD] while 49% (73/148) presented a severe delay (HAZ < -3). Factors significantly associated with stunting included gender (aOR: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.07; 2.62 for boys compared to girls) and age (aOR of 3.98 (95% CI: 2.45; 6.46) for toddlers and aOR 4.42 (95% CI: 2.36; 8.28) for children compared to infants). Most importantly, we identified being overweight [weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) > 2 SD; aOR: 3.21; 95% CI: 1.50; 6.90 of overweight compared to normal weight] as also being significantly associated with stunting. This is the first study showing that even in the poorest countries of the world there is an association of stunting with being overweight.
Project description:The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and socio-demographic predictors of malnutrition in two urbanized economically active provinces (Gauteng N = 733, Western Cape N = 593) in South Africa. A multistage stratified cluster random sampling design was applied. Fieldworkers visited homes, measured children aged 1-<10-years old (N = 1326) and administered a questionnaire (mother/primary caregiver). In under-five year old children (N = 674) 21.6% were stunted [height-for-age z-score < -2 SD], 5.6 % underweight [weight-for-age z-score < -2 SD], 10.3% overweight (body mass index-for-age z-score) (BAZ)> +2 SD ? +3 SD] and 7.0% obese (BAZ > +3 SD). In 5-<10-year olds (N = 626) 6.7% were stunted, 6.8% underweight, 13.4% overweight and 6.8% obese. Stunting and overweight in the same child was present in 5.7% under-five year olds and 1.7% in 5-<10-year olds. Multiple logistic regression analyses identified having a mother with a post-grade 12 qualification (OR = 0.34) and having an obese mother (OR 0.46) as protectors and being in the under-five age group (OR = 3.73) as a risk factor for stunting. Being in the under-five age group was also a risk factor for a BAZ > 1 (OR 2.39), while being in the third wealth quintile was protective (OR = 0.62). Results indicate that stunting and overweight/obesity are still present at concerning levels, especially in the under-five age group.