Comparative analysis of HPV16 gene expression profiles in cervical and in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) is the major cause of cervical cancer and of a fraction of oropharyngeal carcinoma. Few studies compared the viral expression profiles in the two types of tumor. We analyzed HPV genotypes and viral load as well as early (E2/E4, E5, E6, E6*I, E6*II, E7) and late (L1 and L2) gene expression of HPV16 in cervical and oropharyngeal cancer biopsies. The study included 28 cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and ten oropharyngeal SCC, along with pair-matched non-tumor tissues, as well as four oropharynx dysplastic tissues and 112 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia biopsies. Viral load was found higher in cervical SCC (<1 to 694 copies/cell) and CIN (<1 to 43 copies/cell) compared to oropharyngeal SCC (<1 to 4 copies/cell). HPV16 E2/E4 and E5 as well as L1 and L2 mRNA levels were low in cervical SCC and CIN and undetectable in oropharynx cases. The HPV16 E6 and E7 mRNAs were consistently high in cervical SCC and low in oropharyngeal SCC. The analysis of HPV16 E6 mRNA expression pattern showed statistically significant higher levels of E6*I versus E6*II isoform in cervical SCC (p = 0.002) and a slightly higher expression of E6*I versus E6*II in oropharyngeal cases. In conclusion, the HPV16 E5, E6, E6*I, E6*II and E7 mRNA levels were more abundant in cervical SCC compared to oropharyngeal SCC suggesting different carcinogenic mechanisms in the two types of HPV-related cancers.
Project description:Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 is associated with oropharyngeal carcinomas (OPC). Antibodies (Abs) to HPV16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins have been detected in patient sera; however, Abs to other early HPV-derived proteins have not been well explored.Antibodies to the HPV16 proteome were quantified using a novel multiplexed bead assay, using C-terminal GST-fusion proteins captured onto Luminex beads. Sera were obtained from untreated patients with OPC (N=40), partners of patients with HPV16+ OPC (N=11), and healthy controls (N=50).Oropharyngeal carcinomas patients with known virus-like capsid particle+ Abs had elevated serum Abs to HPV16 E1, E2, E4, E6, and E7, and L1 antibody levels, but not E5. The ratios of specific median fluorescence intensity to p21-GST compared with controls were E1: 50.7 vs 2.1; E4: 14.6 vs 1.3; E6: 11.3 vs 2.4; E7: 43.1 vs 2.6; and L1: 10.3 vs 2.6 (each P?0.01). In a validation cohort, HPV16 E1, E2, and E7 antibody levels were significantly elevated compared with healthy control samples (P?0.02) and partners of OPC patients (P?0.01).Patients with HPV16+ OPC have detectable Abs to E1, E2, and E7 proteins, which are potential biomarkers for HPV-associated OPC.
Project description:Human papillomaviruses (HPV) 16 is a DNA virus encoding three oncogenes--E5, E6, and E7. The E6 and E7 proteins have well-established roles as inhibitors of tumor suppression, but the contribution of E5 to malignant transformation is controversial. Using spontaneously immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells), we demonstrate that expression of HPV16 E5 is necessary and sufficient for the formation of bi-nucleated cells, a common characteristic of precancerous cervical lesions. Expression of E5 from non-carcinogenic HPV6b does not produce bi-nucleate cells. Video microscopy and biochemical analyses reveal that bi-nucleates arise through cell-cell fusion. Although most E5-induced bi-nucleates fail to propagate, co-expression of HPV16 E6/E7 enhances the proliferation of these cells. Expression of HPV16 E6/E7 also increases bi-nucleated cell colony formation. These findings identify a new role for HPV16 E5 and support a model in which complementary roles of the HPV16 oncogenes lead to the induction of carcinogenesis.
Project description:A subset of the mucosotropic human papillomaviruses (HPV), including HPV16, are etiologic agents for the vast majority of cervical cancers, other anogenital cancers, and a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. HPV16 encodes three oncogenes: E5, E6, and E7. Although E6 and E7 have been well-studied and clearly shown to be important contributors to these cancers, less is known about E5. In this study, we used E5 transgenic mice to investigate the role of E5 in cervical cancer. When treated for 6 months with estrogen, a cofactor for cervical carcinogenesis, E5 transgenic mice developed more severe neoplastic cervical disease than similarly treated nontransgenic mice, although no frank cancers were detected. In addition, E5 when combined with either E6 or E7 induced more severe neoplastic disease than seen in mice expressing only one viral oncogene. Prolonged treatment of E5 transgenic mice with exogenous estrogen uncovered an ability of E5 to cause frank cancer. These data indicate that E5 acts as an oncogene in the reproductive tracts of female mice.
