Constriction of the mitochondrial inner compartment is a priming event for mitochondrial division.
ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial division is critical for the maintenance and regulation of mitochondrial function, quality and distribution. This process is controlled by cytosolic actin-based constriction machinery and dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) on mitochondrial outer membrane (OMM). Although mitochondrial physiology, including oxidative phosphorylation, is also important for efficient mitochondrial division, morphological alterations of the mitochondrial inner-membrane (IMM) have not been clearly elucidated. Here we report spontaneous and repetitive constriction of mitochondrial inner compartment (CoMIC) associated with subsequent division in neurons. Although CoMIC is potentiated by inhibition of Drp1 and occurs at the potential division spots contacting the endoplasmic reticulum, it appears on IMM independently of OMM. Intra-mitochondrial influx of Ca2+ induces and potentiates CoMIC, and leads to K+-mediated mitochondrial bulging and depolarization. Synergistically, optic atrophy 1 (Opa1) also regulates CoMIC via controlling Mic60-mediated OMM-IMM tethering. Therefore, we propose that CoMIC is a priming event for efficient mitochondrial division.
Project description:Mitochondrial division requires division of both the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes (IMM and OMM, respectively). Interaction with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) promotes OMM division by recruitment of the dynamin Drp1, but effects on IMM division are not well characterized. We previously showed that actin polymerization through ER-bound inverted formin 2 (INF2) stimulates Drp1 recruitment in mammalian cells. Here, we show that INF2-mediated actin polymerization stimulates a second mitochondrial response independent of Drp1: a rise in mitochondrial matrix calcium through the mitochondrial calcium uniporter. ER stores supply the increased mitochondrial calcium, and the role of actin is to increase ER-mitochondria contact. Myosin IIA is also required for this mitochondrial calcium increase. Elevated mitochondrial calcium in turn activates IMM constriction in a Drp1-independent manner. IMM constriction requires electron transport chain activity. IMM division precedes OMM division. These results demonstrate that actin polymerization independently stimulates the dynamics of both membranes during mitochondrial division: IMM through increased matrix calcium, and OMM through Drp1 recruitment.
Project description:Mitochondria possess an outer membrane (OMM) and an inner membrane (IMM), which folds into invaginations called cristae. Lipid composition, membrane potential, and proteins in the IMM influence organization of cristae. Here we show an essential role of the OMM protein Sam50 in the maintenance of the structure of cristae. Sam50 is a part of the sorting and assembly machinery (SAM) necessary for the assembly of ?-barrel proteins in the OMM. We provide evidence that the SAM components exist in a large protein complex together with the IMM proteins mitofilin and CHCHD3, which we term the mitochondrial intermembrane space bridging (MIB) complex. Interactions between OMM and IMM components of the MIB complex are crucial for the preservation of cristae. After destabilization of the MIB complex, we observed deficiency in the assembly of respiratory chain complexes. Long-term depletion of Sam50 influences the amounts of proteins from all large respiratory complexes that contain mitochondrially encoded subunits, pointing to a connection between the structural integrity of cristae, assembly of respiratory complexes, and/or the maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA).
Project description:Mitochondrial dynamics is an essential physiological process controlling mitochondrial content mixing and mobility to ensure proper function and localization of mitochondria at intracellular sites of high-energy demand. Intriguingly, for yet unknown reasons, severe impairment of mitochondrial fusion drastically affects mtDNA copy number. To decipher the link between mitochondrial dynamics and mtDNA maintenance, we studied mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and mouse cardiomyocytes with disruption of mitochondrial fusion. Super-resolution microscopy revealed that loss of outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) fusion, but not inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) fusion, leads to nucleoid clustering. Remarkably, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), bromouridine labeling in MEFs and assessment of mitochondrial transcription in tissue homogenates revealed that abolished OMM fusion does not affect transcription. Furthermore, the profound mtDNA depletion in mouse hearts lacking OMM fusion is not caused by defective integrity or increased mutagenesis of mtDNA, but instead we show that mitochondrial fusion is necessary to maintain the stoichiometry of the protein components of the mtDNA replisome. OMM fusion is necessary for proliferating MEFs to recover from mtDNA depletion and for the marked increase of mtDNA copy number during postnatal heart development. Our findings thus link OMM fusion to replication and distribution of mtDNA.
