An evolutionary optimization of a rhodopsin-based phototrophic metabolism in Escherichia coli.
ABSTRACT: The expression of the Gloeobacter rhodopsin (GR) in a chemotrophic Escherichia coli enables the light-driven phototrophic energy generation. Adaptive laboratory evolution has been used for acquiring desired phenotype of microbial cells and for the elucidation of basic mechanism of molecular evolution. To develop an optimized strain for the artificially acquired phototrophic metabolism, an ancestral E. coli expressing GR was adaptively evolved in a chemostat reactor with constant illumination and limited glucose conditions. This study was emphasized at an unexpected genomic mutation contributed to the improvement of microbial performance.During the chemostat culture, increase of cell size was observed, which were distinguished from that of the typical rod-shaped ancestral cells. A descendant ET5 strain was randomly isolated from the chemostat culture at 88-days. The phototrophic growth and the light-induced proton pumping of the ET5 strain were twofold and eightfold greater, respectively, than those of the ancestral E. coli strain. Single point mutation of C1082A at dgcQ gene (encoding diguanylate cyclase, also known as the yedQ gene) in the chromosome of ET5 strain was identified from whole genome sequencing analysis. An ancestral E. coli complemented with the same dgcQ mutation from the ET5 was repeated the subsequently enhancements of light-driven phototrophic growth and proton pumping. Intracellular c-di-GMP, the product of the diguanylate cyclase (dgcQ), of the descendant ET5 strain was suddenly increased while that of the ancestral strain was negligible.Newly acquired phototrophic metabolism of E. coli was further improved via adaptive laboratory evolution by the rise of a point mutation on a transmembrane cell signaling protein followed by increase of signal molecule that eventually led an increase proton pumping and phototrophic growth.
Project description:O55 is one of the most frequent enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) O serogroups implicated in infantile diarrhea in developing countries. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis analysis showed that this serogroup includes two major electrophoretic types (ET), designated ET1 and ET5. ET1 corresponds to typical EPEC, whilst ET5 comprises strains with different combinations of virulence genes, including those for localized adherence (LA) and diffuse adherence (DA). Here we report that ET5 DA strains possess a DA adhesin, designated EPEC Afa. An 11.6-kb chromosomal region including the DA adhesin operon from one O55:H(-) ET5 EPEC strain was sequenced and found to encode a protein with 98% identity to AfaE-1, an adhesin associated with uropathogenic E. coli. Although described as an afimbrial adhesin, we show that both AfaE-1 and EPEC Afa possess fine fibrillar structures. This is the first characterization and demonstration of an Afa adhesin associated with EPEC.
Project description:Respiratory complex I has an L-shaped structure formed by the hydrophilic arm responsible for electron transfer and the membrane arm that contains protons pumping machinery. Here, to gain mechanistic insights into the role of subunit NuoL, we investigated the effects of Mg2+, Zn2+ and the Na+/H+ antiporter inhibitor 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)-amiloride (EIPA) on proton pumping activities of various isolated NuoL mutant complex I after reconstitution into Escherichia coli double knockout (DKO) membrane vesicles lacking complex I and the NADH dehydrogenase type 2. We found that Mg2+ was critical for proton pumping activity of complex I. At 2 µM Zn2+, proton pumping of the wild-type was selectively inhibited without affecting electron transfer; no inhibition in proton pumping of D178N and D400A was observed, suggesting the involvement of these residues in Zn2+ binding. Fifteen micromolar of EIPA caused up to ?40% decrease in the proton pumping activity of the wild-type, D303A and D400A/E, whereas no significant change was detected in D178N, indicating its possible involvement in the EIPA binding. Furthermore, when menaquinone-rich DKO membranes were used, the proton pumping efficiency in the wild-type was decreased significantly (?50%) compared with NuoL mutants strongly suggesting that NuoL is involved in the high efficiency pumping mechanism in complex I.
