Dysbiosis in chronic periodontitis: Key microbial players and interactions with the human host.
ABSTRACT: Periodontitis is an extremely prevalent disease worldwide and is driven by complex dysbiotic microbiota. Here we analyzed the transcriptional activity of the periodontal pocket microbiota from all domains of life as well as the human host in health and chronic periodontitis. Bacteria showed strong enrichment of 18 KEGG functional modules in chronic periodontitis, including bacterial chemotaxis, flagellar assembly, type III secretion system, type III CRISPR-Cas system, and two component system proteins. Upregulation of these functions was driven by the red-complex pathogens and candidate pathogens, e.g. Filifactor alocis, Prevotella intermedia, Fretibacterium fastidiosum and Selenomonas sputigena. Nine virulence factors were strongly up-regulated, among them the arginine deiminase arcA from Porphyromonas gingivalis and Mycoplasma arginini. Viruses and archaea accounted for about 0.1% and 0.22% of total putative mRNA reads, respectively, and a protozoan, Entamoeba gingivalis, was highly enriched in periodontitis. Fourteen human transcripts were enriched in periodontitis, including a gene for a ferric iron binding protein, indicating competition with the microbiota for iron, and genes associated with cancer, namely nucleolar phosphoprotein B23, ankyrin-repeat domain 30B-like protein and beta-enolase. The data provide evidence on the level of gene expression in vivo for the potentially severe impact of the dysbiotic microbiota on human health.
Project description:Periodontitis is associated with shifts in the balance of the subgingival microbiome. Many species that predominate in disease have not been isolated from healthy sites, raising questions as to the origin of these putative pathogens. The study aim was to determine whether periodontal pathogens could be enriched from pooled saliva, plaque and tongue samples from dentally-healthy adult volunteers using growth media that simulate nutritional aspects of the inflamed subgingival environment. The microbiome was characterised before and after enrichment using established metagenomic approaches, and the data analysed bioinformatically to identify major functional changes. After three weeks, there was a shift from an inoculum in which Streptococcus, Haemophilus, Neisseria, Veillonella and Prevotella species predominated to biofilms comprising an increased abundance of taxa implicated in periodontitis, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fretibacterium fastidiosum, Filifactor alocis, Tannerella forsythia, and several Peptostreptococcus and Treponema spp., with concomitant decreases in health-associated species. Sixty-four species were present after enrichment that were undetectable in the inoculum, including Jonquetella anthropi, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Dialister invisus. These studies support the Ecological Plaque Hypothesis, providing evidence that putative periodontopathogens are present in health at low levels, but changes to the subgingival nutritional environment increase their competitiveness and drive deleterious changes to biofilm composition.
Project description:Periodontitis is a highly prevalent polymicrobial disease worldwide, yet the synergistic pattern of the multiple oral pathogens involved is still poorly characterized. Here, saliva, supragingival and subgingival plaque samples from periodontitis patients and periodontally healthy volunteers were collected and profiled with 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Different oral habitats harbored significantly different microbiota, and segregation of microbiota composition between periodontitis and health was observed as well. Two-step redundancy analysis identified twenty-one OTUs, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Filifactor alocis, as potential pathogens that were significantly associated with periodontitis and with two periodontitis diagnostic parameters (pocket depth and attachment loss) in both saliva and supragingival plaque habitats. Interestingly, pairwise correlation analysis among the 21 OTUs revealed that Filifactor alocis was positively correlated with seven other putative pathogens (R > 0.6, P < 0.05), forming a co-occurrence group that was remarkably enriched in all three habitats of periodontitis patients. This bacterial cluster showed a higher diagnostic value for periodontitis than did any individual potential pathogens, especially in saliva. Thus, our study identified a potential synergistic ecological pattern involving eight co-infecting pathogens across various oral habitats, providing a new framework for understanding the etiology of periodontitis and developing new diagnoses and therapies.
