Stereoselective synthesis of protected l- and d-dideoxysugars and analogues via Prins cyclisations.
ABSTRACT: A de novo approach for the rapid construction of orthogonally protected l- and d-deoxysugars and analogues is described. A novel and robust silicon-acetal undergoes Prins cyclisations with a series of homoallylic alcohols in high yield and excellent stereocontrol. Modified Tamao-Fleming oxidation of the resulting silyltetrahydropyrans gives direct access to deoxyglycoside analogues and the approach was showcased in the synthesis of protected l-oliose, a component of the anticancer agent aclacinomycin A.
Project description:Combinatorial biosynthesis was applied to Streptomyces deoxysugar biosynthesis genes in order to reconstitute "unnatural natural gene clusters" for the biosynthesis of four D-deoxysugars (D-olivose, D-oliose, D-digitoxose, and D-boivinose). Expression of these gene clusters in Streptomyces albus 16F4 was used to prove the functionality of the designed clusters through the generation of glycosylated tetracenomycins. Three glycosylated tetracenomycins were generated and characterized, two of which (D-digitoxosyl-tetracenomycin C and D-boivinosyl-tetracenocmycin C) were novel compounds. The constructed gene clusters may be used to increase the capabilities of microorganisms to synthesize new deoxysugars and therefore to produce new glycosylated bioactive compounds.
Project description:A highly diastereoselective synthesis of N-acetyl dihydrotetrafibricin methyl ester (34) is described. The synthesis features three enantioselective double allylboration reactions and an intramolecular hydrosilylation/Fleming-Tamao oxidation sequence to establish seven of the hydroxy-bearing stereocenters of 34. Especially noteworthy is the fragment-assembly double allyboration reaction of 2 and 7 using reagent 3, which provides the advanced intermediate 6 with >20:1 diastereoselectivity.
Project description:The synthesis and intramolecular Diels-Alder reactions of trienes 5 and 6 with a siloxacyclopentene-constrained dienophile are described. These reactions provide the primary cycloadducts 7 and 8 with high diastereoselectivity. These cycloadducts possess trans-relationships between the ring fusion proton and the adjacent C(1) alkoxy group and can be further elaborated to alcohols 9 and 11 (via protiodesilylation) or to 10 and 12 (via Fleming-Tamao oxidation) depending on the substitutent R.
Project description:Hydrosilyl ethers, generated in situ by the dehydrogenative silylation of cyclopropylmethanols with diethylsilane, undergo asymmetric, intramolecular silylation of cyclopropyl C-H bonds in high yields and with high enantiomeric excesses in the presence of a rhodium catalyst derived from a rhodium precursor and the bisphosphine (S)-DTBM-SEGPHOS. The resulting enantioenriched oxasilolanes are suitable substrates for the Tamao-Fleming oxidation to form cyclopropanols with conservation of the ee value from the C-H silylation. Preliminary mechanistic data suggest that C-H cleavage is likely to be the turnover-limiting and enantioselectivity-determining step.
Project description:We report the silylation of primary C-H bonds located ? to secondary and tertiary alcohols by exploiting perfluorinated esters as traceless directing groups. The conversion of a secondary or tertiary alcohol to a perfluoroalkyl ester and conversion of the ester to the corresponding silyl acetals by hydrosilylation allows for selective ?-C(sp3)-H silylation catalyzed by the combination of [Ir(cod)OMe]2 and Me4Phen (3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline) to form 6-membered dioxasilinane. Tamao-Fleming oxidation of these dioxasilinane leads to 1,2 diols. The developed sequence was applied to a series of natural products containing hydroxyl groups.
