Molecular typing of Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo isolates from leptospirosis outbreaks in Brazilian livestock.
ABSTRACT: Leptospirosis is caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira spp. This zoonotic disease is distributed globally and affects domestic animals, including cattle. Leptospira interrogans serogroup Sejroe serovar Hardjo and Leptospira borgpetersenii serogroup Sejroe serovar Hardjo remain important species associated with this reproductive disease in livestock production. Previous studies on Brazilian livestock have reported that L. interrogans serovar Hardjo is the most prevalent leptospiral agent in this country and is related to clinical signs of leptospirosis, which lead to economic losses in production. Here, we described the isolation of three clinical strains (Norma, Lagoa and Bolivia) obtained from leptospirosis outbreaks that occurred in Minas Gerais state in 1994 and 2008.Serological and molecular typing using housekeeping (secY and 16SrRNA) and rfb locus (ORF22 and ORF36) genes were applied for the identification and comparative analysis of Leptospira spp. Our results identified the three isolates as L. interrogans serogroup Sejroe serovar Hardjo and confirmed the occurrence of this bacterial strain in Brazilian livestock. Genetic analysis using ORF22 and ORF36 grouped the Leptospira into serogroup Sejroe and subtype Hardjoprajitno. Genetic approaches were also applied to compare distinct serovars of L. interrogans strains by verifying the copy numbers of the IS1500 and IS1533 insertion sequences (ISs). The IS1500 copy number varied among the analyzed L. interrogans strains.This study provides evidence that L. interrogans serogroup Sejroe serovar Hardjo subtype Hardjoprajitno causes bovine leptospirosis in Brazilian production. The molecular results suggested that rfb locus (ORF22 and ORF36) could improve epidemiological studies by allowing the identification of Leptospira spp. at the serogroup level. Additionally, the IS1500 and IS1533 IS copy number analysis suggested distinct genomic features among closely related leptospiral strains.
Project description:The Leptospira serovar Hedjo belongs to the serogroup sejroe and this serovar is the most prevalent in bovine herds worldwide. The sejroe serogroup is the most frequently detected by serology in Brazilian cattle herds suggesting that it is due serovar Hardjo. In the molecular classification, this serovar has two genotypes: Hardjobovis and Hardjoprajitno. This serovar is as considered as fastidious pathogens, and their isolation is one of the bottlenecks in leptospirosis laboratories. In addition, its molecular characterization using genomic approaches is oftentimes not simple and time-consuming. This study describes a method for isolating the two genotypes of serovar Hardjo using culture medium formulations and suggests a get-at-able molecular characterization. Ten cows naturally infected which were seropositive were selected from small dairy farms, and their urine was collected for bacterial isolation. We evaluated three modifications of liquid Leptospira medium culture supplemented with sodium pyruvate, superoxide dismutase enzyme and fetal bovine serum, and the isolates were characterized by molecular techniques. After isolation and adaptation in standard culture medium, the strains were subcultured for 1 week in the three modified culture media for morphologic evaluation using electronic microscopy. Strains were molecularly identified by multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), partial sequencing and phylogenic analyses of gene sec Y. Combining the liquid culture medium formulations allowed growth of the Leptospira serovar Hardjo in three tubes. Two isolates were identified as genotype Hardjobovis, and the other as genotype Hardjoprajitno. Morphologically, compared with control media, cells in the medium supplemented with the superoxide dismutase enzyme were more elongated and showed many cells in division. The cells in the medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum were fewer and lost their spirochete morphology. This indicated that the additional supplementation with fetal bovine serum assisted in the initial growth and maintenance of the viable leptospires and the superoxide dismutase enzyme allowed them to adapt to the medium. These culture strategies allowed for the isolation and convenient molecular characterization of two genotypes of serovar Hardjo, creating new insight into the seroepidemiology of leptospirosis and its specific genotypes. It also provides new information for the immunoprophylaxis of bovine leptospirosis.
Project description:Leptospirosis is caused by pathogenic bacteria of the genus Leptospira spp. This neglected re-emergent disease has global distribution and relevance in veterinary production. Here, we report the whole-genome sequence and annotation of Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo subtype Hardjoprajitno strain Norma, isolated from cattle in a livestock leptospirosis outbreak in Brazil.