Project description:Rhodopsins are the most universal biological light-energy transducers and abundant phototrophic mechanisms that evolved on Earth and have a remarkable diversity and potential for biotechnological applications. Recently, the first sodium-pumping rhodopsin KR2 from Krokinobacter eikastus was discovered and characterized. However, the existing structures of KR2 are contradictory, and the mechanism of Na+ pumping is not yet understood. Here, we present a structure of the cationic (non H+) light-driven pump at physiological pH in its pentameric form. We also present 13 atomic structures and functional data on the KR2 and its mutants, including potassium pumps, which show that oligomerization of the microbial rhodopsin is obligatory for its biological function. The studies reveal the structure of KR2 at nonphysiological low pH where it acts as a proton pump. The structure provides new insights into the mechanisms of microbial rhodopsins and opens the way to a rational design of novel cation pumps for optogenetics.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cyanobacteria and other phototrophic microorganisms allow to couple the light-driven assimilation of atmospheric [Formula: see text] directly to the synthesis of carbon-based products, and are therefore attractive platforms for microbial cell factories. While most current engineering efforts are performed using small-scale laboratory cultivation, the economic viability of phototrophic cultivation also crucially depends on photobioreactor design and culture parameters, such as the maximal areal and volumetric productivities. Based on recent insights into the cyanobacterial cell physiology and the resulting computational models of cyanobacterial growth, the aim of this study is to investigate the limits of cyanobacterial productivity in continuous culture with light as the limiting nutrient. RESULTS:We integrate a coarse-grained model of cyanobacterial growth into a light-limited chemostat and its heterogeneous light gradient induced by self-shading of cells. We show that phototrophic growth in the light-limited chemostat can be described using the concept of an average light intensity. Different from previous models based on phenomenological growth equations, our model provides a mechanistic link between intracellular protein allocation, population growth and the resulting reactor productivity. Our computational framework thereby provides a novel approach to investigate and predict the maximal productivity of phototrophic cultivation, and identifies optimal proteome allocation strategies for developing maximally productive strains. CONCLUSIONS:Our results have implications for efficient phototrophic cultivation and the design of maximally productive phototrophic cell factories. The model predicts that the use of dense cultures in well-mixed photobioreactors with short light-paths acts as an effective light dilution mechanism and alleviates the detrimental effects of photoinhibition even under very high light intensities. We recover the well-known trade-offs between a reduced light-harvesting apparatus and increased population density. Our results are discussed in the context of recent experimental efforts to increase the yield of phototrophic cultivation.
Project description:Escherichia coli strain K-12 substrain HMS174 is an engineered descendant of the E. coli K-12 wild-type strain. Like its ancestor, it is an important organism in biotechnological research and is used in fermentation processes for heterologous protein production. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of E. coli HMS174 (ATCC 47011).
Project description:Escherichia coli strain K-12 substrain RV308 is an engineered descendant of the K-12 wild-type strain. Like its ancestor, it is an important organism in biotechnological research and is heavily used for the expression of single-chain variable fragments. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of E. coli K-12 RV308 (ATCC 31608).
Project description:In 2011, nearly 4,000 people in Germany were infected by Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 with > 22% of patients developing haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). Genome sequencing showed the outbreak strain to be related to enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), suggesting its high virulence results from EAEC-typical strong adherence and biofilm formation combined to Stx production. Here, we report that the outbreak strain contains a novel diguanylate cyclase (DgcX)--producing the biofilm-promoting second messenger c-di-GMP--that shows higher expression than any other known E. coli diguanylate cyclase. Unlike closely related E. coli, the outbreak strain expresses the c-di-GMP-controlled biofilm regulator CsgD and amyloid curli fibres at 37°C, but is cellulose-negative. Moreover, it constantly generates derivatives with further increased and deregulated production of CsgD and curli. Since curli fibres are strongly proinflammatory, with cellulose counteracting this effect, high c-di-GMP and curli production by the outbreak O104:H4 strain may enhance not only adherence but may also contribute to inflammation, thereby facilitating entry of Stx into the bloodstream and to the kidneys where Stx causes HUS.
