Novel SHV-derived extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, SHV-57, that confers resistance to ceftazidime but not cefazolin.
ABSTRACT: A new SHV-derived extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, SHV-57, that confers high-level resistance to ceftazidime but not cefotaxime or cefazolin was identified from a national surveillance study conducted in Taiwan in 1998. An Escherichia coli isolate resistant to ampicillin, cephalothin, and ceftazidime but sensitive to cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, imipenem, and a narrow-spectrum cephem (cefazolin) was isolated from the urine of a patient treated with beta-lactam antibiotics. Resistance to beta-lactams was conjugatively transferred with a plasmid of about 50 kbp. The pI of this enzyme was 8.3. The sequence of the gene was determined, and the open reading frame of the gene was found to consist of 861 bases (GenBank accession number AY223863). Kinetic parameters showed that SHV-57 had a poor affinity to cefazolin. The K(m) value toward cefazolin (5.57 x 10(3) muM) was extremely high in comparison to those toward ceftazidime (30.9 muM) and penicillin G (67 muM), indicating its low affinity to cefazolin. Although the K(m) value of the beta-lactamase inhibitor was too high for the study of catalytic activity (k(cat)), indicating the low k(cat) of SHV-57, the SHV-57 carrier was highly susceptible to a beta-lactam-beta-lactamase inhibitor combination. Comparison of the three-dimensional molecular model of SHV-57 with that of the SHV-1 beta-lactamase suggests that the substitution of arginine for leucine-169 in the Omega loop is important for the substrate specificity.
Project description:A new SHV-derived extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (SHV-24) conferring high-level resistance to ceftazidime but not cefotaxime and cefazolin was identified in Japan. This enzyme was encoded by a transferable 150-kb plasmid from an Escherichia coli clinical isolate. The pI and K(m) for CAZ of this enzyme were 7.5 and 30 microM, respectively. SHV-24 was found to have a D179G substitution in the Omega-loop of the enzyme.
Project description:A Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolate was resistant to cefoxitin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftazidime-clavulanate, piperacillin-tazobactam (MICs, >256 micro g/ml in all cases), and meropenem (MIC, 16 micro g/ml) and was intermediate to imipenem (MIC, 8 micro g/ml). Decreased expression of the OmpK36 porin and expression of an SHV-2 beta-lactamase contributed to the observed resistance to these beta-lactam-containing agents.
Project description:Among the TEM-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), an amino acid change at Ambler position 104 (Glu to Lys) results in increased resistance to ceftazidime and cefotaxime when found with other substitutions (e.g., Gly238Ser and Arg164Ser). To examine the role of Asp104 in SHV beta-lactamases, site saturation mutagenesis was performed. Our goal was to investigate the properties of amino acid residues at this position that affect resistance to penicillins and oxyimino-cephalosporins. Unexpectedly, 58% of amino acid variants at position 104 in SHV expressed in Escherichia coli DH10B resulted in beta-lactamases with lowered resistance to ampicillin. In contrast, increased resistance to cefotaxime was demonstrated only for the Asp104Arg and Asp104Lys beta-lactamases. When all 19 substitutions were introduced into the SHV-2 (Gly238Ser) ESBL, the most significant increases in cefotaxime and ceftazidime resistance were noted for both the doubly substituted Asp104Lys Gly238Ser and the doubly substituted Asp104Arg Gly238Ser beta-lactamases. Correspondingly, the overall catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of hydrolysis for cefotaxime was increased from 0.60 +/- 0.07 microM(-1) s(-1) (mean +/- standard deviation) for Gly238Ser to 1.70 +/- 0.01 microM(-1) s(-1) for the Asp104Lys and Gly238Ser beta-lactamase (threefold increase). We also showed that (i) k3 was the rate-limiting step for the hydrolysis of cefotaxime by Asp104Lys, (ii) the Km for cefotaxime of the doubly substituted Asp104Lys Gly238Ser variant approached that of the Gly238Ser beta-lactamase as pH increased, and (iii) Lys at position 104 functions in an energetically additive manner with the Gly238Ser substitution to enhance catalysis of cephalothin. Based on this analysis, we propose that the amino acid at Ambler position 104 in SHV-1 beta-lactamase plays a major role in substrate binding and recognition of oxyimino-cephalosporins and influences the interactions of Tyr105 with penicillins.
