Intronic SNP in ESR1 encoding human estrogen receptor alpha is associated with brain ESR1 mRNA isoform expression and behavioral traits.
ABSTRACT: Genetic variants of ESR1 have been implicated in multiple diseases, including behavioral disorders, but causative variants remain uncertain. We have searched for regulatory variants affecting ESR1 expression in human brain, measuring allelic ESR1 mRNA expression in human brain tissues with marker SNPs in exon4 representing ESR1-008 (or ESR?-36), and in the 3'UTR of ESR1-203, two main ESR1 isoforms in brain. In prefrontal cortex from subjects with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and controls (n = 35 each; Stanley Foundation brain bank), allelic ESR1 mRNA ratios deviated from unity up to tenfold at the exon4 marker SNP, with large allelic ratios observed primarily in bipolar and schizophrenic subjects. SNP scanning and targeted sequencing identified rs2144025, associated with large allelic mRNA ratios (p = 1.6E10-6). Moreover, rs2144025 was significantly associated with ESR1 mRNA levels in the Brain eQTL Almanac and in brain regions in the Genotype-Tissue Expression project. In four GWAS cohorts, rs2104425 was significantly associated with behavioral traits, including: hypomanic episodes in female bipolar disorder subjects (GAIN bipolar disorder study; p = 0.0004), comorbid psychological symptoms in both males and females with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (GAIN ADHD, p = 0.00002), psychological diagnoses in female children (eMERGE study of childhood health, subject age ?9, p = 0.0009), and traits in schizophrenia (e.g., grandiose delusions, GAIN schizophrenia, p = 0.0004). The first common ESR1 variant (MAF 12-33% across races) linked to regulatory functions, rs2144025 appears conditionally to affect ESR1 mRNA expression in the brain and modulate traits in behavioral disorders.
Project description:The single-nucleotide polymorphism rs1344706 in the zinc finger protein 804A gene (ZNF804A) shows genome-wide association with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Little is known regarding the expression of ZNF804A and the functionality of rs1344706.To characterize ZNF804A expression in human brain and to investigate how it changes across the life span and how it is affected by rs1344706, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder.Molecular and immunochemical methods were used to study ZNF804A messenger RNA (mRNA) and ZNF804A protein, respectively. ZNF804A transcripts were investigated using next-generation sequencing and polymerase chain reaction-based methods, and ZNF804A protein was investigated using Western blots and immunohistochemistry. Samples of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and inferior parietal lobe tissue were interrogated from 697 participants between 14 weeks' gestational age and age 85 years, including patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder.Quantitative measurements of ZNF804A mRNA and immunoreactivity, and the effect of diagnosis and rs1344706 genotype.ZNF804A was expressed across the life span, with highest expression prenatally. An abundant and developmentally regulated truncated ZNF804A transcript was identified, missing exons 1 and 2 (ZNF804AE3E4) and predicted to encode a protein lacking the zinc finger domain. rs1344706 influenced expression of ZNF804AE3E4 mRNA in fetal brain (P?=?.02). In contrast, full-length ZNF804A showed no association with genotype (P?>?.05). ZNF804AE3E4 mRNA expression was decreased in patients with schizophrenia (P?=?.006) and increased in those with major depressive disorder (P?<?.001), and there was a genotype-by-diagnosis interaction in bipolar disorder (P?=?.002). ZNF804A immunoreactivity was detected in fetal and adult human cerebral cortex. It was localized primarily to pyramidal neurons, with cytoplasmic as well as dendritic and nuclear staining. No differences in ZNF804A-immunoreactive neurons were seen in schizophrenia or related to rs1344706 (P?>?.05).rs1344706 influences the expression of ZNF804AE3E4, a novel splice variant. The effect is limited to fetal brain and to this isoform. It may be part of the mechanism by which allelic variation in ZNF804A affects risk of psychosis. ZNF804A is translated in human brain, where its functions may extend beyond its predicted role as a transcription factor.
