Examination of the interpersonal model of loss of control eating in the laboratory.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The interpersonal model of loss of control (LOC) eating proposes that interpersonal problems lead to negative affect, which in turn contributes to the onset and/or persistence of LOC eating. Despite preliminary support, there are no data examining the construct validity of the interpersonal model of LOC eating using temporally sensitive reports of social stress, distinct negative affective states, and laboratory energy intake. METHOD:117 healthy adolescent girls (BMI: 75th-97th %ile) were recruited for a prevention trial targeting excess weight gain in adolescent girls who reported LOC eating. Prior to the intervention, participants completed questionnaires of recent social stress and consumed lunch from a multi-item laboratory test meal. Immediately before the test meal, participants completed a questionnaire of five negative affective states (anger, confusion, depression, fatigue, anxiety). Bootstrapping mediation models were conducted to evaluate pre-meal negative affect states as explanatory mediators of the association between recent social stress and palatable (desserts and snack-type) food intake. All analyses adjusted for age, race, pubertal stage, height, fat mass percentage, and lean mass. RESULTS:Pre-meal state anxiety was a significant mediator for recent social stress and palatable food intake (ps<.05). By contrast, pre-meal state anger, confusion, depression, and fatigue did not mediate the relationship between social stress and palatable food intake (ps>.05). DISCUSSION:Pre-meal anxiety appears to be the salient mood state for the interpersonal model among adolescent girls with LOC eating. Interventions that focus on improving both social functioning and anxiety may prove most effective at preventing and/or ameliorating disordered eating and obesity in these adolescents.
Project description:The interpersonal model of loss of control (LOC) eating proposes that socially distressing situations lead to anxious states that trigger excessive food consumption. Self-reports support these links, but the neurobiological underpinnings of these relationships remain unclear. We therefore examined brain regions associated with anxiety in relation to LOC eating and energy intake in the laboratory. Twenty-two overweight and obese (BMIz: 1.9±0.4) adolescent (15.8±1.6y) girls with LOC eating (LOC+, n=10) and without LOC eating (LOC-, n=12) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a simulated peer interaction chatroom paradigm. Immediately after the fMRI scan, girls consumed lunch ad libitum from a 10,934-kcal laboratory buffet meal with the instruction to "let yourself go and eat as much as you want." Pre-specified hypotheses regarding activation of five regions of interest were tested. Analysis of fMRI data revealed a significant group by peer feedback interaction in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), such that LOC+ had less activity following peer rejection (vs. acceptance), while LOC- had increased activity (p<.005). Moreover, functional coupling between vmPFC and striatum for peer rejection (vs. acceptance) interacted with LOC status: coupling was positive for LOC+, but negative in LOC- (p<.005). Activity of fusiform face area (FFA) during negative peer feedback from high-value peers also interacted with LOC status (p<.005). A positive association between FFA activation and intake during the meal was observed among only those with LOC eating. In conclusion, overweight and obese girls with LOC eating may be distinguished by a failure to engage regions of prefrontal cortex implicated in emotion regulation in response to social distress. The relationship between FFA activation and food intake supports the notion that heightened sensitivity to incoming interpersonal cues and perturbations in socio-emotional neural circuits may lead to overeating in order to cope with negative affect elicited by social discomfort in susceptible youth.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Momentary negative affect (NA) has been shown to predict eating patterns in the laboratory, yet, more stable mood states have not been studied in relation to eating patterns in the laboratory among youth at high risk for binge-eating disorder and obesity.<h4>Method</h4>One-hundred-eight adolescent girls (14.5 ± 1.7 years) with BMI between the 75th-97th percentile who reported loss-of-control (LOC)-eating completed measures of trait anxiety and depressive symptoms. Food-intake patterns were measured from a laboratory test meal (9,385 kcal). Latent factor analysis of depressive symptoms and trait anxiety was used to compute latent trait NA. Multivariate general linear models predicted total energy, snacks, and macronutrient intake from trait NA, adjusting for age, race, height, lean-mass, and percentage fat-mass.<h4>Results</h4>Trait NA was significantly positively related to total energy-intake, and, specifically, snacks, sweet snacks, and percentage sweet fats (ps ≤ .03), and negatively related to percentage protein consumed (p = .04).<h4>Discussion</h4>Expanding on affect theory, trait NA may relate to palatable food-intake among girls with LOC-eating. Further data are needed to determine whether those with LOC-eating and trait NA are at heightened risk for the development of binge-eating disorder and obesity.