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Risk Factors, Prophylaxis, and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism in Congenital Heart Disease Patients.

ABSTRACT: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a common condition in the pediatric population, affecting up to 1% of all live births (i.e., around 40,000 newborns/year in the United States). Although CHD does have a wide range of severity, by the age of 5 years approximately 80% of patients will require at least one surgical intervention to achieve a complete/palliative cardiac repair. Today, in light of their much-improved surgical survival, the care of these patients focuses on morbidity prevention and/or treatment. One such morbidity has been the increased frequency of thrombotic occlusions [e.g., cardioembolic arterial ischemic strokes; arterial, cardiac, and/or newly created shunt thrombosis; venous thromboembolism (VTE)]. Patients with CHD are at high risk of developing thrombosis due to the disruption of blood flow, CHD-related coagulopathy, inflammation, and/or platelet activation secondary to extracorporeal circulation support required during open-heart surgery or as a bridge to recovery, which can increase thrombus formation. In this article, we will discuss how the coagulation system is altered in patients with CHD in regard to the patient's anatomy, procedures they undergo to correct their congenital heart defect, and other risk factors that may increase their thrombotic risk, focusing on VTE. We will also discuss the most recently published reports pertaining to guidelines on prophylaxis and treatment of VTE in this population. Finally, we will briefly address the long-term VTE outcomes for patients with CHD.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC5476169 | BioStudies | 2017-01-01


REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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