C-Abl regulates gastrointestinal muscularis propria homeostasis via ERKs.
ABSTRACT: The gastrointestinal tract is responsible for food digestion and absorption. The muscularis propria propels the foodstuff through the GI tract and defects in intestine motility may cause obstruction disorders. Our present genetic studies identified non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Abl as an important regulator of the muscularis propria homeostasis and a risk factor for rectal prolapse. Mouse deficient for c-Abl showed defects in the muscularis propria of gastrointestinal tract and older c-Abl -/- mice developed megaesophagus and rectal prolapse. Inhibition of c-Abl with imatinib mesylate, an anti-CML drug, or ablation of c-Abl using Prx1-Cre, which marks smooth muscle cells, recapitulated most of the muscularis propria phenotypes. The pathogenesis of rectal prolapse was attributable to overproliferation of smooth muscle cells, which was caused by enhanced ERK1/2 activation. Administration of ERK inhibitor U0126 impeded the development of rectal prolapse in c-Abl deficient mice. These results reveal a role for c-Abl-regulated smooth muscle proliferation in the pathogenesis of rectal prolapse, and imply that long-term use of imatinib mesylate may cause gastrointestinal problems in patients while ERK inhibitor may be effective in treating rectal prolapse.
Project description:Protein kinase inhibitors can be effective in treating selected cancers, but most suppress several kinases. Imatinib mesylate has been useful in the treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia and B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia through the inhibition of BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase activity. Imatinib mesylate has also been shown to inhibit KIT, ARG, and platelet-derived growth factor receptors alpha and beta, and potentially other tyrosine kinases. We have produced a mutant allele of BCR-ABL (T315A) that is uniquely inhibitable by the small molecule 4-amino-1-tert-butyl-3-(1-naphthyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine and used it to demonstrate that sole suppression of BCR-ABL activity was insufficient to eliminate BCR-ABL(+) KIT(+)-expressing immature murine myeloid leukemic cells. In contrast, imatinib mesylate effectively eliminated BCR-ABL(+) KIT(+)-expressing leukemic cells. In the cellular context of mature myeloid cells and Pro/Pre B cells that do not express KIT, monospecific BCR-ABL inhibition was quantitatively as effective as imatinib mesylate in suppressing cell growth and inducing apoptosis. These results suggest that the therapeutic effectiveness of small molecule drugs such as imatinib mesylate could be due to the inhibitor's ability to suppress protein kinases in addition to the dominant target.
Project description:Imatinib mesylate (Gleevec, STI571), a selective inhibitor of a restricted number of tyrosine kinases, has been effectively used for the treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemias and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Imatinib may also directly influence immune cells. Suppressive as well as stimulating effects of this drug on CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes or dendritic cells have been reported. In the current study, we have investigated the influence of imatinib mesylate on CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg), a critical population of lymphocytes that contributes to peripheral tolerance. Used at concentrations achieved clinically, imatinib impaired Treg immunosuppressive function and FoxP3 expression but not production of IL-10 and TGF-beta in vitro. Imatinib significantly reduced the activation of the transcription factors STAT3 and STAT5 in Treg. Analysis of Treg TCR-induced signaling cascade indicated that imatinib inhibited phosphorylation of ZAP70 and LAT. Substantiating these observations, imatinib treatment of mice decreased Treg frequency and impaired their immunosuppressive function in vivo. Furthermore, imatinib mesylate significantly enhanced antitumor immune responses to dendritic cell-based immunization against an imatinib-resistant BCR-ABL negative lymphoma. The clinical applications of imatinib mesylate might thus be expanded with its use as a potent immunomodulatory agent targeting Treg in cancer immunotherapy.