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Loss of control (LOC) eating in youth predicts excessive weight gain. However, few studies have measured the actual energy intake of children reporting LOC eating.<h4>Objective</h4>The objective was to characterize the energy intake and macronutrient composition of "normal" and "binge" laboratory meals in nonoverweight and overweight boys and girls with LOC eating.<h4>Design</h4>Children aged 8-17 y (n = 177) consumed 2 lunchtime meals ad libitum from a multi-item food array after being instructed to either binge eat (binge meal) or to eat normally (normal meal). Prior LOC eating was determined with a semistructured clinical interview.<h4>Results</h4>Participants consumed more energy at the binge meal than at the normal meal (P = 0.001). Compared with youth with no LOC episodes (n = 127), those reporting LOC (n = 50) did not consume more energy at either meal. However, at both meals, youth with LOC consumed a greater percentage of calories from carbohydrates and a smaller percentage from protein than did those without LOC (P < 0.05). Children with LOC ate more snack and dessert-type foods and less meats and dairy (P < 0.05). LOC participants also reported greater increases in postmeal negative affect at both meals than did those without LOC (P < or = 0.05). Secondary analyses restricted to overweight and obese girls found that those with LOC consumed more energy at the binge meal (P = 0.025).<h4>Conclusions</h4>When presented with an array of foods, youth with LOC consumed more high-calorie snack and dessert-type foods than did those without LOC. Further research is required to determine whether habitual consumption of such foods may promote overweight. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00320177.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Military adolescent boys report similar levels of disordered-eating as their female counterparts. Yet, interventions for the prevention of full-threshold eating disorders in adolescent boys are lacking. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), an evidenced-based therapy adapted for the prevention of BED and adult obesity, has been studied in adolescent girls, but it is unclear whether IPT might resonate with adolescent boys.<h4>Method</h4>The current case study elucidates the use of a 12-week IPT group intervention for the prevention of BED and adult obesity in adulthood for an African American adolescent military dependent boy with reported loss-of-control (LOC)-eating, obesity, and elevated mood symptoms.<h4>Results</h4>LOC-eating and body mass index metrics decreased immediately post-intervention and further decreased by one-year follow-up. Social functioning scores improved and anxiety and depression scores decreased from baseline to one-year follow-up. In contrast to previous observations among girls, these improvements were evidenced without the teen's explicit acknowledgement of the link between mood and eating behaviors.<h4>Discussion</h4>Although the mechanism of change may manifest differently than for girls, adapted IPT may be an effective intervention strategy for adolescent boys with LOC-eating and obesity who endorse elevated mood symptoms.
Project description:Loss of control (LOC) eating in youth is associated with elevated fasting serum leptin, even after accounting for adiposity. Anxiety is closely linked to, and may exacerbate, LOC eating. Yet, it remains unclear how anxiety relates to leptin, or if the relationship is moderated by the presence of LOC eating. We examined whether self-reported trait anxiety interacted with LOC eating in relation to leptin in a convenience sample of youths (n = 592; 13.1 ± 2.7 years; body mass index z-score (BMIz) = 0.9 ± 1.1; 61.8% girls; 53.5% non-Hispanic White; 36.6% with LOC eating). LOC eating was assessed by interview. Leptin was measured after an overnight fast. Exploratory analyses were conducted to examine anxiety and LOC eating in relation to laboratory intake patterns in three sub-samples. In a generalized linear model adjusting for relevant covariates, anxiety significantly interacted with LOC eating in relation to leptin (p = 0.02), such that greater trait anxiety related to higher concentrations of leptin only among youth with LOC eating. Trait anxiety was not significantly related to fasting serum leptin independently in a generalized linear model adjusting for age, race, height, sex, study type, and fat mass (kg). Exploratory mechanistic analyses of food intake patterns did not identify consistent results for participants with both anxiety and LOC eating. Among youth with LOC eating, anxiety may be associated with higher serum leptin. Prospective data are required to elucidate the directionality and mechanisms of these relationships.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To examine the relationship between self-related agency beliefs and observed eating behavior in adolescent girls with loss of control (LOC) eating. METHOD:One-hundred eleven adolescent girls (14.5 ± 1.7 years; BMI: 27.1 ± 2.6 kg/m(2)) were administered the General Self-Efficacy Scale and the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire (WEL). Adolescents then participated in a laboratory test meal. RESULTS:Greater general and eating self-efficacy were associated with fewer episodes of LOC eating. General self-efficacy was inversely related to total intake at the meal (p < .01). Only the WEL availability subscale score, but not the other WEL subscales, was inversely related to total energy, snack, and dessert intake (ps < 0.05). DISCUSSION:General self-related agency beliefs may be important in relation to energy consumption. Among girls susceptible to disordered eating and obesity, the domain-specific belief in one's ability to refrain from eating when food is widely available may be especially salient in determining overeating in the current food environment. Further research is therefore needed to assess the predictive validity of these beliefs on eating and weight outcomes.