Early-onset primary antibody deficiency resembling common variable immunodeficiency challenges the diagnosis of Wiedeman-Steiner and Roifman syndromes.
ABSTRACT: Syndromic primary immunodeficiencies are rare genetic disorders that affect both the immune system and other organ systems. More often, the immune defect is not the major clinical problem and is sometimes only recognized after a diagnosis has been made based on extra-immunological abnormalities. Here, we report two sibling pairs with syndromic primary immunodeficiencies that exceptionally presented with a phenotype resembling early-onset common variable immunodeficiency, while extra-immunological characteristics were not apparent at that time. Additional features not typically associated with common variable immunodeficiency were diagnosed only later, including skeletal and organ anomalies and mild facial dysmorphism. Whole exome sequencing revealed KMT2A-associated Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome in one sibling pair and their mother. In the other sibling pair, targeted testing of the known disease gene for Roifman syndrome (RNU4ATAC) provided a definite diagnosis. With this study, we underline the importance of an early-stage and thorough genetic assessment in paediatric patients with a common variable immunodeficiency phenotype, to establish a conclusive diagnosis and guide patient management. In addition, this study extends the mutational and immunophenotypical spectrum of Wiedemann-Steiner and Roifman syndromes and highlights potential directions for future pathophysiological research.
Project description:Roifman syndrome (OMIM# 616651) is a complex syndrome encompassing skeletal dysplasia, immunodeficiency, retinal dystrophy and developmental delay, and is caused by compound heterozygous mutations involving the Stem II region and one of the other domains of the RNU4ATAC gene. This small nuclear RNA gene is essential for minor intron splicing. The Canadian Centre for Primary Immunodeficiency Registry and Repository were used to derive patient information as well as tissues. Utilising RNA sequencing methodologies, we analysed samples from patients with Roifman syndrome and assessed intron retention. We demonstrate that a homozygous mutation in Stem II is sufficient to cause the full spectrum of features associated with typical Roifman syndrome. Further, we demonstrate the same pattern of aberration in minor intron retention as found in cases with compound heterozygous mutations.
Project description:Roifman Syndrome is a rare congenital disorder characterized by growth retardation, cognitive delay, spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia and antibody deficiency. Here we utilize whole-genome sequencing of Roifman Syndrome patients to reveal compound heterozygous rare variants that disrupt highly conserved positions of the RNU4ATAC small nuclear RNA gene, a minor spliceosome component that is essential for minor intron splicing. Targeted sequencing confirms allele segregation in six cases from four unrelated families. RNU4ATAC rare variants have been recently reported to cause microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism, type I (MOPD1), whose phenotype is distinct from Roifman Syndrome. Strikingly, all six of the Roifman Syndrome cases have one variant that overlaps MOPD1-implicated structural elements, while the other variant overlaps a highly conserved structural element not previously implicated in disease. RNA-seq analysis confirms extensive and specific defects of minor intron splicing. Available allele frequency data suggest that recessive genetic disorders caused by RNU4ATAC rare variants may be more prevalent than previously reported.
Project description:RNU4ATAC pathogenic variants to date have been associated with microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism, type 1 and Roifman syndrome. Both conditions are clinically distinct skeletal dysplasias with microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism, type 1 having a more severe phenotype than Roifman syndrome. Some of the overlapping features of the two conditions include developmental delay, microcephaly, and immune deficiency. The features also overlap with Lowry Wood syndrome, another rare but well-defined skeletal dysplasia for which the genetic etiology has not been identified. Characteristic features include multiple epiphyseal dysplasia and microcephaly. Here, we describe three patients with Lowry Wood syndrome with biallelic RNU4ATAC pathogenic variants. This report expands the phenotypic spectrum for biallelic RNU4ATAC disorder causing variants and is the first to establish the genetic cause for Lowry Wood syndrome.
Project description:Compound heterozygosity of a previously described pathogenic variant and a second novel nucleotide substitution (NR_023343.1:n.116A>C) affecting a highly conserved nucleotide in the noncoding RNU4ATAC gene could be identified in a patient with overlapping features of Roifman Syndrome. These data extend the spectrum of pathogenic variants in RNU4ATAC.
Project description:The syndromic primary immunodeficiencies are disorders in which not only the immune system but also other organ systems are affected. Other features most commonly involve the ectodermal, skeletal, nervous, and gastrointestinal systems. Key in identifying syndromic immunodeficiencies is the awareness that increased susceptibility to infections or immune dysregulation in a patient known to have other symptoms or special features may hint at an underlying genetic syndrome. Because the extraimmune clinical features can be highly variable, it is more difficult establishing the correct diagnosis. Nevertheless, correct diagnosis at an early age is important because of the possible treatment options. Therefore, diagnostic work-up is best performed in a center with extensive expertise in this field, having immunologists and clinical geneticists, as well as adequate support from a specialized laboratory at hand. This paper provides the general pediatrician with the main clinical features that are crucial for the recognition of these syndromes.