Project description:Mitochondria divide to control their size, distribution, turnover, and function. Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) is a critical mechanochemical GTPase that drives constriction during mitochondrial division. It is generally believed that mitochondrial division is regulated during recruitment of Drp1 to mitochondria and its oligomerization into a division apparatus. Here, we report an unforeseen mechanism that regulates mitochondrial division by coincident interactions of Drp1 with the head group and acyl chains of phospholipids. Drp1 recognizes the head group of phosphatidic acid (PA) and two saturated acyl chains of another phospholipid by penetrating into the hydrophobic core of the membrane. The dual phospholipid interactions restrain Drp1 via inhibition of oligomerization-stimulated GTP hydrolysis that promotes membrane constriction. Moreover, a PA-producing phospholipase, MitoPLD, binds Drp1, creating a PA-rich microenvironment in the vicinity of a division apparatus. Thus, PA controls the activation of Drp1 after the formation of the division apparatus.
Project description:Mitochondria cannot be generated de novo; they must grow, replicate their genome, and divide in order to be inherited by each daughter cell during mitosis. Mitochondrial division is a structural challenge that requires the substantial remodelling of membrane morphology. Although division factors differ across organisms, the need for multiple constriction steps and a dynamin-related protein (Drp1, Dnm1 in yeast) has been conserved. In mammalian cells, mitochondrial division has been shown to proceed with at least two sequential constriction steps: the endoplasmic reticulum and actin must first collaborate to generate constrictions suitable for Drp1 assembly on the mitochondrial outer membrane; Drp1 then further constricts membranes until mitochondrial fission occurs. In vitro experiments, however, indicate that Drp1 does not have the dynamic range to complete membrane fission. In contrast to Drp1, the neuron-specific classical dynamin dynamin-1 (Dyn1) has been shown to assemble on narrower lipid profiles and facilitate spontaneous membrane fission upon GTP hydrolysis. Here we report that the ubiquitously expressed classical dynamin-2 (Dyn2) is a fundamental component of the mitochondrial division machinery. A combination of live-cell and electron microscopy in three different mammalian cell lines reveals that Dyn2 works in concert with Drp1 to orchestrate sequential constriction events that build up to division. Our work underscores the biophysical limitations of Drp1 and positions Dyn2, which has intrinsic membrane fission properties, at the final step of mitochondrial division.
Project description:Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles undergoing coordinated cycles of fission and fusion, referred as 'mitochondrial dynamics', in order to maintain their shape, distribution and size. Their transient and rapid morphological adaptations are crucial for many cellular processes such as cell cycle, immunity, apoptosis and mitochondrial quality control. Mutations in the core machinery components and defects in mitochondrial dynamics have been associated with numerous human diseases. These dynamic transitions are mainly ensured by large GTPases belonging to the Dynamin family. Mitochondrial fission is a multi-step process allowing the division of one mitochondrion in two daughter mitochondria. It is regulated by the recruitment of the GTPase Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) by adaptors at actin- and endoplasmic reticulum-mediated mitochondrial constriction sites. Drp1 oligomerization followed by mitochondrial constriction leads to the recruitment of Dynamin 2 to terminate membrane scission. Inner mitochondrial membrane constriction has been proposed to be an independent process regulated by calcium influx. Mitochondrial fusion is driven by a two-step process with the outer mitochondrial membrane fusion mediated by mitofusins 1 and 2 followed by inner membrane fusion, mediated by optic atrophy 1. In addition to the role of membrane lipid composition, several members of the machinery can undergo post-translational modifications modulating these processes. Understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling mitochondrial dynamics is crucial to decipher how mitochondrial shape meets the function and to increase the knowledge on the molecular basis of diseases associated with morphology defects. This article will describe an overview of the molecular mechanisms that govern mitochondrial fission and fusion in mammals.
