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Uptake, biotransformation and elimination of selected pharmaceuticals in a freshwater invertebrate measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.


ABSTRACT: Methods were developed to assess uptake and elimination kinetics in Gammarus pulex of nine pharmaceuticals (sulfamethazine, carbamazepine, diazepam, temazepam, trimethoprim, warfarin, metoprolol, nifedipine and propranolol) using targeted LC-MS/MS to determine bioconcentration factors (BCFs) using a 96 h toxicokinetic exposure and depuration period. The derived BCFs for these pharmaceuticals did not trigger any regulatory thresholds and ranged from 0 to 73 L kg-1 (sulfamethazine showed no bioconcentration). Metabolism of chemicals can affect accurate BCF determination through parameterisation of the kinetic models. The added selectivity of LC-MS/MS allowed us to develop confirmatory methods to monitor the biotransformation of propranolol, carbamazepine and diazepam in G. pulex. Varying concentrations of the biotransformed products; 4-hydroxypropranolol sulphate, carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide, nordiazepam, oxazepam and temazepam were measured following exposure of the precursor compounds. For diazepam, the biotransformation product nordiazepam was present at higher concentrations than the parent compound at 94 ng g-1 dw. Overall, the results indicate that pharmaceutical accumulation is low in these freshwater amphipods, which can potentially be explained by the rapid biotransformation and excretion.

SUBMITTER: Miller TH 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC5476196 | BioStudies | 2017-01-01T00:00:00Z

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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