Project description:Case Description:We report the case of a one-year-old girl who was diagnosed with Wiedemann-Steiner Syndrome based on the identification of a novel de novo frameshift mutation in the KMT2A gene by whole exome sequencing and supported by her clinical features. Clinical Findings:KMT2A mutations cause Wiedemann-Steiner Syndrome, a very rare genetic disorder characterized by congenital hypertrichosis, short stature, intellectual disability, and distinct facial features. Treatment and Outcome:Whole exome sequencing identified a novel frameshift variant: c. 4177dupA (p.Ile1393Asnfs * 14) in KMT2A; this change generates an alteration of the specific binding to non-methylated CpG motifs of the DNA to the protein. The genotype and phenotype of the patient were compared with those of earlier reported patients in the literature. Clinical Relevance:In diseases with low frequency, it is necessary to establish a genotype-phenotype correlation that allows the establishment of therapeutic and follow-up goals. The phenotype comparation with other reported cases did not show differences attributable to sex or age among patients with Wiedemann-Steiner Syndrome. Whole exome sequencing allows identifying causality in conditions with high clinical and genetic heterogeneity like hypertrichosis.
Project description:Excessive growth of terminal hair around the elbows (hypertrichosis cubiti) has been reported both in isolation and in association with a variable spectrum of associated phenotypic features. We identified a cohort of six individuals with hypertrichosis cubiti associated with short stature, intellectual disability, and a distinctive facial appearance, consistent with a diagnosis of Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome (WSS). Utilizing a whole-exome sequencing approach, we identified de novo mutations in MLL in five of the six individuals. MLL encodes a histone methyltransferase that regulates chromatin-mediated transcription through the catalysis of methylation of histone H3K4. Each of the five mutations is predicted to result in premature termination of the protein product. Furthermore, we demonstrate that transcripts arising from the mutant alleles are subject to nonsense-mediated decay. These findings define the genetic basis of WSS, provide additional evidence for the role of haploinsufficency of histone-modification enzymes in multiple-congenital-anomaly syndromes, and further illustrate the importance of the regulation of histone modification in development.
Project description:Histone H3 lysine 4 methylation (H3K4me) is extensively regulated by numerous writer and eraser enzymes in mammals. Nine H3K4me enzymes are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders to date, indicating their important roles in the brain. However, interplay among H3K4me enzymes during brain development remains largely unknown. Here, we show functional interactions of a writer-eraser duo, KMT2A and KDM5C, which are responsible for Wiedemann-Steiner Syndrome (WDSTS), and mental retardation X-linked syndromic Claes-Jensen type (MRXSCJ), respectively. Despite opposite enzymatic activities, the two mouse models deficient for either Kmt2a or Kdm5c shared reduced dendritic spines and increased aggression. Double mutation of Kmt2a and Kdm5c clearly reversed dendritic morphology, key behavioral traits including aggression, and partially corrected altered transcriptomes and H3K4me landscapes. Thus, our study uncovers common yet mutually suppressive aspects of the WDSTS and MRXSCJ models and provides a proof of principle for balancing a single writer-eraser pair to ameliorate their associated disorders.
Project description:Variants in KMT2A, encoding the histone methyltransferase KMT2A, are a growing cause of intellectual disability (ID). Up to now, the majority of KMT2A variants are non-sense and frameshift variants causing a typical form of Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome. We studied KMT2A gene in a cohort of 200 patients with unexplained syndromic and non-syndromic ID and identified four novel variants, one splice and three missense variants, possibly deleterious. We used primary cells from the patients and molecular approaches to determine the deleterious effects of those variants on KMT2A expression and function. For the putative splice variant c.11322-1G>A, we showed that it led to only one nucleotide deletion and loss of the C-terminal part of the protein. For two studied KMT2A missense variants, c.3460C>T (p.(Arg1154Trp)) and c.8558T>G (p.(Met2853Arg)), located at the cysteine-rich CXXC domain and the transactivation domain of the protein, respectively, we found altered KMT2A target genes expression in patient's fibroblasts compared to controls. Furthermore, we found a disturbed subcellular distribution of KMT2A for the c.3460C>T mutant. Taken together, our results demonstrated the deleterious impact of the splice variant and of the missense variants located at two different functional domains and suggested reduction of KMT2A function as the disease-causing mechanism.