Project description:We hypothesized that viral and host factors impact the serologic responses to HPV early antigens in HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer (HPVOPC).We conducted a multicenter study to measure HPV16-specific IgG among patients with HPVOPC, their long-term sexual partners, and healthy volunteers. Risk factor surveys and rinse and gargle specimens were collected. Peripheral blood samples at diagnosis were evaluated for IgG Abs to HPV16 antigens using a programmable ELISA assay. Predictors for HPV16 serologic responses were evaluated using univariate and multivariable linear regression.116 patients with HPVOPC, 43 partners, and 81 healthy volunteers were enrolled and had baseline sera for analysis. Cases were primarily male (90%), with a median age of 56 years. Abs to E1, E2, E6 or E7 antigens were detected more often in HPVOPC compared with volunteers or partner sera (p<0.0001). HPV16 Abs to at least one early protein (E1, E2, E4, E5, E6, or E7) were detected in the sera of 90.6% of cases, 0% of partners and 7.4% of healthy volunteers. Gender, race, sexual behavior, and viral integration were not associated with antibody response. Younger age and higher oral HPV16 copy number were associated with higher HPV16 E6 and NE2 antibody levels.HPV16 seroreactivity is commonly detected among patients with HPVOPC at diagnosis, but not among partners or healthy volunteers. Seroreactivity among cases are correlated with viral load and stage and not with other demographic or behavioral factors. Positive HPV16 serology was strongly associated with HPV 16 oropharyngeal cancer.
Project description:The dominant paradigm for HPV carcinogenesis includes integration into the host genome followed by expression of E6 and E7 (E6/E7). We explored an alternative carcinogenic pathway characterized by episomal E2, E4, and E5 (E2/E4/E5) expression. Half of HPV positive cervical and pharyngeal cancers comprised a subtype with increase in expression of E2/E4/E5, as well as association with lack of integration into the host genome. Models of the E2/E4/E5 carcinogenesis show p53 dependent enhanced proliferation in vitro, as well as increased susceptibility to induction of cancer in vivo. Whole genomic expression analysis of the E2/E4/E5 pharyngeal cancer subtype is defined by activation of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) pathway and this subtype is susceptible to combination FGFR and mTOR inhibition, with implications for targeted therapy.
Project description:Antibodies (Abs) to the HPV16 proteome increase risk for HPV-associated OPC (HPVOPC). The goal of this study was to investigate the association of a panel of HPV16 Abs with risk for OPC as well as the association of these Abs with tumor HPV and smoking status among patients with OPC.IgG Abs to the HPV16 antigens E1, E2, E4, E5, E6, E7, L1, L2 were quantified using a programmable ELISA assay. Sera were obtained from 258 OPC patients at diagnosis and 250 healthy controls. HPV16 tumor status was measured by PCR for 137 cases. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for the association of HPV16 Abs with risk for OPC.HPV16 E1, E2, E4, E5, E6, E7 and L1-specific IgG levels were elevated in OPC patients compared to healthy controls (p<0.05). After multivariable adjustment, Ab positivity for NE2, CE2, E6, and/or E7 was associated with OPC risk (OR [95% CI], 249.1 [99.3-624.9]). Among patients with OPC, Ab positivity for these antigens was associated with tumor HPV status, especially among never or light smokers (OR [95% CI], 6.5 [2.1-20.1] and OR [95% CI], 17.5 [4.0-77.2], respectively).Antibodies to HPV16 proteins are associated with increased risk for HPVOPC. Among patients with OPC, HPV16 Abs are associated with tumor HPV status, in particular among HPV positive patients with no or little smoking history.
Project description:Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a non-enveloped DNA virus with an approximately 8000 base pair genome. Infection with certain types of HPV is associated with cervical cancer, although the molecular mechanism by which HPV induces carcinogenesis is poorly understood. Three genes encoded by HPV16 are regarded as oncogenic - E5, E6, and E7. The role of E5 has been controversial. Expression of HPV16 E5 causes cell-cell fusion, an event that can lead to increased chromosomal instability, particularly in the presence of cell cycle checkpoint inhibitors like HPV16 E6 and E7. Using biochemical and cell biological assays to better understand HPV16 E5, we find that HPV16 E5 localizes to the plasma membrane with an intracellular amino terminus and an extracellular carboxyl-terminus. Further, HPV16 E5 must be expressed on both cells for cell fusion to occur. When the extracellular epitope of HPV16 E5 is targeted with an antibody, the number of bi-nucleated cells decreases.