Project description:Resistance to the Ableson protein tyrosine (Abl) kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate has become a critical issue for patients in advanced phases of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Imatinib-resistant tumor cells develop, in part, as a result of point mutations within the Abl kinase domain. As protein kinase B (Akt) plays a pivotal role in Abl oncogene-mediated cell survival, we hypothesize that concurrent inhibition of Akt will sensitize resistant cells to the residual apoptotic activity of imatinib mesylate, thereby overcoming the resistance. Here, we examined the effect of OSU-03012, a celecoxib-derived phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK-1) inhibitor, on imatinib mesylate-induced apoptosis in 2 clinically relevant breakpoint cluster region (Bcr)-Abl mutant cell lines, Ba/F3p210(E255K) and Ba/F3p210(T315I). The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of imatinib mesylate to inhibit the proliferation of Ba/F3p210(E255K) and Ba/F3p210(T315I) were 14 +/- 4 and 30 +/- 2 microM, respectively. There was no cross-resistance to OSU-03012 in these mutant cells with an IC50 of 5 microM irrespective of mutations. Nevertheless, in the presence of OSU-03012 the susceptibility of these mutant cells to imatinib-induced apoptosis was significantly enhanced. This synergistic action was, at least in part, mediated through the concerted effect on phospho-Akt. Together these data provide a novel therapeutic strategy to overcome imatinib mesylate resistance, especially with the Abl mutant T315I.
Project description:Imatinib mesylate is a potent, molecularly targeted therapy against the oncogenic tyrosine kinase BCR-ABL. Although imatinib mesylate has considerable efficacy against chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), advanced-stage CML patients frequently become refractory to this agent. The bone marrow is the predominant microenvironment of CML and is a rich source of both soluble factors and extracellular matrices, which may influence drug response. To address the influence of the bone marrow microenvironment on imatinib mesylate sensitivity, we used an in vitro bone marrow stroma model. Our data show culturing K562 cells, in bone marrow stroma-derived conditioned medium (CM), is sufficient to cause resistance to BCR-ABL inhibitors. Drug resistance correlated with increased pTyrStat3, whereas no increases in pTyrStat5 was noted. Moreover, resistance was associated with increased levels of the Stat3 target genes Bcl-xl, Mcl-1, and survivin. Finally, reducing Stat3 levels with small interfering RNA sensitized K562 cells cultured in CM to imatinib mesylate-induced cell death. Importantly, Stat3 dependency was specific for cells grown in CM, as reducing Stat3 levels in regular growth conditions had no effect on imatinib mesylate sensitivity. Together, these data support a novel mechanism of BCR-ABL-independent imatinib mesylate resistance and provides preclinical rationale for using Stat3-inhibitors to increase the efficacy of imatinib mesylate within the context of the bone marrow microenvironment.
Project description:Imatinib mesylate (Imatinib), clinically employed for chronic myeloid leukemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumors, is a selective inhibitor of the tyrosine kinases, c-abl, c-kit and PDGFRs. Due to the frequent expression of these genes in breast cancer cells, the clinical efficacy of Imatinib has recently been investigated in patients with advanced and metastatic breast cancer. Here, we have studied the effects of Imatinib on human MA-11 breast carcinoma cells, expressing both c-abl and PDGFRbeta, in vitro and in mouse xenografts.The effects of Imatinib mesylate on the human MA-11 breast carcinoma cell line were studied in vitro and in xenografts.Daily intraperitoneal treatment with 60 mg/kg Imatinib for 9 days of athymic nude mice pre-implanted subcutaneously with MA-11 cells did not result in an anti-tumor effect, but rather increased the take rate of 3 × 10(4) cells from 30.8 to 84.6% and caused the appearance of large abdominal masses in 30% of mice. To investigate the mechanism(s) of the observed effects of Imatinib on MA-11 tumors, we exposed the cells in vitro to Imatinib for 9 days. The surviving population, expanded in culture, showed increased motility and over-expressed a set of genes associated with aggressive behavior. Also, several genes belonging to the Wnt and the MAPK pathway were differentially expressed. In promoter activation assays, Imatinib increased the promoter activity driven by both Wnt and MAPK/ERK-1/2.Our data suggest caution in the clinical use of Imatinib in breast cancer patients; the comparison of Imatinib-surviving breast cancer cells with parental cells may help define the regulatory pathways involved in the increased malignancy of residual tumor cells that survive therapy, ultimately providing important therapeutic targets.