Project description:This study compares the changes to the subgingival microbiota of individuals with "refractory" periodontitis (RP) or treatable periodontitis (good responders [GR]) before and after periodontal therapy by using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM) analysis.Individuals with chronic periodontitis were classified as RP (n = 17) based on mean attachment loss (AL) and/or >3 sites with AL ?2.5 mm after scaling and root planing, surgery, and systemically administered amoxicillin and metronidazole or as GR (n = 30) based on mean attachment gain and no sites with AL ?2.5 mm after treatment. Subgingival plaque samples were taken at baseline and 15 months after treatment and analyzed for the presence of 300 species by HOMIM analysis. Significant differences in taxa before and post-therapy were sought using the Wilcoxon test.The majority of species evaluated decreased in prevalence in both groups after treatment; however, only a small subset of organisms was significantly affected. Species that increased or persisted in high frequency in RP but were significantly reduced in GR included Bacteroidetes sp., Porphyromonas endodontalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella spp., Tannerella forsythia, Dialister spp., Selenomonas spp., Catonella morbi, Eubacterium spp., Filifactor alocis, Parvimonas micra, Peptostreptococcus sp. OT113, Fusobacterium sp. OT203, Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus, Streptococcus intermedius or Streptococcus constellatus, and Shuttlesworthia satelles. In contrast, Capnocytophaga sputigena, Cardiobacterium hominis, Gemella haemolysans, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Kingella oralis, Lautropia mirabilis, Neisseria elongata, Rothia dentocariosa, Streptococcus australis, and Veillonella spp. were more associated with therapeutic success.Persistence of putative and novel periodontal pathogens, as well as low prevalence of beneficial species was associated with chronic refractory periodontitis.
Project description:Periodontitis is a microbial-induced chronic inflammatory disease, which may not only result in tooth loss, but can also contribute to the development of various systemic diseases. The transition from healthy to diseased periodontium depends on microbial dysbiosis and impaired host immune response. Although periodontitis is a common disease as well as associated with various systemic inflammatory conditions, the taxonomic profiling of the salivary microbiota in periodontitis and its association with host immune and inflammatory mediators has not been reported. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify key pathogens and their potential interaction with the host's inflammatory mediators in saliva samples for periodontitis risk assessment. The microbial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and the levels of inflammatory mediators were performed in saliva samples from patients with chronic periodontitis and periodontally healthy control subjects. The salivary microbial community composition differed significantly between patients with chronic periodontitis and healthy controls. Our analyses identified a number of microbes, including bacteria assigned to Eubacterium saphenum, Tannerella forsythia, Filifactor alocis, Streptococcus mitis/parasanguinis, Parvimonas micra, Prevotella sp., Phocaeicola sp., and Fretibacterium sp. as more abundant in periodontitis, compared to healthy controls. In samples from healthy individuals, we identified Campylobacter concisus, and Veillonella sp. as more abundant. Integrative analysis of the microbiota and inflammatory mediators/cytokines revealed associations that included positive correlations between the pathogens Treponema sp. and Selenomas sp. and the cytokines chitinase 3-like 1, sIL-6R?, sTNF-R1, and gp130/sIL-6R?. In addition, a negative correlation was identified between IL-10 and Filifactor alocis. Our results reveal distinct and disease-specific patterns of salivary microbial composition between patients with periodontitis and healthy controls, as well as significant correlations between microbiota and host-mediated inflammatory cytokines. The positive correlations between the pathogens Treponema sp. and Selenomas sp. and the cytokines chitinase 3-like 1, sIL-6R?, sTNF-R1, and gp130/sIL-6R? might have the future potential to serve as a combined bacteria-host salivary biomarker panel for diagnosis of the chronic infectious disease periodontitis. However, further studies are required to determine the capacity of these microbes and inflammatory mediators as a salivary biomarker panel for periodontitis.
Project description:The taxonomic composition of the salivary microbiota has been reported to differentiate between oral health and disease. However, information on bacterial activity and gene expression of the salivary microbiota is limited. The purpose of this study was to perform metagenomic and metatranscriptomic characterization of the salivary microbiota and test the hypothesis that salivary microbial presence and activity could be an indicator of the oral health status. Stimulated saliva samples were collected from 30 individuals (periodontitis: n?=?10, dental caries: n?=?10, oral health: n?=?10). Salivary microbiota was characterized using metagenomics and metatranscriptomics in order to compare community composition and the gene expression between the three groups. Streptococcus was the predominant bacterial genus constituting approx. 25 and 50% of all DNA and RNA reads, respectively. A significant disease-associated higher relative abundance of traditional periodontal pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis and Filifactor alocis and salivary microbial activity of F. alocis was associated with periodontitis. Significantly higher relative abundance of caries-associated bacteria such as Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus fermentum was identified in saliva from patients with dental caries. Multiple genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were significantly more expressed in healthy controls compared to periodontitis patients. Using metagenomics and metatranscriptomics we show that relative abundance of specific oral bacterial species and bacterial gene expression in saliva associates with periodontitis and dental caries. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to evaluate if screening of salivary microbial activity of specific oral bacterial species and metabolic gene expression can identify periodontitis and dental caries at preclinical stages.