Project description:Leptospirosis is a neglected zoonosis with worldwide distribution. The causative agents are spirochete bacteria of the Leptospira genus, displaying huge diversity of serovars, the identity of which is critical for effective diagnosis and vaccination purposes. Among many other mammalian species, Leptospira infects cattle, eliciting acute signs in calves, and chronic disease in adult animals often leading to abortions. In South America, and including in Uruguay, beef and dairy export are leading sources of national income. Despite the importance of bovine health, food safety, and bovine-related dissemination of leptospirosis to humans, extremely limited information is available as to the identity of Leptospira species and serovars infecting cattle in Uruguay and the South American subcontinent. Here we report a multicentric 3-year study resulting in the isolation and detailed characterization of 40 strains of Leptospira spp. obtained from infected cattle. Combined serologic and molecular typing identified these isolates as L. interrogans serogroup Pomona serovar Kennewicki (20 strains), L. interrogans serogroup Canicola serovar Canicola (1 strain), L. borgpetersenii serogroup Sejroe serovar Hardjo (10 strains) and L. noguchii (9 strains). The latter showed remarkable phenotypic and genetic variability, belonging to 6 distinct serogroups, including 3 that did not react with a large panel of reference serogrouping antisera. Approximately 20% of cattle sampled in the field were found to be shedding pathogenic Leptospira in their urine, uncovering a threat for public health that is being largely neglected. The two L. interrogans serovars that we isolated from cattle displayed identical genetic signatures to those of human isolates that had previously been obtained from leptospirosis patients. This report of local Leptospira strains shall improve diagnostic tools and the understanding of leptospirosis epidemiology in South America. These strains could also be used as new components within bacterin vaccines to protect against the pathogenic Leptospira strains that are actually circulating, a direct measure to reduce the risk of human leptospirosis.
Project description:Although Leptospira isolation has been reported in Chilean cattle, only serological evidence of serovar Hardjo bovis infection has been routinely reported. The present report provides characterization of the pathological presentation and etiology of a clinical case of leptospirosis in a calf from the Los Rios Region in Chile.In a dairy herd in southern Chile, 11 of 130 calves died after presenting signs such as depression and red-tinged urine. One of these calves, a female of eight months, was necropsied, and all the pathological findings were consistent with Leptospira infection. A urine sample was submitted to conventional bacteriological analysis together with highly specific molecular biology typing tools, in order to unravel the specific Leptospira specie and serovar associated with this clinical case. A significant finding of this study was that the obtained isolate was confirmed by PCR as L. interrogans, its VNTR profile properly matching with L. interrogans Hardjoprajitno as well as its specific genomic identity revealed by secY gen.Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjoprajitno was associated with the investigated calf clinical case. This information adds to the value of serologic results commonly reported, which encourage vaccination improvements to match circulating strains. In addition, this finding represents the first case report of this serovar in Chilean cattle.
Project description:Primers for PCR were selected from a sequenced fragment of clone pL590, which contains a repetitive element present in the genome of Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo type hardjoprajitno (M. L. Pacciarini, M. L. Savio, S. Tagliabue, and C. Rossi, J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:1243-1249, 1992). A specific DNA fragment was amplified from the genomic DNAs of serovar hardjo type hardjoprajitno and nine serovars also belonging to L. interrogans as a consequence of the spread of the same or a closely related repetitive element within this species (Pacciarini et al., J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:1243-1249, 1992). In addition, specific amplification was obtained from two Leptospira borgpetersenii serovars (tarassovi and hardjo type hardjobovis). Negative PCR results were observed with all of the other Leptospira serovars tested, including nonpathogenic ones (serovars patoc and andamana), another spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi), bacteria commonly found in biological samples, and swine and bovine cell lines. Direct PCR on biological samples such as kidney samples demonstrated that preliminary isolation and culture of Leptospira cells are not required for efficient detection. Furthermore, digestion of the amplified DNA with the enzymes HinfI and DdeI yielded specific polymorphic patterns, allowing discrimination among the majority of the serovars. These methods were applied to 25 field isolates of serovar pomona, leading to the conclusion that they were suitable for the simple and rapid detection of L. interrogans and for serovar identification.
Project description:Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world. However, there is a lack of information on circulating Leptospira strains in remote parts of the world. We describe the serological and molecular features of leptospires isolated from 94 leptospirosis patients in Mayotte, a French department located in the Comoros archipelago, between 2007 and 2010. Multilocus sequence typing identified these isolates as Leptospira interrogans, L. kirschneri, L. borgpetersenii, and members of a previously undefined phylogenetic group. This group, consisting of 15 strains, could represent a novel species. Serological typing revealed that 70% of the isolates belonged to the serogroup complex Mini/Sejroe/Hebdomadis, followed by the serogroups Pyrogenes, Grippotyphosa, and Pomona. However, unambiguous typing at the serovar level was not possible for most of the strains because the isolate could belong to more than one serovar or because serovar and species did not match the original classification. Our results indicate that the serovar and genotype distribution in Mayotte differs from what is observed in other regions, thus suggesting a high degree of diversity of circulating isolates worldwide. These results are essential for the improvement of current diagnostic tools and provide a starting point for a better understanding of the epidemiology of leptospirosis in this area of endemicity.