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Among youth with overweight, food cravings (FC) are associated with loss-of-control (LOC)-eating, but the impact of sex-associated biological characteristics on this relationship is unknown. We examined whether sex and gonadal hormone concentrations moderated the relationships between FC and LOC-eating severity among healthy boys and girls across the weight strata in natural and laboratory environments.<h4>Method</h4>Using ecological momentary assessment (EMA), FC, and LOC-eating severity were reported 3-5 times a day for 2 weeks. In the laboratory, participants reported FC, consumed lunch from a buffet test meal designed to simulate LOC-eating, and rated LOC-eating severity during the meal.<h4>Results</h4>Eighty-seven youth (13.0 ± 2.7 years, 58.6% female, 32.2% with overweight/obesity) participated. EMA measured general and momentary FC were positively associated with LOC-eating severity (ps < .01), with no differences by sex (ps = .21-.93). Estradiol and progesterone significantly moderated the relationships between FC and LOC-eating such that general FC and LOC-eating severity were only positively associated among girls with greater (vs. lower) estradiol (p = .01), and momentary FC and LOC-eating severity were only positively associated among girls with greater (vs. lower) progesterone (p = .01). Boys' testosterone did not significantly moderate the associations between FC and LOC-eating severity (ps = .36-.97). At the test meal, pre-meal FC were positively related to LOC-eating severity (p < .01), without sex or hormonal moderation (ps = .20-.64).<h4>Discussion</h4>FC were related to LOC-eating severity in boys and girls. In the natural environment, gonadal hormones moderated this relationship in girls, but not boys. The mechanisms through which gonadal hormones might affect the relationship between FC and LOC-eating warrant investigation.
Project description:Family functioning is hypothesized to influence the development, maintenance, and treatment of obesity and eating disorders. However, there are limited data examining family functioning in relation to energy intake in the laboratory among youth at high-risk for eating disorders and excess weight gain. Therefore, we examined the relationship between perceived family functioning and energy intake during a laboratory test meal designed to model a binge episode. We performed hierarchical multiple regression analyses among 108 adolescent girls in an excess weight gain prevention trial. Participants were at high-risk for eating disorders and excess weight gain due to reports of loss of control eating (LOC) and high body mass index (BMI). Participants completed the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale III to assess family adaptability and cohesion. Following an overnight fast, girls consumed lunch from a laboratory test meal. Poorer family adaptability, but not cohesion, was associated with lower percentage of total energy intake from protein and greater percentage of total energy intake from carbohydrates. Neither adaptability nor cohesion were significantly associated with total intake. We conclude that among girls with LOC eating and high BMI, poor reported family adaptability is associated with greater consumption of obesity-promoting macronutrients during binge episodes. Directionality and temporality of this association between unhealthy consumption and family rigidity requires further study.
Project description:Mindfulness-based intervention has become increasingly popular to address disinhibited eating in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Theoretically, present-moment attention promotes the ability to recognize and respond to internal hunger cues and to differentiate physiological hunger from other stimuli. Yet, there is limited research describing the relationship of mindfulness with disinhibited eating patterns in adolescents. In this study, we evaluated the relationship of dispositional mindfulness to laboratory eating in 107 adolescent (12-17 years) girls at risk for T2D. Adolescents reported dispositional mindfulness, were evaluated for recent loss-of-control-eating (LOC-eating) by interview, and participated in two successive, standardized laboratory test meals to assess eating when hungry as well as eating in the absence of hunger (EAH). Adolescents rated state appetite throughout the test meal paradigms. In analyses adjusting for body composition and other possible confounds, mindfulness was inversely related to caloric intake during the EAH paradigm. Mindfulness did not relate to energy intake when hungry. Instead, there was a significant interaction of reported LOC-eating by state hunger, such that girls with recent, reported LOC-eating and high state hunger consumed more calories when hungry, regardless of mindfulness. Findings suggest that in girls at risk for T2D, mindfulness may play a role in disinhibited eating. A propensity for LOC-eating may be most salient for overeating in a high hunger state.