Project description:The OHIO-1 beta-lactamase does not normally hydrolyse oxyimino-beta-lactam substrates like cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime or aztreonam. We were able to select spontaneous mutants of an OHIO-1-bearing strain of Escherichia coli using the antibiotic substrates listed above by enrichment methods of frequencies of 10(-8)-10(-10) for all antibiotics except ceftazidime (frequency less than 10(-10)). Most mutants with increased resistance to the other beta-lactams were also more resistant to ceftazidime. Mutations identified by DNA sequencing included a Gly238----Ser238 substitution identical with the SHV-2 mutation previously described, cysteine and valine substitutions at the identical site, and a Gly242----Cys242 substitution. The Cys238 and Cys242 mutant enzymes had less affinity for aztreonam than had the other mutant enzymes. Hydrolysis of cefotaxime, but not cephaloridine, by the cysteine-substituted enzymes was inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoate. The mutant enzymes had, in general, greater affinity for the mechanism-based inhibitors sulbactam, clavulanic acid and tazobactam. These results suggest two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses for the structural role of substitutions in this area of the enzyme. Either potential hydrogen-bond donors, such as serine and cysteine, interact directly with the beta-lactam molecules, or the steric bulk of these substitutions distorts the beta-pleated sheet such that the beta-lactam is held in a position favourable for stable binding and catalysis. Finally, our data raise questions about a strategy relying on oligonucleotide-probe technology to detect such mutations, because of the variety of substitutions that give rise to similar phenotypes.
Project description:Four ceftazidime-resistant Escherichia coli strains were isolated from elderly nursing home patients in a New York hospital during 1993. Strains MCQ-2, MCQ-3, and MCQ-4 were determined to be identical by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and plasmid profiles, whereas strain MCQ-1 was unique. Strain MCQ-1 was determined to produce a TEM-10 beta-lactamase. Strains MCQ-2, MCQ-3, and MCQ-4 were also noted to be resistant to cefotaxime. These three strains produced two beta-lactamases with pIs of 5.4 (TEM-1) and 7.6. beta-Lactamase assays revealed that the pI 7.6 enzyme hydrolyzed cefotaxime faster (at a relative hydrolysis rate of 30% compared with that of benzylpenicillin) than either ceftazidime or aztreonam (relative hydrolysis rates of 13 and 3.3%, respectively). Nucleotide sequencing of the gene encoding the pI 7.6 beta-lactamase from strain MCQ-3 revealed a blaSHV-type gene differing from the gene encoding SHV-1 at four nucleotides which resulted in amino acid substitutions: phenylalanine for isoleucine at position 8, serine for arginine at position 43, serine for glycine at position 238, and lysine for glutamate at position 240. This novel SHV-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamase is designated SHV-7.
Project description:Escherichia coli TUM1083, which is resistant to ampicillin, carbenicillin, cephaloridine, cephalothin, piperacillin, cefuzonam, and aztreonam while being sensitive to cefoxitin, moxalactam, cefmetazole, ceftazidime, and imipenem, was isolated from the urine of a patient treated with beta-lactam antibiotics. The beta-lactamase (Toho-2) purified from the bacteria hydrolyzed beta-lactam antibiotics such as penicillin G, carbenicillin, cephaloridine, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and aztreonam and especially had increased relative hydrolysis rates for cephalothin, cephaloridine, cefotaxime, and ceftizoxime. Different from other extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, Toho-2 was inhibited 16-fold better by the beta-lactamase inhibitor tazobactam than by clavulanic acid. Resistance to beta-lactams was transferred by conjugation from E. coli TUM1083 to E. coli ML4909, and the transferred plasmid was about 54.4 kbp, belonging to the incompatibility group IncFII. The cefotaxime resistance gene for Toho-2 was subcloned from the 54.4-kbp plasmid. The sequence of the gene was determined, and the open reading frame of the gene was found to consist of 981 bases. The nucleotide sequence of the gene (DDBJ accession no. D89862) designated as bla(toho) was found to have 76.3% identity to class A beta-lactamase CTX-M-2 and 76.2% identity to Toho-1. It has 55.9% identity to SHV-1 beta-lactamase and 47.5% identity to TEM-1 beta-lactamase. Therefore, the newly isolated beta-lactamase designated as Toho-2 produced by E. coli TUM1083 is categorized as an enzyme similar to Toho-1 group beta-lactamases rather than to mutants of TEM or SHV enzymes. According to the amino acid sequence deduced from the DNA sequence, the precursor consisted of 327 amino acid residues. Comparison of Toho-2 with other beta-lactamase (non-Toho-1 group) suggests that the substitutions of threonine for Arg-244 and arginine for Asn-276 are important for the extension of the substrate specificity.
