A Facile Semi-Synthetic Approach towards Halogen-Substituted Aminobenzoic Acid Analogues of Platensimycin.
ABSTRACT: Platensimycin (PTM), produced by several strains of Streptomyces platensis, is a promising drug lead for infectious diseases and diabetes. The recent pilot-scale production of PTM from S. platensis SB12026 has set the stage for the facile semi-synthesis of a focused library of PTM analogues. In this study, gram-quantity of platensic acid (PTMA) was prepared by the sulfuric acid-catalyzed ethanolysis of PTM, followed by a mild hydrolysis in aqueous lithium hydroxide. Three PTMA esters were also obtained in near quantitative yields in a single step, suggesting a facile route to make PTMA aliphatic esters. 1-[Bis(dimethylamino)methylene]-1H-1,2,3-triazolo[4,5-b]pyridinium 3-oxid hexafluorophosphate (HATU)-catalyzed coupling of PTMA and 33 aminobenzoates resulted in the synthesis of 28 substituted aminobenzoate analogues of PTM, among which 26 of them were reported for the first time. Several of the PTM analogues showed weak antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Our study supported the potential utility to integrate natural product biosynthetic and semi-synthetic approaches for structure diversification.
Project description:Inactivation of ptmB1, ptmB2, ptmT2, or ptmC in Streptomyces platensis SB12029, a platensimycin (PTM) and platencin (PTN) overproducer, revealed that PTM and PTN biosynthesis features two distinct moieties that are individually constructed and convergently coupled to afford PTM and PTN. A focused library of PTM and PTN analogues was generated by mutasynthesis in the ?ptmB1 mutant S. platensis SB12032. Of the 34 aryl variants tested, 18 were incorporated with high titers.
Project description:The platensimycin (PTM) and platencin (PTN) class of natural products are promising drug leads that target bacterial and mammalian fatty acid synthases. Natural congeners and synthetic analogues of PTM and PTN have been instrumental in determining their structure-activity relationships, with only a few analogues retaining the potencies of PTM and PTN. Here we describe the identification and isolation of two new sulfur-containing PTM congeners (3 and 5) from the engineered dual PTM-PTN overproducing Streptomyces platensis SB12029. Structure elucidation of platensimycin D1 (5), a sulfur-containing PTM pseudo-dimer, revealed the existence of its presumptive thioacid precursor (3). The unstable thioacid 3 was isolated and confirmed by structural characterization of its permethylated product (6). LC-MS analysis of crude extracts of SB12029 confirmed the presence of the thioacid analogue of PTN (4). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for 5 revealing retention of the strong antibacterial activity of PTM.
Project description:Platensimycin (PTM), originally isolated from soil bacteria Streptomyces platensis, is a potent FabF inhibitor against many Gram-positive pathogens, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. However, the further clinical development of PTM is hampered by its poor pharmacokinetic properties. In this study, 20 PTM derivatives were prepared by Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions catalyzed by Pd (0)/C. Compared to PTM, 6-pyrenyl PTM (6t) showed improved antibacterial activity against MRSA in a mouse peritonitis model. Our results support the strategy to target the essential fatty acid synthases in major pathogens, in order to discover and develop new generations of antibiotics.
Project description:Platensimycin (PTM) and platencin (PTN) are potent and selective inhibitors of bacterial and mammalian fatty acid synthases and have emerged as promising drug leads for both antibacterial and antidiabetic therapies. Comparative analysis of the PTM and PTN biosynthetic machineries in Streptomyces platensis MA7327 and MA7339 revealed that the divergence of PTM and PTN biosynthesis is controlled by dedicated ent-kaurene and ent-atiserene synthases, the latter of which represents a new pathway for diterpenoid biosynthesis. The PTM and PTN biosynthetic machineries provide a rare glimpse at how secondary metabolic pathway evolution increases natural product structural diversity and support the wisdom of applying combinatorial biosynthesis methods for the generation of novel PTM and/or PTN analogues, thereby facilitating drug development efforts based on these privileged natural product scaffolds.
Project description:A facile route towards highly functionalized 3(2H)-furanones via a sequential Mannich addition-palladium catalyzed ring closing has been elaborated. The reaction of 4-chloroacetoacetate esters with imines derived from aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes under palladium catalysis afforded 4-substituted furanones in good to excellent yields. 4-Hydrazino-3(2H)-furanones could also be synthesized from diazo esters in excellent yields by utilising the developed strategy. We could also efficiently transform the substituted furanones to aza-prostaglandin analogues.