Project description:Almost all cervical cancers are associated with human papillomavirus (HPV); however, the majority of women infected with this virus do not develop cervical cancer. Therefore, new markers are needed for reliable screening of cervical cancer, especially in relation to HPV infection. We aimed to identify potential microRNAs that may serve as diagnostic markers for cervical cancer development in high-risk HPV-positive patients. We evaluated the microRNA expression profiles in 12 cervical tissues using the hybridization method and verified them by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Finally, we evaluated the effects of HPV16 oncoproteins on the expression of selected microRNAs using cervical cancer cells (CaSki and SiHa) and RNA interference. With the hybridization method, eight microRNAs (miR-9-5p, miR-136-5p, miR-148a-3p, miR-190a-5p, miR-199b-5p, miR-382-5p, miR-597-5p, and miR-655-3p) were found to be expressed differently in the HPV16-positive cervical cancer group and HPV16-positive normal group (fold change ? 2). The results of qPCR showed that miR-148a-3p, miR-190a-5p, miR-199b-5p, and miR-655-3p levels significantly decreased in the cancer group compared with the normal group. Upon silencing of HPV16 E5 and E6/E7, miR-148a-3p levels increased in both cell lines. Silencing of E6/E7 in SiHa cells led to the increase in miR-199b-5p and miR-190a-5p levels. Three HPV16 oncoproteins (E5, E6, and E7) downregulate miR-148a-3p, while E6/E7 inhibit miR-199b-5p and miR-190a-5p expression in cervical carcinoma. The three microRNAs, miR-148a-3p, miR-199b-5p, and miR-190a-5p, may be novel diagnostic biomarkers for cervical cancer development in high-risk HPV-positive patients.
Project description:Keratinocyte infection with high-risk human papillomavirus genotypes has been linked to cancer development. In cervix, the alpha HPV16 and HPV18 have been reported as the mayor causative agents of cervical cancer. Oncogenic progression and chronic inflammation are closely related processes, with IL-6 as one of the main pro-inflammatory cytokines involved. However, there are limited studies about the regulation of IL-6 by low and high risk HPVs and the HPV proteins implicated in this modulation. In this work, we report the overexpression of IL-6 in HPV infected cervical cancer derived cell lines (HeLa and SiHa) compared to non-tumorigenic keratinocytes (HaCaT), and in Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia grade 1 HPV16 and HPV18 positive cervical samples compared to HPV negative samples without lesions. Moreover, we generated HaCaT keratinocytes that express E5, E6, and E7 from high risk (16 or 18) or low risk (62 and 84) HPVs. E5 proteins do not modify IL-6 expression, while E7 modestly increase it. Interestingly, E6 proteins in HaCaT cells upregulate IL-6 mRNA expression and protein secretion. Indeed, in HaCaT cells that express high risk HPV16E6 or HPV18E6 proteins, only the truncated E6* isoforms were expressed, showing the stronger IL-6 overexpression, while in HaCaT cells that express low risk HPV62 and HPV84 full length E6 proteins, IL-6 was also upregulated but not so drastically. Since HaCaT cells have a mutated p53 form that is not degraded by the introduction of E6 or E6/E7, it seems that E6/E7 regulate IL-6 by an additional mechanism independent of p53. In addition, basal keratinocytes showed a strong expression of IL-6R using immunohistochemistry, suggesting an autocrine mechanism over proliferative cells. Altogether, IL-6 cytokine expression in keratinocytes is upregulated by E6 and E7 proteins from HPVs 16, 18, 62, and 84, especially by high risk HPV16 and HPV18 E6*, which may contribute to promote a pro-inflammatory and highly proliferative microenvironment that can persist over time and lead to cervical tumorigenesis.
Project description:High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection is not a sufficient condition for cervical cancer development because most infections are benign and naturally cleared. Epidemiological studies revealed that tobacco smoking is a cofactor with HR-HPV for cervical cancer initiation and progression, even though the mechanism by which tobacco smoke cooperates with HR-HPV in this malignancy is poorly understood. As HR-HPV E6/E7 oncoproteins overexpressed in cervical carcinomas colocalize with cigarette smoke components (CSC), in this study we addressed the signaling pathways involved in a potential interaction between both carcinogenic agents. Cervical cancer-derived cell lines, CaSki (HPV16; 500 copies per cell) and SiHa (HPV16; 2 copies per cell), were acutely exposed to CSC at various non-toxic concentrations and we found that E6 and E7 levels were significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner. Using a reporter construct containing the luciferase gene under the control of the full HPV16 long control region (LCR), we also found that p97 promoter activity is dependent on CSC. Non-synonymous mutations in the LCR-resident TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate)-response elements (TRE) had significantly decreased p97 promoter activation. Phosphoproteomic arrays and specific inhibitors revealed that CSC-mediated E6/E7 overexpression is at least in part reliant on EGFR phosphorylation. In addition, we showed that the PI3K/Akt pathway is crucial for CSC-induced E6/E7 overexpression. Finally, we demonstrated that HPV16 E6/E7 overexpression is mediated by JUN. overexpression, c-Jun phosphorylation and recruitment of this transcription factor to TRE sites in the HPV16 LCR. We conclude that acute exposure to tobacco smoke activates the transcription of HPV16 E6 and E7 oncogenes through p97 promoter activation, which involves the EGFR/PI3K/Akt/C-Jun signaling pathway activation in cervical cancer cells.