Project description:β-Lactamase enzymes (EC 18.104.22.168) are a significant threat to the continued use of β-lactam antibiotics to treat infections. A novel non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor with activity against many class A and C and some class D β-lactamase variants, avibactam, is now available in the clinic in partnership with ceftazidime. Here, we explored the activity of avibactam against a variety of characterized isogenic laboratory constructs of β-lactamase inhibitor-resistant variants of the class A enzyme SHV (M69I/L/V, S130G, K234R, R244S, and N276D). We discovered that the S130G variant of SHV-1 shows the most significant resistance to inhibition by avibactam, based on both microbiological and biochemical characterizations. Using a constant concentration of 4 mg/liter of avibactam as a β-lactamase inhibitor in combination with ampicillin, the MIC increased from 1 mg/liter for blaSHV-1 to 256 mg/liter for blaSHV S130G expressed in Escherichia coli DH10B. At steady state, the k2/K value of the S130G variant when inactivated by avibactam was 1.3 M(-1) s(-1), versus 60,300 M(-1) s(-1) for the SHV-1 β-lactamase. Under timed inactivation conditions, we found that an approximately 1,700-fold-higher avibactam concentration was required to inhibit SHV S130G than the concentration that inhibited SHV-1. Molecular modeling suggested that the positioning of amino acids in the active site of SHV may result in an alternative pathway of inactivation when complexed with avibactam, compared to the structure of CTX-M-15-avibactam, and that S130 plays a role in the acylation of avibactam as a general acid/base. In addition, S130 may play a role in recyclization. As a result, we advance that the lack of a hydroxyl group at position 130 in the S130G variant of SHV-1 substantially slows carbamylation of the β-lactamase by avibactam by (i) removing an important proton acceptor and donator in catalysis and (ii) decreasing the number of H bonds. In addition, recyclization is most likely also slow due to the lack of a general base to initiate the process. Considering other inhibitor-resistant mechanisms among class A β-lactamases, S130 may be the most important amino acid for the inhibition of class A β-lactamases, perhaps even for the novel diazabicyclooctane class of β-lactamase inhibitors.
Project description:Klebsiella pneumoniae K6 (ATCC 700603), a clinical isolate, is resistant to ceftazidime and other oxyimino-beta-lactams. A consistent reduction in the MICs of oxyimino-beta-lactams by at least 3 twofold dilutions in the presence of clavulanic acid confirmed the utility of K. pneumoniae K6 as a quality control strain for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) detection. Isoelectric-focusing analysis of crude lysates of K6 demonstrated a single beta-lactamase with a pI of 7.8 and a substrate profile showing preferential hydrolysis of cefotaxime compared to ceftazidime. PCR analysis of total bacterial DNA from K6 identified the presence of a bla(SHV) gene. K6 contained two large plasmids with molecular sizes of approximately 160 and 80 kb. Hybridization of plasmid DNA with a bla(SHV)-specific probe indicated that a bla(SHV) gene was encoded on the 80-kb plasmid, which was shown to transfer resistance to ceftazidime in conjugal mating experiments with Escherichia coli HB101. DNA sequencing of this bla(SHV)-related gene revealed that it differs from bla(SHV-1) at nine nucleotides, five of which resulted in amino acid substitutions: Ile to Phe at position 8, Arg to Ser at position 43, Gly to Ala at position 238, and Glu to Lys at position 240. In addition to the production of this novel ESBL, designated SHV-18, analysis of the outer membrane proteins of K6 revealed the loss of the OmpK35 and OmpK37 porins.