Project description:Importance:Previous retrospective studies have shown that surgical quality affects local control in rectal cancer.. Objective:In this secondary end point analysis, we evaluated the prognostic effect of the total mesorectal excision (TME) plane in the CAO/ARO/AIO-04 phase 3 randomized clinical trial. Design, Setting, and Participants:The CAO/ARO/AIO-04 trial enrolled 1236 patients with cT3-4 and/or node-positive rectal adenocarcinoma from 88 centers in Germany between July 25, 2006, and February 26, 2010. Interventions:Patients were randomized to receive treatment with standard fluorouracil-based preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) alone (control arm) or oxaliplatin (experimental arm) followed by TME and adjuvant chemotherapy. Main Outcomes and Measures:The TME quality (mesorectal, intramesorectal, and muscularis propria plane) was prospectively assessed in 1152 operation specimens. An assessment was performed independently by pathologists and surgeons. The results were correlated with clinicopathologic data and the clinical outcome was tested, including multivariable analysis with the Cox regression model. Results:Of 1152 German Caucasian participants, 332 (28.8) were women and the mean age was 63 years. The plane of TME was mesorectal in 930 patients (80.7%), intramesorectal in 169 (14.7%), and muscularis propria in 53 (4.6%). In a univariable analysis, the TME plane was significantly associated with 3-year disease-free survival (mesorectal vs intramesorectal vs muscularis propria, 95% CI, 73.1-78.8 vs 61.6-76.0 vs 55.6-81.3, respectively; P = .01), cumulative incidence of local and distant recurrences (mesorectal vs intramesorectal vs muscularis propria, 95% CI, 2.0-4.5 vs 1.2-8.1 vs 2.5-20.5, respectively; P < .001; and mesorectal vs intramesorectal vs muscularis propria, 95% CI, 17.0-22.4 vs 18.3-32.0 vs 14.2-39.0, respectively; P = .03, respectively), and overall survival (mesorectal vs intramesorectal vs muscularis propria, 95% CI, 88.3-92.3 vs 79.7-91.0 vs 81.6-98.7, respectively; P = .02). In contrast to the pathologist-based evaluation, the assessment of TME plane by the operating surgeon failed to demonstrate prognostic significance for any of these clinical end points. In a multivariable analysis, the plane of surgery (mesorectal vs muscularis propria TME) constituted an independent factor for local recurrence (P = .002). Conclusions and Relevance:This phase 3 randomized clinical trial confirms the long-term clinical effect of TME plane quality on local recurrence, as initially reported in the MRC CR07 study. The data highlight the key role of pathologists and surgeons in the multidisciplinary management of rectal cancer. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00349076.
Project description:In patients with rectal prolapse is the prevalence of colorectal cancer increased, suggesting that a colorectal tumor may induce rectal prolapse. Establishment of tumor xenografts in immunodeficient mice after orthotopic inoculations of human colorectal cancer cells into the caecal wall is a widely used approach for the study of human colorectal cancer progression and preclinical evaluation of therapeutics. Remarkably, 70% of young mice carrying a COLO320DM caecal tumor showed symptoms of intussusception of the large bowel associated with intestinal lumen obstruction and rectal prolapse. The quantity of the COLO320DM bioluminescent signal of the first three weeks post-inoculation predicts prolapse in young mice. Rectal prolapse was not observed in adult mice carrying a COLO320DM caecal tumor or young mice carrying a HT29 caecal tumor. In contrast to HT29 tumors, which showed local invasion and metastasis, COLO320DM tumors demonstrated a non-invasive tumor with pushing borders without presence of metastasis. In conclusion, rectal prolapse can be linked to a non-invasive, space-occupying COLO320DM tumor in the gastrointestinal tract of young immunodeficient mice. These data reveal a model that can clarify the association of patients showing rectal prolapse with colorectal cancer.
