Complete Genome Sequence of the Autotrophic Acetogen Clostridium formicaceticum DSM 92T Using Nanopore and Illumina Sequencing Data.
ABSTRACT: Here, we report the closed genome sequence of Clostridium formicaceticum, an Rnf- and cytochrome-containing autotrophic acetogen that is able to convert carbon monoxide to acetate using the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. The genome consists of a circular chromosome (4.59 Mb).
Project description:Here, we report the closed genome sequence of Clostridium aceticum, an Rnf- and cytochrome-containing autotrophic acetogen that is able to convert CO2 and H2 to acetate using the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. The genome consists of a circular chromosome (4.2 Mbp) and a small circular plasmid (5.7 kbp).
Project description:Here we report the draft genome sequence (6.6 Mbp) of the type strain Clostridium magnum, an acetogen with two operons coding for two separate Rnf complexes. C. magnum grows on a broad range of organic substrates and converts CO2 and H2 to acetate using the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway.
Project description:Clostridium autoethanogenum is an anaerobic, autotrophic acetogen that is capable of converting CO and CO2 into ethanol and acetate. Here we report the draft genome sequence of C. autoethanogenum JA1-1 strain DSM 10061 (4.5 Mbp; G+C content, 37.5%) and the findings obtained from annotation of the genome sequence.
Project description:The Wood-Ljungdahl pathway in acetogens converts C1 compounds, such as CO2 and CO, into acetyl-CoA. Similarly, the glycine synthase pathway assimilates C1 compounds into glycine. Partial glycine synthase genes are widely conserved in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway gene cluster but functional relationship between the pathways in autotrophic condition remains unknown. To comprehend, we assembled Clostridium drakei genome (5.7-Mbp) with intact glycine synthase pathway and constructed a genome-scale metabolic model, iSL836, predicting increased metabolic flux rates of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and the glycine synthase-reductase associated reactions under autotrophic conditions. Along with the observation of significant transcriptional activation of genes in the pathways, surprisingly, 13C-labeling experiments and enzyme activity assays confirmed the strain synthesizes glycine and converts into acetyl-phosphate. This study suggests the Wood-Ljungdahl and the glycine synthase-reductase pathways convert CO2 into acetyl-CoA and acetyl-phosphate, respectively. In our knowledge, this is the first report on co-utilization of the pathways under autotrophic growth in acetogen. Overall design: Profile of whole transcripts of Clostridium drakei generated by deep sequencing using Miseq
Project description:UNLABELLED: It has been predicted that the Rnf complex of Clostridium ljungdahlii is a proton-translocating ferredoxin:NAD(+) oxidoreductase which contributes to ATP synthesis by an H(+)-translocating ATPase under both autotrophic and heterotrophic growth conditions. The recent development of methods for genetic manipulation of C. ljungdahlii made it possible to evaluate the possible role of the Rnf complex in energy conservation. Disruption of the C. ljungdahlii rnf operon inhibited autotrophic growth. ATP synthesis, proton gradient, membrane potential, and proton motive force collapsed in the Rnf-deficient mutant with H(2) as the electron source and CO(2) as the electron acceptor. Heterotrophic growth was hindered in the absence of a functional Rnf complex, as ATP synthesis, proton gradient, and proton motive force were significantly reduced with fructose as the electron donor. Growth of the Rnf-deficient mutant was also inhibited when no source of fixed nitrogen was provided. These results demonstrate that the Rnf complex of C. ljungdahlii is responsible for translocation of protons across the membrane to elicit energy conservation during acetogenesis and is a multifunctional device also implicated in nitrogen fixation. IMPORTANCE: Mechanisms for energy conservation in the acetogen Clostridium ljungdahlii are of interest because of its potential value as a chassis for the production of biocommodities with novel electron donors such as carbon monoxide, syngas, and electrons derived from electrodes. Characterizing the components implicated in the chemiosmotic ATP synthesis during acetogenesis by C. ljungdahlii is a prerequisite for the development of highly productive strains. The Rnf complex has been considered the prime candidate to be the pump responsible for the formation of an ion gradient coupled with ATP synthesis in multiple acetogens. However, experimental evidence for a proton-pumping Rnf complex has been lacking. This study establishes the C. ljungdahlii Rnf complex as a proton-translocating ferredoxin:NAD(+) oxidoreductase and demonstrates that C. ljungdahlii has the potential of becoming a model organism to study proton translocation, electron transport, and other functions of the Rnf complex in energy conservation or other processes.