Project description:A clinical isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae was found to be resistant to ampicillin (MIC of 128 microg/ml), ticarcillin (MIC of 512 microg/ml), and ceftazidime (MIC of 128 microg/ml) and susceptible to all other beta-lactams; a synergistic effect between clavulanate and ceftazidime suggested the presence of an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). Transconjugants in Escherichia coli were obtained at low levels (10(-7) per donor cell) and exhibited a similar beta-lactam resistance pattern (resistant to ampicillin, ticarcillin, and ceftazidime at 64 microg/ml). The ESBL, pI 7.6, was encoded by a large plasmid (>100 kb) which did not carry any other resistance determinant. The ESBL-encoding gene was amplified by PCR using bla(SHV)-specific primers and was sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of the SHV-16 ESBL showed that it differed from SHV-1 by only a pentapeptide insertion (163DRWET167) corresponding to a tandem duplication in the omega loop. The implication of the 163a-DRWET163b-DRWET sequence in ceftazidime resistance was confirmed by cloning either bla(SHV-1) or bla(SHV-16) in the same vector, subsequently introduced in the same E. coli strain. Under these isogenic conditions, SHV-16 conferred a 32-fold increase in ceftazidime MIC compared to that with SHV-1. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis experiments modifying either E166aA or E166bA revealed that the functional glutamic residue was that located in the first copy of the duplicated sequence. But surprisingly, the second E166b also conferred a low-level resistance to ceftazidime. This work is the first description of a class A enzyme exhibiting an extended substrate specificity due to an insertion instead of a nucleotide substitution(s) in a clinical isolate.
Project description:Escherichia coli TUH12191, which is resistant to piperacillin, cefazolin, cefotiam, ceftizoxime, cefuzonam, and aztreonam but is susceptible to cefoxitin, latamoxef, flomoxef, and imipenem, was isolated from the urine of a patient treated with beta-lactam antibiotics. The beta-lactamase (Toho-1) purified from the bacteria had a pI of 7.8, had a molecular weight of about 29,000, and hydrolyzed beta-lactam antibiotics such as penicillin G, ampicillin, oxacillin, carbenicillin, piperacillin, cephalothin, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and aztreonam. Toho-1 was markedly inhibited by beta-lactamase inhibitors such as clavulanic acid and tazobactam. Resistance to beta-lactams, streptomycin, spectinomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim was transferred by conjugational transfer from E. coli TUH12191 to E. coli ML4903, and the transferred plasmid was about 58 kbp, belonging to incompatibility group M. The cefotaxime resistance gene for Toho-1 was subcloned from the 58-kbp plasmid by transformation of E. coli MV1184. The sequence of the gene for Toho-1 was determined, and the open reading frame of the gene consisted of 873 or 876 bases (initial sequence, ATGATG). The nucleotide sequence of the gene (DDBJ accession number D37830) was found to be about 73% homologous to the sequence of the gene encoding a class A beta-lactamase produced by Klebsiella oxytoca E23004. According to the amino acid sequence deduced from the DNA sequence, the precursor consisted of 290 or 291 amino acid residues, which contained amino acid motifs common to class A beta-lactamases (70SXXK, 130SDN, and 234KTG). Toho-1 was about 83% homologous to the beta-lactamase mediated by the chromosome of K. oxytoca D488 and the beta-lactamase mediated by the plasmid of E. coli MEN-1. Therefore, the newly isolated beta-lactamase Toho-1 produced by E. coli TUH12191 is similar to beta-lactamases produced by K. oxytoca D488, K. oxytoca E23004, and E. coli MEN-1 rather than to mutants of TEM or SHV enzymes. Toho-1 has shown the highest degree of similarity to K. oxytoca class A beta-lactamase. Detailed comparison of Toho-1 with other beta-lactamases implied that replacement of Asn-276 by Arg with the concomitant substitution of Thr for Arg-244 is an important mutation in the extension of the substrate specificity.