SopB-Mediated Recruitment of SNX18 Facilitates Salmonella Typhimurium Internalization by the Host Cell.
ABSTRACT: To invade epithelial cells, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) induces macropinocytosis through the action of virulence proteins delivered across the host cell membrane via a type III secretion system. We show that after docking at the plasma membrane S. Typhimurium triggers rapid recruitment of cytosolic SNX18, a SH3-PX-BAR domain sorting nexin protein, to the bacteria-induced membrane ruffles and to the nascent Salmonella-containing vacuole. SNX18 recruitment required the inositol-phosphatase activity of the Salmonella effector SopB and an intact phosphoinositide-binding site within the PX domain of SNX18, but occurred independently of Rho-GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42 activation. SNX18 promotes formation of the SCV from the plasma membrane by acting as a scaffold to recruit Dynamin-2 and N-WASP in a process dependent on the SH3 domain of SNX18. Quantification of bacteria uptake revealed that overexpression of SNX18 increased bacteria internalization, whereas a decrease was detected in cells overexpressing the phosphoinositide-binding mutant R303Q, the ?SH3 mutant, and in cells where endogenous levels of SNX18 were knocked-down. This study identifies SNX18 as a novel target of SopB and suggests a mechanism where S. Typhimurium engages host factors via local manipulation of phosphoinositide composition at the site of invasion to orchestrate the internalization process.
Project description:The enteric bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), utilizes two type III secretion systems (T3SSs) to invade host cells, survive and replicate intracellularly. T3SS1 and its dedicated effector proteins are required for bacterial entry into non-phagocytic cells and establishment and trafficking of the nascent Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). Here we identify the first T3SS1 effector required to maintain the integrity of the nascent SCV as SopF. SopF associates with host cell membranes, either when translocated by bacteria or ectopically expressed. Recombinant SopF binds to multiple phosphoinositides in protein-lipid overlays, suggesting that it targets eukaryotic cell membranes via phospholipid interactions. In yeast, the subcellular localization of SopF is dependent on the activity of Mss4, a phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase that generates PI(4,5)P2 from PI(4)P, indicating that membrane recruitment of SopF requires specific phospholipids. Ectopically expressed SopF partially colocalizes with specific phosphoinositide pools present on the plasma membrane in mammalian cells and with cytoskeletal-associated markers at the leading edge of cells. Translocated SopF concentrates on plasma membrane ruffles and around intracellular bacteria, presumably on the SCV. SopF is not required for bacterial invasion of non-phagocytic cells but is required for maintenance of the internalization vacuole membrane as infection with a S. Typhimurium ?sopF mutant led to increased lysis of the SCV compared to wild type bacteria. Our structure-function analysis shows that the carboxy-terminal seven amino acids of SopF are essential for its membrane association in host cells and to promote SCV membrane stability. We also describe that SopF and another T3SS1 effector, SopB, act antagonistically to modulate nascent SCV membrane dynamics. In summary, our study highlights that a delicate balance of type III effector activities regulates the stability of the Salmonella internalization vacuole.
Project description:Type III secretion system 1 (T3SS1) is used by the enteropathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to establish infection in the gut. Effector proteins translocated by this system across the plasma membrane facilitate invasion of intestinal epithelial cells. One such effector, the inositol phosphatase SopB, contributes to invasion and mediates activation of the pro-survival kinase Akt. Following internalization, some bacteria escape from the Salmonella-containing vacuole into the cytosol and there is evidence suggesting that T3SS1 is expressed in this subpopulation. Here, we investigated the post-invasion role of T3SS1, using SopB as a model effector. In cultured epithelial cells, SopB-dependent Akt phosphorylation was observed at two distinct stages of infection: during and immediately after invasion, and later during peak cytosolic replication. Single cell analysis revealed that cytosolic Salmonella deliver SopB via T3SS1. Although intracellular replication was unaffected in a SopB deletion mutant, cells infected with ?sopB demonstrated a lack of Akt phosphorylation, earlier time to death, and increased lysis. When SopB expression was induced specifically in cytosolic Salmonella, these effects were restored to levels observed in WT infected cells, indicating that the second wave of SopB protects this infected population against cell death via Akt activation. Thus, T3SS1 has two, temporally distinct roles during epithelial cell colonization. Additionally, we found that delivery of SopB by cytosolic bacteria was translocon-independent, in contrast to canonical effector translocation across eukaryotic membranes, which requires formation of a translocon pore. This mechanism was also observed for another T3SS1 effector, SipA. These findings reveal the functional and mechanistic adaptability of a T3SS that can be harnessed in different microenvironments.