Project description:The gene encoding the dopamine transporter (DAT) has been implicated in CNS disorders, but the responsible polymorphisms remain uncertain. To search for regulatory polymorphisms, we measured allelic DAT mRNA expression in substantia nigra of human autopsy brain tissues, using two marker SNPs (rs6347 in exon 9 and rs27072 in the 3'-UTR). Allelic mRNA expression imbalance (AEI), an indicator of cis-acting regulatory polymorphisms, was observed in all tissues heterozygous for either of the two marker SNPs. SNP scanning of the DAT locus with AEI ratios as the phenotype, followed by in vitro molecular genetics studies, demonstrated that rs27072 C>T affects mRNA expression and translation. Expression of the minor T allele was dynamically regulated in transfected cell cultures, possibly involving microRNA interactions. Both rs6347 and rs3836790 (intron8 5/6 VNTR) also seemed to affect DAT expression, but not the commonly tested 9/10 VNTR in the 3'UTR (rs28363170). All four polymorphisms (rs6347, intron8 5/6 VNTR, rs27072 and 3'UTR 9/10 VNTR) were genotyped in clinical cohorts, representing schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, and controls. Only rs27072 was significantly associated with bipolar disorder (OR = 2.1, p = 0.03). This result was replicated in a second bipolar/control population (OR = 1.65, p = 0.01), supporting a critical role for DAT regulation in bipolar disorder.
Project description:Reelin plays an important role in the development and function of the brain and has been linked to different neuropsychiatric diseases. To further clarify the connection between reelin and psychiatric disorders, we studied the factors that influence the expression of reelin gene (RELN) and its different isoforms. We examined the total expression of RELN, allelic expression, and two alternative RELN isoforms in postmortem brain samples from patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, as well as unaffected controls. We did not find a significant reduction in the total expression of RELN in schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. However, we did find a significant reduction of the proportion of the short RELN isoform, missing the C-terminal region in bipolar disorder, and imbalance in the allelic expression of RELN in schizophrenia. In addition, we tested the association between variation in RELN expression and rs7341475, an intronic SNP that was found to be associated with schizophrenia in women. We did not find an association between rs7341474 and the total expression of RELN either in women or in the entire sample. However, we observed a nominally significant effect of genotype-by-sex interaction on the variation in microexon skipping. Women with the risk genotype of rs7341475 (GG) had a higher proportion of microexon skipping, which is the isoform predominant in tissues outside the brain, while men had the opposite trend. Finally, we tested 83 SNPs in the gene region for association with expression variation of RELN, but none were significant. Our study further supports the connection between RELN dysfunction and psychiatric disorders, and provides a possible functional role for a schizophrenia associated SNP. Nevertheless, the positive associations observed in this study needs further replication as it may have implications for understanding the biological causes of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Project description:Evidence from animal and human studies has linked myo-inositol (MI) with the pathophysiology and/or treatment of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, there is still controversy surrounding the definitive role of MI in these disorders. Given that brain MI is differentially regulated by three transporters - SMIT1, SMIT2 and/or HMIT (encoded by the genes: SLC5A3, SLC5A11, and SLC2A13, respectively) - we used available datasets to describe the distribution in mouse and human brain of the different MI transporters and to examine changes in mRNA expression of these transporters in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We found a differential distribution of the mRNA of each of the three MI transporters in both human and mouse brain regions. Interestingly, while individual neurons express SMIT1 and HMIT, non-neuronal cells express SMIT2, thus partially accounting for different uptake levels of MI and concordance to downstream second messenger signaling pathways. We also found that the expression of MI transporters is significantly changed in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in a diagnostic-, brain region- and subtype-specific manner. We then examined the effects of germline deletion in mice of Slc5a3 on behavioral phenotypes related to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. This gene deletion produces behavioral deficits that mirror some specific symptoms of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Finally, chronic administration of MI was able to reverse particular, but not all, behavioral deficits in Slc5a3 knockout mice; MI itself induced some behavioral deficits. Our data support a strong correlation between the expression of MI transporters and schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and suggest that brain region-specific aberration of one or more of these transporters determines the partial behavioral phenotypes and/or symptomatic pattern of these disorders.