Project description:Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance, especially in tropical countries. The current Leptospira spp. seroprevalence in cattle from central and northern Madagascar is unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence resulting from infections with pathogenic Leptospira spp. in zebu cattle from these areas. Serum samples from 194 animals were tested by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) using a panel of 12 serovars as antigens. Samples with a titer of ≥1:100 were considered positive. The overall seroprevalence was 59.3% (95% CI; 52.0-66.2%) with titers ranging from 1:100 to 1:1600. Among the seropositive animals, the most frequent antibody reactions were against serovar L. Tarassovi (serogroup L. Tarassovi) with 40.2% (33.3-47.5%), followed by L. Hardjo (L. Sejroe) with 13.9% (9.5-19.8%), L. Grippotyphosa (L. Grippotyphosa) with 9.8% (6.2-15.1%), L. Pomona (L. Pomona) with 7.7% (4.5-12.7%) and L. Autumnalis (L. Autumnalis) with 5.2% (2.6-9.5%). Less than 5% of the samples reacted positively against the remaining serovars. These results indicate a very high exposure of Malagasy cattle to Leptospira spp. which, consequently, poses a definite risk for people working with cattle acquiring this zoonotic infection.
Project description:The genome of a laboratory-adapted strain of Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo was sequenced and analyzed. Comparison of the sequenced genome with that recently published for a field isolate of the same serovar revealed relatively high sequence conservation at the nucleotide level, despite the different biological background of both samples. Conversely, comparison of both serovar Hardjo genomes with those of L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo showed extensive differences between the corresponding chromosomes, except for the region occupied by their rfb loci. Additionally, comparison of the serovar Hardjo genomes with those of different L. interrogans serovars allowed us to detect several genomic features that may confer an adaptive advantage to L. interrogans serovar Hardjo, including a possible integrated plasmid and an additional copy of a cluster encoding a membrane transport system known to be involved in drug resistance. A phylogenomic strategy was used to better understand the evolutionary position of the Hardjo serovar among L. interrogans serovars and other Leptospira species. The proposed phylogeny supports the hypothesis that the presence of similar rfb loci in two different species may be the result of a lateral gene transfer event.
Project description:Rats are known to be the most important reservoirs and transmission sources of leptospirosis. However, the status of leptospirosis in the Philippines regarding reservoirs and transmission remains unknown. A survey was conducted in Metro Manila and Laguna that analyzed samples obtained from 106 rats. Using the microscopic agglutination test, we found that 92% of rat serum samples were positive for anti-Leptospira antibodies; the most common infecting serovars were Manilae, Hebdomadis, and Losbanos. On the basis of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and gyrase B gene sequence analyses, four groups of rat kidney isolates were found: L. interrogans serovar Manilae, serovar Losbanos, and serogroup Grippotyphosa, and L. borgpetersenii serogroup Javanica. Most isolates were lethal after experimental infection of golden Syrian hamsters. Results showed that these four Leptospira serovars and serogroups are circulating among rats, and that these animals may be one of the possible transmission sources of leptospirosis in the Philippines.
Project description:Select species of the bacterial genus Leptospira are causative agents of leptospirosis, an emerging global zoonosis affecting nearly one million people worldwide annually. We examined two Leptospira pathogens, Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai str. 56601 and Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo-bovis str. L550, as well as the free-living leptospiral saprophyte, Leptospira biflexa serovar Patoc str. 'Patoc 1 (Ames)'. The transport proteins of these leptospires were identified and compared using bioinformatics to gain an appreciation for which proteins may be related to pathogenesis and saprophytism. L. biflexa possesses a disproportionately high number of secondary carriers for metabolite uptake and environmental adaptability as well as an increased number of inorganic cation transporters providing ionic homeostasis and effective osmoregulation in a rapidly changing environment. L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii possess far fewer transporters, but those that they all have are remarkably similar, with near-equivalent representation in most transporter families. These two Leptospira pathogens also possess intact sphingomyelinases, holins, and virulence-related outer membrane porins. These virulence-related factors, in conjunction with decreased transporter substrate versatility, indicate that pathogenicity arose in Leptospira correlating to progressively narrowing ecological niches and the emergence of a limited set of proteins responsible for host invasion. The variability of host tropism and mortality rates by infectious leptospires suggests that small differences in individual sets of proteins play important physiological and pathological roles.