Project description:Filifactor alocis, a Gram-positive anaerobic rod, is one of the most abundant bacteria identified in the periodontal pockets of periodontitis patients. There is a gap in our understanding of its pathogenicity and ability to interact with other periodontal pathogens. To evaluate the virulence potential of F. alocis and its ability to interact with Porphyromonas gingivalis W83, several clinical isolates of F. alocis were characterized. F. alocis showed nongingipain protease and sialidase activities. In silico analysis revealed the molecular relatedness of several virulence factors from F. alocis and P. gingivalis. In contrast to P. gingivalis, F. alocis was relatively resistant to oxidative stress and its growth was stimulated under those conditions. Biofilm formation was significantly increased in coculture. There was an increase in adherence and invasion of epithelial cells in coculture compared with P. gingivalis or F. alocis monocultures. In those epithelial cells, endocytic vesicle-mediated internalization was observed only during coculture. The F. alocis clinical isolate had an increased invasive capacity in coculture with P. gingivalis compared to the ATCC 35896 strain. In addition, there was variation in the proteomes of the clinical isolates compared to the ATCC 35896 strain. Hypothetical proteins and those known to be important virulence factors in other bacteria were identified. These results indicate that F. alocis has virulence properties that may enhance its ability to survive and persist in the periodontal pocket and may play an important role in infection-induced periodontal disease.
Project description:Periodontitis is a chronic and multifactorial inflammatory disease that can lead to tooth loss. At present, the diagnosis for periodontitis is primarily based on clinical examination and radiographic parameters. Detecting the periodontal pathogens at the subgingival plaque requires skilled professionals to collect samples. Periodontal pathogens are also detected on various mucous membranes in patients with periodontitis. In this study, we characterized the oral microbiome profiles from buccal mucosa and supragingival space in a total of 272 healthy subjects as a control group, and periodontitis patients as a disease group. We identified 13 phyla, 193 genera, and 527 species and determined periodontitis-associated taxa. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticolar, Filifactor alocis, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Fretibacterium fastiosum and Peptostreptococcus species were significantly increased in both the buccal mucosa and the supragingival space in periodontitis patients. The identified eight periodontitis-associated bacterial species were clinically validated in an independent cohort. We generated the prediction model based on the oral microbiome profiles using five machine learning algorithms, and validated its capability in predicting the status of patients with periodontitis. The results showed that the oral microbiome profiles from buccal mucosa and supragingival space can represent the microbial composition of subgingival plaque and further be utilized to identify potential microbial biomarkers for the diagnosis of periodontitis. Besides, bacterial community interaction network analysis found distinct patterns associated with dysbiosis in periodontitis. In summary, we have identified oral bacterial species from buccal and supragingival sites which can predict subgingival bacterial composition and can be used for early diagnosis of periodontitis. Therefore, our study provides an important basis for developing easy and noninvasive methods to diagnose and monitor periodontitis.
Project description:This study compared the subgingival microbiota of subjects with refractory periodontitis (RP) to those in subjects with treatable periodontitis (GRs = good responders) or periodontal health (PH) using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM).At baseline, subgingival plaque samples were taken from 47 subjects with periodontitis and 20 individuals with PH and analyzed for the presence of 300 species by HOMIM. The subjects with periodontitis were classified as having RP (n = 17) based on mean attachment loss (AL) and/or more than three sites with AL >or=2.5 mm after scaling and root planing, surgery, and systemically administered amoxicillin and metronidazole or as GRs (n = 30) based on mean attachment gain and no sites with AL >or=2.5 mm after treatment. Significant differences in taxa among the groups were sought using the Kruskal-Wallis and chi(2) tests.More species were detected in patients with disease (GR or RP) than in those without disease (PH). Subjects with RP were distinguished from GRs or those with PH by a significantly higher frequency of putative periodontal pathogens, such as Parvimonas micra (previously Peptostreptococcus micros or Micromonas micros), Campylobacter gracilis, Eubacterium nodatum, Selenomonas noxia, Tannerella forsythia (previously T. forsythensis), Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella spp., Treponema spp., and Eikenella