Project description:The membrane-bound axon guidance molecules netrin-G1 (NTNG1) and netrin-G2 (NTNG2) play a role in synaptic formation and maintenance. Non-coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in both genes have been reported to be associated with schizophrenia. The main aim of this study was to determine if NTNG1 and NTNG2 mRNA expression is altered in schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, and/or influenced by disease-associated SNPs. NTNG1 and NTNG2 mRNAs were examined in the medial and inferior temporal lobe using in situ hybridization and RT-PCR in the Stanley Medical Research Institute array collection, and in rat hippocampus during development and after antipsychotic administration. NTNG1 mRNA isoforms were also examined during human brain development. For NTNG1, the G1c isoform was reduced in bipolar disorder and with a similar trend in schizophrenia; expression of four other NTNG1 isoforms was unchanged. In both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, NTNG2 mRNA was reduced in CA3, with reductions also found in CA4 and perirhinal cortex in bipolar disorder. The SNPs did not affect NTNG1 or NTNG2 mRNA expression. Both NTNG1 and NTNG2 mRNAs were developmentally regulated, and were unaltered by haloperidol, but NTNG2 mRNA was modestly increased by clozapine. These data implicate NTNG1 and NTNG2 in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, but do not support the hypothesis that altered mRNA expression is the mechanism by which genetic variation of NTNG1 or NTNG2 may confer disease susceptibility.
Project description:Molecular abnormalities within the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) stress signaling pathway may confer, or reflect, susceptibility to stress in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, but the extent of such abnormalities in the brain is not known. Using RNA-Seq and qPCR in two postmortem cohorts totaling 55 schizophrenia, 34 bipolar disorder and 55 control individuals, we identified increased FKBP5 and PTGES3 mRNA expression, and decreased BAG1 mRNA expression, in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia cases relative to controls (68.0% [p < 0.001], 26.0% [p < 0.01] and 12.1% [p < 0.05] respectively). We also observed increased FKBP5 and decreased BAG1 mRNA expression in bipolar disorder (47.5% [p < 0.05] and 14.9% [p < 0.005]). There were no diagnostic differences in steady-state FKBP51 protein levels, nor in HSPA1A, HSP90AA1, DNAJB1 or HSPB1 mRNA levels. GR, co-factor and chaperone mRNA levels were strongly correlated. These results reveal coordinated cortical dysregulation of FKBP5, PTGES3, BAG1 and GR genes within the glucocorticoid signaling pathway in psychotic illness.
Project description:An increase in apoptotic events may underlie neuropathology in schizophrenia. By data-mining approaches, we identified significant expression changes in death receptor signaling pathways in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of patients with schizophrenia, particularly implicating the Tumor Necrosis Factor Superfamily member 6 (FAS) receptor and the Tumor Necrosis Factor [ligand] Superfamily member 13 (TNFSF13) in schizophrenia. We sought to confirm and replicate in an independent tissue collection the noted mRNA changes with quantitative real-time RT-PCR. To test for regional and diagnostic specificity, tissue from orbital frontal cortex (OFC) was examined and a bipolar disorder group included. In schizophrenia, we confirmed and replicated significantly increased expression of TNFSF13 mRNA in the DLPFC. Also, a significantly larger proportion of subjects in the schizophrenia group had elevated FAS receptor expression in the DLPFC relative to unaffected controls. These changes were not observed in the bipolar disorder group. In the OFC, there were no significant differences in TNFSF13 or FAS receptor mRNA expression. Decreases in BH3 interacting domain death agonist (BID) mRNA transcript levels were found in the schizophrenia and bipolar disorder groups affecting both the DLPFC and the OFC. We tested if TNFSF13 mRNA expression correlated with neuronal mRNAs in the DLPFC, and found significant negative correlations with interneuron markers, parvalbumin and somatostatin, and a positive correlation with PPP1R9B (spinophilin), but not DLG4 (PSD-95). The expression of TNFSF13 mRNA in DLPFC correlated negatively with tissue pH, but decreasing pH in cultured cells did not cause increased TNFSF13 mRNA nor did exogenous TNFSF13 decrease pH. We concluded that increased TNFSF13 expression may be one of several cell-death cytokine abnormalities that contribute to the observed brain pathology in schizophrenia, and while increased TNFSF13 may be associated with lower brain pH, the change is not necessarily causally related to brain pH.