Project description:Salmonella spp. possess a conserved type III secretion system encoded within the pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1; centisome 63), which mediates translocation of effector proteins into the host cell cytosol to trigger responses such as bacterial internalization. Several translocated effector proteins are encoded in other regions of the Salmonella chromosome. It remains unclear how this complex chromosomal arrangement of genes for the type III apparatus and the effector proteins emerged and how the different effector proteins cooperate to mediate virulence. By Southern blotting, PCR, and phylogenetic analyses of highly diverse Salmonella spp., we show here that effector protein genes located in the core of SPI1 are present in all Salmonella lineages. Surprisingly, the same holds true for several effector protein genes located in distant regions of the Salmonella chromosome, namely, sopB (SPI5, centisome 20), sopD (centisome 64), and sopE2 (centisomes 40 to 42). Our data demonstrate that sopB, sopD, and sopE2, along with SPI1, were already present in the last common ancestor of all contemporary Salmonella spp. Analysis of Salmonella mutants revealed that host cell invasion is mediated by SopB, SopE2, and, in the case of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344, by SopE: a sopB sopE sopE2-deficient triple mutant was incapable of inducing membrane ruffling and was >100-fold attenuated in host cell invasion. We conclude that host cell invasion emerged early during evolution by acquisition of a mosaic of genetic elements (SPI1 itself, SPI5 [sopB], and sopE2) and that the last common ancestor of all contemporary Salmonella spp. was probably already invasive.
Project description:The membrane remodeling events required for autophagosome biogenesis are still poorly understood. Because PX domain proteins mediate membrane remodeling and trafficking, we conducted an imaging-based siRNA screen for autophagosome formation targeting human PX proteins. The PX-BAR protein SNX18 was identified as a positive regulator of autophagosome formation, and its Drosophila melanogaster homologue SH3PX1 was found to be required for efficient autophagosome formation in the larval fat body. We show that SNX18 is required for recruitment of Atg16L1-positive recycling endosomes to a perinuclear area and for delivery of Atg16L1- and LC3-positive membranes to autophagosome precursors. We identify a direct interaction of SNX18 with LC3 and show that the pro-autophagic activity of SNX18 depends on its membrane binding and tubulation capacity. We also show that the function of SNX18 in membrane tubulation and autophagy is negatively regulated by phosphorylation of S233. We conclude that SNX18 promotes autophagosome formation by virtue of its ability to remodel membranes and provide membrane to forming autophagosomes.
Project description:Coiled-coil domains in eukaryotic and prokaryotic proteins contribute to diverse structural and regulatory functions. Here we have used in silico analysis to predict which proteins in the proteome of the enteric pathogen, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, harbour coiled-coil domains. We found that coiled-coil domains are especially prevalent in virulence-associated proteins, including type III effectors. Using SopB as a model coiled-coil domain type III effector, we have investigated the role of this motif in various aspects of effector function including chaperone binding, secretion and translocation, protein stability, localization and biological activity. Compared with wild-type SopB, SopB coiled-coil mutants were unstable, both inside bacteria and after translocation into host cells. In addition, the putative coiled-coil domain was required for the efficient membrane association of SopB in host cells. Since many other Salmonella effectors were predicted to contain coiled-coil domains, we also investigated the role of this motif in their intracellular targeting in mammalian cells. Mutation of the predicted coiled-coil domains in PipB2, SseJ and SopD2 also eliminated their membrane localization in mammalian cells. These findings suggest that coiled-coil domains represent a common membrane-targeting determinant for Salmonella type III effectors.
Project description:Salmonella enterica uses effector proteins translocated by a Type III Secretion System to invade epithelial cells. One of the invasion-associated effectors, SopB, is an inositol phosphatase that mediates sustained activation of the pro-survival kinase Akt in infected cells. Canonical activation of Akt involves membrane translocation and phosphorylation and is dependent on phosphatidyl inositide 3 kinase (PI3K). Here we have investigated these two distinct processes in Salmonella infected HeLa cells. Firstly, we found that SopB-dependent membrane translocation and phosphorylation of Akt are insensitive to the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin. Similarly, depletion of the PI3K regulatory subunits p85? and p85ß by RNAi had no inhibitory effect on SopB-dependent Akt phosphorylation. Nevertheless, SopB-dependent phosphorylation does depend on the Akt kinases, PDK1 and rictor-mTOR. Membrane translocation assays revealed a dependence on SopB for Akt recruitment to Salmonella ruffles and suggest that this is mediated by phosphoinositide (3,4) P(2) rather than phosphoinositide (3,4,5) P(3). Altogether these data demonstrate that Salmonella activates Akt via a wortmannin insensitive mechanism that is likely a class I PI3K-independent process that incorporates some essential elements of the canonical pathway.