Project description:To determine whether Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) inhibitors (e.g., BI2536) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (e.g., vorinostat) interact synergistically in the BCR/ABL(+) leukemia cells sensitive or resistant to imatinib mesylate (IM) in vitro and in vivo.K562 and LAMA84 cells sensitive or resistant to imatinib mesylate and primary CML cells were exposed to BI2536 and vorinostat. Effects on cell viability and signaling pathways were determined using flow cytometry, Western blotting, and gene transfection. K562 and BV173/E255K animal models were used to test in vivo efficacy.Cotreatment with BI2536 and vorinostat synergistically induced cell death in parental or imatinib mesylate-resistant BCR/ABL(+) cells and primary CD34(+) bone marrow cells but was minimally toxic to normal cells. BI2536/vorinostat cotreatment triggered pronounced mitochondrial dysfunction, inhibition of p-BCR/ABL, caspase activation, PARP cleavage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and DNA damage (manifest by increased expression of ?H2A.X, p-ATM, p-ATR), events attenuated by the antioxidant TBAP. PLK1 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown significantly increased HDACI lethality, whereas HDAC1-3 shRNA knockdown reciprocally increased BI2536-induced apoptosis. Genetic interruption of the DNA damage linker H1.2 partially but significantly reduced PLK1/HDAC inhibitor-mediated cell death, suggesting a functional role for DNA damage in lethality. Finally, BI2536/vorinostat cotreatment dramatically reduced tumor growth in both subcutaneous and systemic BCR/ABL(+) leukemia xenograft models and significantly enhanced animal survival.These findings suggest that concomitant PLK1 and HDAC inhibition is active against imatinib mesylate-sensitive or refractory CML and ALL cells both in vitro and in vivo and that this strategy warrants further evaluation in the setting of BCR/ABL(+) leukemias.
Project description:Constitutive activity of Bcr-abl fusion protein kinase causes chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Inhibitors of Bcr-abl such as imatinib mesylate have replaced the cytokine IFN? as the primary treatment for the management of patients with this malignancy. We found that pretreatment of CML cells with imatinib mesylate augments the antigrowth effects of IFN?. Furthermore, introduction of Bcr-abl into non-CML cells inhibits the cellular responses to IFN?. This inhibition is mediated via a mechanism that involves activation of protein kinase D2. The latter promotes an accelerated phosphorylation-dependent degradation of the interferon-?/? receptor 1 chain of the type I interferon receptor, leading to attenuation of IFN? signaling. We discuss the relationship between Bcr-abl activity and IFN? signaling as a molecular basis of the combination of inhibitors of Bcr-abl and IFN? for CML treatment.
Project description:BMS-354825 (dasatinib) and AMN107 (nilotinib) are potent alternate Abl inhibitors with activity against many imatinib mesylate-resistant BCR-ABL kinase domain (KD) mutants, except T315I. We used N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-exposed Ba/F3-p210(BCR-ABL) cells to compare incidence and types of KD mutants emerging in the presence of imatinib mesylate, dasatinib, and nilotinib, alone and in dual combinations. Although ENU is expected to induce mutations in multiple proteins, resistant clones were almost exclusively BCR-ABL KD mutant at relevant concentrations of nilotinib and dasatinib, consistent with a central role of KD mutations for resistance to these drugs. Twenty different mutations were identified with imatinib mesylate, 10 with nilotinib (including only 1 novel mutation, E292V) and 9 with dasatinib. At intermediate drug levels the spectrum narrowed to F317V and T315I for dasatinib and Y253H, E255V, and T315I for nilotinib. Thus, cross-resistance is limited to T315I, which is also the only mutant isolated at drug concentrations equivalent to maximal achievable plasma trough levels. With drug combinations maximal suppression of resistant clone outgrowth was achieved at lower concentrations compared with single agents, suggesting that such combinations may be equipotent to higher-dose single agents. However, sequencing uniformly revealed T315I, consistent with the need for a T315I inhibitor, to completely block resistance.