Project description:Pathways of proton entry have been identified in the proton-translocating heme-copper oxidases, but the proton exit pathway is unknown. Here we report experiments with cytochrome bo3 in Escherichia coli cells that may identify the beginning of the exit pathway. Systematic mutations of arginines 438 and 439 (R481 and R482 in the E. coli enzyme), numbering as in cytochrome aa3 from bovine heart mitochondria, which interact with the ring D propionates of the two heme groups, reveal that the D propionate of the oxygen-binding heme is involved in proton pumping; its anionic form must be stabilized in order for proton translocation to occur. This may locate the beginning of the pathway by which pumped protons exit from the enzyme structure.
Project description:In microbial electrochemical systems, transport of electrons from bacteria to an electrode is the key to its functioning. However, the roles of several electron transport proteins, especially the membrane-bound dehydrogenases which link cellular metabolism to EET pathway are yet to be identified. NDH-2 is a non-proton pumping NADH dehydrogenase located in the inner membrane of several bacteria like Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, etc. Unlike NADH dehydrogenase I, NDH-2 is not impeded by a high proton motive force thus helping in the increase of metabolic flux and carbon utilization. In the current study, NADH dehydrogenase II protein (NDH-2) was heterologously expressed from B. subtilis into E. coli BL21 (DE3) for enhancing electron flux through EET pathway and to understand its role in bioelectrogenesis. We found that E. coli expressing NDH-2 has increased the electron flux through EET and has shown a ninefold increase in current (4.7 ?A) production when compared to wild strain with empty vector (0.52 ?A). Furthermore, expression of NDH-2 also resulted in increased biofilm formation which can be corroborated with the decrease in charge transfer resistance of NDH-2 strain and increased NADH oxidation. It was also found that NDH-2 strain can reduce ferric citrate at a higher rate than wild type strain suggesting increased electron flux through electron transport chain due to NADH dehydrogenase II activity. Purified NDH-2 was found to be ?42 kDa and has FAD as a cofactor. This work demonstrates that the primary dehydrogenases like NADH dehydrogenases can be overexpressed to increase the electron flux in EET pathway which can further enhance the microbial fuel cells performance.
Project description:A subfamily of rhodopsin pigments was recently discovered in bacteria and proposed to function as dual-function light-driven H(+)/Na(+) pumps, ejecting sodium ions from cells in the presence of sodium and protons in its absence. This proposal was based primarily on light-induced proton flux measurements in suspensions of Escherichia coli cells expressing the pigments. However, because E. coli cells contain numerous proteins that mediate proton fluxes, indirect effects on proton movements involving endogenous bioenergetics components could not be excluded. Therefore, an in vitro system consisting of the purified pigment in the absence of other proteins was needed to assign the putative Na(+) and H(+) transport definitively. We expressed IAR, an uncharacterized member from Indibacter alkaliphilus in E. coli cell suspensions, and observed similar ion fluxes as reported for KR2 from Dokdonia eikasta. We purified and reconstituted IAR into large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs), and demonstrated the proton flux criteria of light-dependent electrogenic Na(+) pumping activity in vitro, namely, light-induced passive proton flux enhanced by protonophore. The proton flux was out of the LUV lumen, increasing lumenal pH. In contrast, illumination of the LUVs in a Na(+)-free suspension medium caused a decrease of lumenal pH, eliminated by protonophore. These results meet the criteria for electrogenic Na(+) transport and electrogenic H(+) transport, respectively, in the presence and absence of Na(+). The direction of proton fluxes indicated that IAR was inserted inside-out into our sealed LUV system, which we confirmed by site-directed spin-label electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. We further demonstrate that Na(+) transport by IAR requires Na(+) only on the cytoplasmic side of the protein. The in vitro LUV system proves that the dual light-driven H(+)/Na(+) pumping function of IAR is intrinsic to the single rhodopsin protein and enables study of the transport activities without perturbation by bioenergetics ion fluxes encountered in vivo.