Project description:SopB is a type 3 secreted effector with phosphatase activity that Salmonella employs to manipulate host cellular processes, allowing the bacteria to establish their intracellular niche. One important function of SopB is activation of the pro-survival kinase Akt/protein kinase B in the infected host cell. Here, we examine the mechanism of Akt activation by SopB during Salmonella infection. We show that SopB-mediated Akt activation is only partially sensitive to PI3-kinase inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin in HeLa cells, suggesting that Class I PI3-kinases play only a minor role in this process. However, depletion of PI(3,4) P2/PI(3-5) P3 by expression of the phosphoinositide 3-phosphatase PTEN inhibits Akt activation during Salmonella invasion. Therefore, production of PI(3,4) P2/PI(3-5) P3 appears to be a necessary event for Akt activation by SopB and suggests that non-canonical kinases mediate production of these phosphoinositides during Salmonella infection. We report that Class II PI3-kinase beta isoform, IPMK and other kinases identified from a kinase screen all contribute to Akt activation during Salmonella infection. In addition, the kinases required for SopB-mediated activation of Akt vary depending on the type of infected host cell. Together, our data suggest that Salmonella has evolved to use a single effector, SopB, to manipulate a remarkably large repertoire of host kinases to activate Akt for the purpose of optimizing bacterial replication in its host.
Project description:Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium can inject effector proteins into host cells via type III secretion systems (T3SSs). These effector proteins modulate a variety of host transcriptional responses to facilitate bacterial growth and survival. Here we show that infection of host cells with S Typhimurium specifically induces the ubiquitination of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6). This TRAF6 ubiquitination is triggered by the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) T3SS effectors SopB and SopE2. We also demonstrate that TRAF6 is involved in the SopB/SopE2-induced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a signaling event conducive to the intracellular growth of S Typhimurium. Specifically, TRAF6 mediates lysine-63 ubiquitination within the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain of STAT3, which is an essential step for STAT3 membrane recruitment and subsequent phosphorylation in response to S Typhimurium infection. TRAF6 ubiquitination participates in STAT3 phosphorylation rather than serving as only a hallmark of E3 ubiquitin ligase activation. Our results reveal a novel strategy in which S Typhimurium T3SS effectors broaden their functions through the activation of host proteins in a ubiquitination-dependent manner to manipulate host cells into becoming a Salmonella-friendly zone.
Project description:To establish infections, Salmonella injects virulence effectors that hijack the host actin cytoskeleton and phosphoinositide signaling to drive pathogen invasion. How effectors reprogram the cytoskeleton network remains unclear. By reconstituting the activities of the Salmonella effector SopE, we recapitulated Rho GTPase-driven actin polymerization at model phospholipid membrane bilayers in cell-free extracts and identified the network of Rho-recruited cytoskeleton proteins. Knockdown of network components revealed a key role for myosin VI (MYO6) in Salmonella invasion. SopE triggered MYO6 localization to invasion foci, and SopE-mediated activation of PAK recruited MYO6 to actin-rich membranes. We show that the virulence effector SopB requires MYO6 to regulate the localization of PIP3 and PI(3)P phosphoinositides and Akt activation. SopE and SopB target MYO6 to coordinate phosphoinositide production at invasion foci, facilitating the recruitment of cytoskeleton adaptor proteins to mediate pathogen uptake.
Project description:SopB is a type III secreted Salmonella effector protein with phosphoinositide phosphatase activity and a distinct GTPase binding domain. The latter interacts with host Cdc42, an essential Rho GTPase that regulates critical events in eukaryotic cytoskeleton organization and membrane trafficking. Structural and biochemical analysis of the SopB GTPase binding domain in complex with Cdc42 shows for the first time that SopB structurally and functionally mimics a host guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI) by contacting key residues in the regulatory switch regions of Cdc42 and slowing Cdc42 nucleotide exchange.