Project description:Terpenes constitute the largest class of natural products and serve as an important source for medicinal treatments. Despite constant progress in chemical synthesis, the construction of complex polycyclic sesqui- and diterpene scaffolds remains challenging. Natural cyclase enzymes, however, are able to form the whole variety of terpene structures from just a handful of linear precursors. Man-made catalysts able to mimic such natural enzymes are lacking. Here, we describe the examples of sesquiterpene cyclisations inside an enzyme-mimicking supramolecular catalyst. This strategy allowed the formation of the tricyclic sesquiterpene isolongifolene in only four steps. The mechanism of the catalysed cyclisation reaction was elucidated using 13C-labelling studies and DFT calculations.
Project description:The Prins reaction was investigated using BF?.OEt? as a Lewis acid. It has been recently demonstrated, that if BF?.OEt? is used in stoichiometric amounts then these reactions generate fluorinated products where the BF?.OEt? contributes fluoride ion to quench the intermediate carbocations. In this study oxa- and aza-Prins reactions for the synthesis of 4-fluoro-pyrans and -piperidines were investigated. The products were obtained in good yields, but only with moderate diastereoselectivity. These Prins fluorination reactions can be accelerated under microwave conditions. The study extends the Prins fluorination methodology for the generation of the C-F bond in heterocycles.
Project description:A strategy for the ortho-silylation of aryl ketone, benzaldehyde, and benzyl alcohol derivatives has been developed in which a hydroxyl group formally serves as the directing element for Ir-catalyzed arene C-H bond activation. One-pot generation of a (hydrido)silyl ether from the carbonyl compound or alcohol is followed by dehydrogenative cyclization at 80-100 °C in the presence of norbornene as a hydrogen acceptor and the combination of 1 mol % [Ir(cod)OMe]2 and 1,10-phenanthroline as a catalyst to form benzoxasiloles. The synthetic utility of the benzoxasilole products is demonstrated by conversion to phenol or biaryl derivatives by Tamao-Fleming oxidation or Hiyama cross-coupling. Both of these transformations of the C-H silylation products exploit the Si-O bond in the system and proceed by activation of the silyl moiety with hydroxide, rather than fluoride.
Project description:Exposure of alcohols 2a-2j to 2-silyl-butadienes in the presence of ruthenium complexes modified by (R)-SEGPHOS or (R)-DM-SEGPHOS results in redox-triggered generation of allylruthenium-aldehyde pairs, which combine to form products of carbonyl crotylation 4a-4j in the absence of stoichiometric byproducts and with high levels of syn-diastereo- and enantioselectivity. In the presence of isopropanol under otherwise identical conditions, aldehydes 3a-3j are converted to an equivalent set of adducts 4a-4j. Whereas reactions conducted using conventional heating require 48 h, microwave irradiation enables full conversion in only 4 h. Finally, as illustrated in the conversion of adduct 4a to compounds 6a and 6b, diastereoselective hydroboration-Suzuki cross-coupling with aryl and vinyl halides followed by Fleming-Tamao oxidation enables generation of anti,syn-stereotriads found in numerous polyketide natural products.
Project description:The Baeyer-Villiger reaction is used extensively in organic chemistry. Sila- and bora-variants have also been documented widely, with these processes underpinning, for example, the Fleming-Tamao oxidation and hydroborative alkene hydration, respectively. By contrast, the development of thia-Baeyer-Villiger reactions involving sulfoxides has long been considered unlikely because competitive oxidation to the sulfone occurs exclusively. Here, we disclose a photoinduced thia-Baeyer-Villiger-type oxidations; specifically, we find that exposure of dibenzothiophene (DBT) derivatives to an iron porphyrin catalyst under Ultraviolet irradiation in the presence of t-BuOOH generates sulfinic esters in up to 87% yield. The produced sulfinic esters are transformed to a variety of biphenyl substrates including biphenyl sulfoxides, sulfones and sulfonamides in 1-2 steps. These results provide a mild process for the selective functionalization of sulfur compounds, and offer a biomimetic approach to convert DBT into 2-hydroxybiphenyl under controllable stepwise pathway. Based upon experimental evidences and DFT calculation, a mechanism is proposed.