Project description:CONTEXT:The CACNA1C gene (alpha-1C subunit of the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel) has been identified as a risk gene for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, but the mechanism of association has not been explored. OBJECTIVE:To identify the neural system mechanism that explains the genetic association between the CACNA1C gene and psychiatric illness using neuroimaging and human brain expression. DESIGN:We used blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain activation in circuitries related to bipolar disorder and schizophrenia by comparing CACNA1C genotype groups among healthy subjects. We tested the effect of genotype on messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of CACNA1C in postmortem human brain. A case-control analysis was used to determine the association of CACNA1C genotype with schizophrenia. SETTING:National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. PATIENTS:Healthy men and women of white race/ethnicity participated in the fMRI study. Postmortem samples from normal human brains were used for the brain expression study. Patients with schizophrenia and healthy subjects were used in the case-control analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:BOLD fMRI, mRNA levels in postmortem brain samples, and genetic association with schizophrenia. RESULTS:The risk-associated single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs1006737) in CACNA1C predicted increased hippocampal activity during emotional processing (P = .001 uncorrected, P((false recovery rate [FDR])) = .05, z = 3.20) and increased prefrontal activity during executive cognition (P = 2.8e-05 uncorrected, P(FDR) = .01, z = 4.03). The risk-associated SNP also predicted increased expression of CACNA1C mRNA in human brain (P = .002). CACNA1C was associated with schizophrenia in our case-control sample (odds ratio, 1.77; P = .03). CONCLUSIONS:The risk-associated SNP in CACNA1C maps to circuitries implicated in genetic risk for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Its effects in human brain expression implicate a molecular and neural system mechanism for the clinical genetic association.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tyrosine kinase receptor (trkB-TK+) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) mRNA levels have previously been found to be reduced in the prefrontal cortex of patients with schizophrenia. To determine whether this reduction extends to other brain regions, we measured the expression levels of BDNF, trkB-TK+ and GAD67 mRNA in regions of the hippocampus, including the dentate gyrus (DG), cornu ammonis subfields (CA1-4), subiculum and entorhinal cortex (EC) of individuals with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression and unaffected controls. METHODS: In situ hybridization was performed on postmortem brain tissue obtained from the Stanley Foundation Consortium and analyzed using film-based quantification. RESULTS: Analyses of covariance comparing the expression of mRNA among all groups revealed a significant decrease in BDNF mRNA in CA4 in the bipolar disorder group compared with controls (33%). We found trkB-TK+ mRNA levels to be significantly reduced in CA4 in the schizophrenia group (36%) and in layer II of the EC in the bipolar disorder and major depression groups (28%, 21%, respectively) compared with controls. In addition, GAD67 mRNA levels were reduced in patients with schizophrenia in both the DG (23%) and CA4 (60%) compared with controls. Individuals with major depression also expressed significantly less GAD67 mRNA (44%) compared with controls in CA4 of the hippocampus. LIMITATIONS: It is necessary to account for factors that influence the molecular preservation in postmortem brain tissue, including pH, postmortem interval and tissue storage time. Moreover, there are limitations to the sensitivity of the film-based method of quantification. CONCLUSION: Our findings show abnormal BDNF, trkB-TK+ and GAD67 mRNA expression in the hippocampus of individuals with schizophrenia and mood disorders, indicating that fundamental properties of hippocampal signalling transmission, plasticity and circuitry may be affected in individuals with these major mental illnesses.
Project description:Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is an RNA-binding protein that targets ?5% of all mRNAs expressed in the brain. Previous work by our laboratory demonstrated significantly lower protein levels for FMRP in lateral cerebella of subjects with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression when compared with controls. Absence of FMRP expression in animal models of fragile X syndrome (FXS) has been shown to reduce expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptor mRNAs. Previous work by our laboratory has found reduced expression of FMRP, as well as multiple GABAA and GABAB receptor subunits in subjects with autism. Less is known about levels for GABAA subunit protein expression in brains of subjects with schizophrenia and mood disorders. In the current study, we have expanded our previous studies to examine the protein and mRNA expression of two novel GABAA receptors, theta (GABR?) and rho 2 (GABR?2) as well as FMRP, and metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) in lateral cerebella of subjects with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression and healthy controls, and in superior frontal cortex (Brodmann Area 9 (BA9)) of subjects with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and healthy controls. We observed multiple statistically significant mRNA and protein changes in levels of GABR?, GABR?2, mGluR5 and FMRP molecules including concordant reductions in mRNA and proteins for GABR? and mGluR5 in lateral cerebella of subjects with schizophrenia; for increased mRNA and protein for GABR?2 in lateral cerebella of subjects with bipolar disorder; and for reduced mRNA and protein for mGluR5 in BA9 of subjects with bipolar disorder. There were no significant effects of confounds on any of the results.