Project description:Harmicines represent hybrid compounds composed of ?-carboline alkaloid harmine and cinnamic acid derivatives (CADs). In this paper we report the synthesis of amide-type harmicines and the evaluation of their biological activity. N-harmicines 5a-f and O-harmicines 6a-h were prepared by a straightforward synthetic procedure, from harmine-based amines and CADs using standard coupling conditions, 1-[bis(dimethylamino)methylene]-1H-1,2,3-triazolo [4,5-b]pyridinium 3-oxid hexafluorophosphate (HATU) and N,N-diisopropylethylamine (DIEA). Amide-type harmicines exerted remarkable activity against the erythrocytic stage of P. falciparum, in low submicromolar concentrations, which was significantly more pronounced compared to their antiplasmodial activity against the hepatic stages of P. berghei. Furthermore, a cytotoxicity assay against the human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) revealed favorable selectivity indices of the most active harmicines. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrated the binding of ligands within the ATP binding site of PfHsp90, while the calculated binding free energies confirmed higher activity of N-harmicines 5 over their O-substituted analogues 6. Amino acids predominantly affecting the binding were identified, which provided guidelines for the further derivatization of the harmine framework towards more efficient agents.
Project description:Minalrestat and its analogues represent structurally novel aldose reductase inhibitors, and the asymmetric synthesis of such pharmaceutically privileged molecules has not been reported yet. We have developed a palladium-catalyzed enantioselective intramolecular carbonylative Heck reaction by using formate esters as the source of CO, which represents the first enantioselective synthesis of quaternary 3,4-dihydroisoquinolines. The reaction provides a facile and efficient method for the synthesis of enantiopure nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds bearing an all-carbon quaternary stereocenter. The reaction has been successfully applied to the first asymmetric synthesis of Minalrestat analogues.
Project description:Platensimycin (PTM) and platencin (PTN) are highly functionalized bacterial diterpenoid natural products that target bacterial and mammalian fatty acid synthases. PTM and PTN feature varying diterpene-derived ketolides that are linked to the same 3-amino-2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid moiety. As a result, PTM is a selective inhibitor for FabF/FabB, while PTN is a dual inhibitor of FabF/FabB and FabH. We previously determined that the PTM cassette, consisting of five genes found in the ptm, but not ptn, gene cluster, partitions the biosynthesis of the PTM and PTN diterpene-derived ketolides. We now report investigation of the PTM cassette through the construction of diterpene production systems in E. coli and genetic manipulation in the PTM-PTN dual overproducer Streptomyces platensis SB12029, revealing two genes, ptmT3 and ptmO5, that are responsible for the biosynthetic divergence between the PTM and PTN diterpene-derived ketolides. PtmT3, a type I diterpene synthase, was determined to be a (16R)-ent-kauran-16-ol synthase, the first of its kind found in bacteria. PtmO5, a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, is proposed to catalyze the formation of the characteristic 11S,16S-ether ring found in PTM. Inactivation of ptmO5 in SB12029 afforded the ?ptmO5 mutant SB12036 that accumulated nine PTM and PTN congeners, seven of which were new, including seven 11-deoxy-16R-hydroxy-PTM congeners. The two fully processed PTM analogues showed antibacterial activities, albeit lower than that of PTM, indicating that the ether ring, or minimally the stereochemistry of the hydroxyl group at C-16, is crucial for the activity of PTM.
Project description:Platensimycin (PTM) and platencin (PTN) are members of a new class of promising drug leads that target bacterial and mammalian fatty acid synthases. We previously cloned and sequenced the PTM and PTN gene clusters, discovered six additional PTM-PTN dual producing strains, and demonstrated the dramatic overproduction of PTM and PTN by inactivating the pathway-specific regulators ptmR1 or ptnR1 in five different strains. Our ability to utilize these PTM-PTN dual overproducing strains was limited by their lack of genetic amenability. Here we report the construction of Streptomyces platensis SB12029, a genetically amenable, in-frame ?ptmR1 dual PTM-PTN overproducing strain. To highlight the potential of this strain for future PTM and PTN biosynthetic studies, we created the ?ptmR1 ?ptmO4 double mutant S. platensis SB12030. Fourteen PTM and PTN congeners, ten of which were new, were isolated from SB12030, shedding new insights into PTM and PTN biosynthesis. PtmO4, a long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, is strongly implicated to catalyze ?-oxidation of the diterpenoid intermediates into the PTM and PTN scaffolds. SB12029 sets the stage for future biosynthetic and bioengineering studies of the PTM and PTN family of natural products.
Project description:Platensimycin (PTM) and platencin (PTN) are potent inhibitors of bacterial fatty acid synthases and have emerged as promising antibacterial drug leads. We previously characterized the PTM and PTN biosynthetic machineries in the Streptomyces platensis producers. We now identify two mechanisms for PTM and PTN resistance in the S. platensis producers-the ptmP3 or ptnP3 gene within the PTM-PTN or PTN biosynthetic cluster and the fabF gene within the fatty acid synthase locus. PtmP3/PtnP3 and FabF confer PTM and PTN resistance by target replacement and target modification, respectively. PtmP3/PtnP3 also represents an unprecedented mechanism for fatty acid biosynthesis in which FabH and FabF are functionally replaced by a single condensing enzyme. These findings challenge the current paradigm for fatty acid biosynthesis and should be considered in future development of effective therapeutics targeting fatty acid synthase.