Project description:Acetogens are obligate anaerobic bacteria capable of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) to multicarbon compounds coupled to the oxidation of inorganic substrates, such as hydrogen (H2) or carbon monoxide (CO), via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. Owing to the metabolic capability of CO2 fixation, much attention has been focused on understanding the unique pathways associated with acetogens, particularly their metabolic coupling of CO2 fixation to energy conservation. Most known acetogens are phylogenetically and metabolically diverse bacteria present in 23 different bacterial genera. With the increased volume of available genome information, acetogenic bacterial genomes can be analyzed by comparative genome analysis. Even with the genetic diversity that exists among acetogens, the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, a central metabolic pathway, and cofactor biosynthetic pathways are highly conserved for autotrophic growth. Additionally, comparative genome analysis revealed that most genes in the acetogen-specific core genome were associated with the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. The conserved enzymes and those predicted as missing can provide insight into biological differences between acetogens and allow for the discovery of promising candidates for industrial applications.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Clostridium aceticum was the first isolated autotrophic acetogen, converting CO2 plus H2 or syngas to acetate. Its genome has now been completely sequenced and consists of a 4.2-Mbp chromosome and a small circular plasmid of 5.7 kbp. Sequence analysis revealed major differences from other autotrophic acetogens. C. aceticum contains an Rnf complex for energy conservation (via pumping protons or sodium ions). Such systems have also been found in C. ljungdahlii and Acetobacterium woodii. However, C. aceticum also contains a cytochrome, as does Moorella thermoacetica, which has been proposed to be involved in the generation of a proton gradient. Thus, C. aceticum seems to represent a link between Rnf- and cytochrome-containing autotrophic acetogens. In C. aceticum, however, the cytochrome is probably not involved in an electron transport chain that leads to proton translocation, as no genes for quinone biosynthesis are present in the genome. IMPORTANCE:Autotrophic acetogenic bacteria are receiving more and more industrial focus, as CO2 plus H2 as well as syngas are interesting new substrates for biotechnological processes. They are both cheap and abundant, and their use, if it results in sustainable products, also leads to reduction of greenhouse gases. Clostridium aceticum can use both gas mixtures, is phylogenetically not closely related to the commonly used species, and may thus become an even more attractive workhorse. In addition, its energy metabolism, which is characterized here, and the ability to synthesize cytochromes might offer new targets for improving the ATP yield by metabolic engineering and thus allow use of C. aceticum for production of compounds by pathways that currently present challenges for energy-limited acetogens.
Project description:Among CO2-fixing metabolic pathways in nature, the linear Wood-Ljungdahl pathway (WLP) in phylogenetically diverse acetate-forming acetogens comprises the most energetically efficient pathway, requires the least number of reactions, and converts CO2 to formate and then into acetyl-CoA. Despite two genes encoding glycine synthase being well-conserved in WLP gene clusters, the functional role of glycine synthase under autotrophic growth conditions has remained uncertain. Here, using the reconstructed genome-scale metabolic model iSL771 based on the completed genome sequence, transcriptomics, 13C isotope-based metabolite-tracing experiments, biochemical assays, and heterologous expression of the pathway in another acetogen, we discovered that the WLP and the glycine synthase pathway are functionally interconnected to fix CO2, subsequently converting CO2 into acetyl-CoA, acetyl-phosphate, and serine. Moreover, the functional cooperation of the pathways enhances CO2 consumption and cellular growth rates via bypassing reducing power required reactions for cellular metabolism during autotrophic growth of acetogens.
Project description:Acetogens are efficient microbial catalysts for bioprocesses converting C1 compounds into organic products. Here, an adaptive laboratory evolution approach was implemented to adapt Sporomusa ovata for faster autotrophic metabolism and CO2 conversion to organic chemicals. S. ovata was first adapted to grow quicker autotrophically with methanol, a toxic C1 compound, as the sole substrate. Better growth on different concentrations of methanol and with H2-CO2 indicated the adapted strain had a more efficient autotrophic metabolism and a higher tolerance to solvent. The growth rate on methanol was increased 5-fold. Furthermore, acetate production rate from CO2 with an electrode serving as the electron donor was increased 6.5-fold confirming that the acceleration of the autotrophic metabolism of the adapted strain is independent of the electron donor provided. Whole-genome sequencing, transcriptomic, and biochemical studies revealed that the molecular mechanisms responsible for the novel characteristics of the adapted strain were associated with the methanol oxidation pathway and the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway of acetogens along with biosynthetic pathways, cell wall components, and protein chaperones. The results demonstrate that an efficient strategy to increase rates of CO2 conversion in bioprocesses like microbial electrosynthesis is to evolve the microbial catalyst by adaptive laboratory evolution to optimize its autotrophic metabolism.
Project description:Acetogens can fix carbon (CO or CO2) into acetyl-CoA via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway (WLP) that also makes them attractive cell factories for the production of fuels and chemicals from waste feedstocks. Although most biochemical details of the WLP are well understood and systems-level characterization of acetogen metabolism has recently improved, key transcriptional features such as promoter motifs and transcriptional regulators are still unknown in acetogens. Here, we use differential RNA-sequencing to identify a previously undescribed promoter motif associated with essential genes for autotrophic growth of the model-acetogen Clostridium autoethanogenum. RNA polymerase was shown to bind to the new promoter motif using a DNA-binding protein assay and proteomics enabled the discovery of four candidates to potentially function directly in control of transcription of the WLP and other key genes of C1 fixation metabolism. Next, in vivo experiments showed that a TetR-family transcriptional regulator (CAETHG_0459) and the housekeeping sigma factor (?A) activate expression of a reporter protein (GFP) in-frame with the new promoter motif from a fusion vector in Escherichia coli. Lastly, a protein-protein interaction assay with the RNA polymerase (RNAP) shows that CAETHG_0459 directly binds to the RNAP. Together, the data presented here advance the fundamental understanding of transcriptional regulation of C1 fixation in acetogens and provide a strategy for improving the performance of gas-fermenting bacteria by genetic engineering.