Project description:Mitochondrial structure and distribution are regulated by division and fusion events. Mitochondrial division is regulated by Dnm1/Drp1, a dynamin-related protein that forms helices around mitochondria to mediate fission. Little is known about what determines sites of mitochondrial fission within the mitochondrial network. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria exhibit tightly coupled dynamics and have extensive contacts. We tested whether ER plays a role in mitochondrial division. We found that mitochondrial division occurred at positions where ER tubules contacted mitochondria and mediated constriction before Drp1 recruitment. Thus, ER tubules may play an active role in defining the position of mitochondrial division sites.
Project description:Cardiolipin, an essential mitochondrial physiological regulator, is synthesized from phosphatidic acid (PA) in the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM). PA is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum and transferred to the IMM via the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) under mediation by the Ups1/Mdm35 protein family. Despite the availability of numerous crystal structures, the detailed mechanism underlying PA transfer between mitochondrial membranes remains unclear. Here, a model of Ups1/Mdm35-membrane interaction is established using combined crystallographic data, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, extensive structural comparisons, and biophysical assays. The ?2-loop, L2-loop, and ?3 helix of Ups1 mediate membrane interactions. Moreover, non-complexed Ups1 on membranes is found to be a key transition state for PA transfer. The membrane-bound non-complexed Ups1/ membrane-bound Ups1 ratio, which can be regulated by environmental pH, is inversely correlated with the PA transfer activity of Ups1/Mdm35. These results demonstrate a new model of the fine conformational changes of Ups1/Mdm35 during PA transfer.
Project description:The cycle of mitochondrial division and fusion disconnect and reconnect individual mitochondria in cells to remodel this energy-producing organelle. Although dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) plays a major role in mitochondrial division in cells, a reduced level of mitochondrial division still persists even in the absence of Drp1. It is unknown how much Drp1-mediated mitochondrial division accounts for the connectivity of mitochondria. The role of a Parkinson's disease-associated protein-parkin, which biochemically and genetically interacts with Drp1-in mitochondrial connectivity also remains poorly understood. Here, we quantified the number and connectivity of mitochondria using mitochondria-targeted photoactivatable GFP in cells. We show that the loss of Drp1 increases the connectivity of mitochondria by 15-fold in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). While a single loss of parkin does not affect the connectivity of mitochondria, the connectivity of mitochondria significantly decreased compared with a single loss of Drp1 when parkin was lost in the absence of Drp1. Furthermore, the loss of parkin decreased the frequency of depolarization of the mitochondrial inner membrane that is caused by increased mitochondrial connectivity in Drp1-knockout MEFs. Therefore, our data suggest that parkin negatively regulates Drp1-indendent mitochondrial division.
Project description:Regulation of body fluid homeostasis is a major renal function, occurring largely through epithelial solute transport in various nephron segments driven by Na+/K+-ATPase activity. Energy demands are greatest in the proximal tubule and thick ascending limb where mitochondrial ATP production occurs through oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondria contain 20-80% of the cell's iron, copper, and manganese that are imported for their redox properties, primarily for electron transport. Redox reactions, however, also lead to reactive, toxic compounds, hence careful control of redox-active metal import into mitochondria is necessary. Current dogma claims the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) is freely permeable to metal ions, while the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) is selectively permeable. Yet we recently showed iron and manganese import at the OMM involves divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), an H+-coupled metal ion transporter. Thus, iron import is not only regulated by IMM mitoferrins, but also depends on the OMM to intermembrane space H+ gradient. We discuss how these mitochondrial transport processes contribute to renal injury in systemic (e.g., hemochromatosis) and local (e.g., hemoglobinuria) iron overload. Furthermore, the environmental toxicant cadmium selectively damages kidney mitochondria by "ionic mimicry" utilizing iron and calcium transporters, such as OMM DMT1 or IMM calcium uniporter, and by disrupting the electron transport chain. Consequently, unraveling mitochondrial metal ion transport may help develop new strategies to prevent kidney injury induced by metals.