corrodens, as well as unusual species (Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus, TM7 spp. oral taxon [OT] 346/356, Bacteroidetes sp. OT 272/274, Solobacterium moorei, Desulfobulbus sp. OT 041, Brevundimonas diminuta, Sphaerocytophaga sp. OT 337, Shuttleworthia satelles, Filifactor alocis, Dialister invisus/pneumosintes, Granulicatella adiacens, Mogibacterium timidum, Veillonella atypica, Mycoplasma salivarium, Synergistes sp. cluster II, and Acidaminococcaceae [G-1] sp. OT 132/150/155/148/135) (P <0.05). Species that were more prevalent in subjects with PH than in patients with periodontitis included Actinomyces sp. OT 170, Actinomyces spp. cluster I, Capnocytophaga sputigena, Cardiobacterium hominis, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Lautropia mirabilis, Propionibacterium propionicum, Rothia dentocariosa/mucilaginosa, and Streptococcus sanguinis (P <0.05).As determined by HOMIM, patients with RP presented a distinct microbial profile compared to patients in the GR and PH groups.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:This study was conducted to evaluate the microbiomes of endodontic-periodontal lesions before and after chemomechanical preparation (CMP). METHODS:Clinical samples were taken from 15 root canals (RCs) with necrotic pulp tissues and from their associated periodontal pockets (PPs) (n = 15) of teeth with endodontic-periodontal lesions before and after CMP. The Human Oral Microbe Identification using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) protocol and viable culture were used to analyze samples from RCs and PPs. The Mann-Whitney U test and Benjamini-Hochberg corrections were performed to correlate the clinical and radiographic findings with microbial findings (P < .05). RESULTS:Bacteria were detected in 100% of the samples in both sites (15/15) using NGS. Firmicutes was the most predominant phylum in both sites using both methods. The most frequently detected species in the RCs before and after CMP using NGS were Enterococcus faecalis, Parvimonas micra, Mogibacterium timidum, Filifactor alocis, and Fretibacterium fastidiosum. The species most frequently detected in the PPs before and after CMP using NGS were P. micra, E. faecalis, Streptococcus constellatus, Eubacterium brachy, Tannerella forsythia, and F. alocis. Associations were found between periapical lesions ? 2 mm and Desulfobulbus sp oral taxon 041 and with periodontal pockets ? 6 mm and Dialister invisius and Peptostreptococcus stomatis (all P < .05, found in the RCs before CMP). CONCLUSIONS:It is concluded that the microbial community present in combined endodontic-periodontal lesions is complex and more diverse than previously reported. It is important to note that bacteria do survive in some root canals after CMP. Finally, the similarity between the microbiota of both sites, before and after CMP, suggests there may be a pathway of infection between the pulp and periodontium.
Project description:<h4>Background/objectives</h4>Periodontitis is the most prevalent inflammatory disease worldwide and is caused by a dysbiotic subgingival biofilm. Here we used metatranscriptomics to determine the functional shift from health to periodontitis, the response of individual species to dysbiosis and to discover biomarkers.<h4>Methods</h4>Sixteen individuals were studied, from which six were diagnosed with chronic periodontitis. Illumina sequencing of the total messenger RNA (mRNA) yielded ~42 million reads per sample. A total of 324 human oral taxon phylotypes and 366,055 open reading frames from the HOMD database reference genomes were detected.<h4>Results</h4>The transcriptionally active community shifted from Bacilli and Actinobacteria in health to Bacteroidia, Deltaproteobacteria, Spirochaetes and Synergistetes in periodontitis. Clusters of orthologous groups (COGs) related to carbohydrate transport and catabolism dominated in health, whereas protein degradation and amino acid catabolism dominated in disease. The LEfSe, random forest and support vector machine methods were applied to the 2,000 most highly expressed genes and discovered the three best functional biomarkers, namely haem binding protein HmuY from <i>Porphyromonas gingivalis</i>, flagellar filament core protein FlaB3 from <i>Treponema denticola</i>, and repeat protein of unknown function from <i>Filifactor alocis.</i> They predicted the diagnosis correctly for 14 from 16 individuals, and when applied to an independent study misclassified one out of six subjects only. <i>Prevotella nigrescens</i> shifted from commensalism to virulence by upregulating the expression of metalloproteases and the haem transporter. Expression of genes for the synthesis of the cytotoxic short-chain fatty acid butyrate was observed by <i>Fusobacterium nucleatum</i> under all conditions. Four additional species contributed to butyrate synthesis in periodontitis and they used an additional pathway.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Gene biomarkers of periodontitis are highly predictive. The pro-inflammatory role of <i>F. nucelatum</i> is not related to butyrate synthesis.