Surface De-PEGylation Controls Nanoparticle-Mediated siRNA Delivery In Vitro and In Vivo.
ABSTRACT: The present work proposes a unique de-PEGylation strategy for controllable delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) using a robust lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticle (NP) platform. The self-assembled hybrid NPs are composed of a lipid-poly(ethylene glycol) (lipid-PEG) shell and a polymer/cationic lipid solid core, wherein the lipid-PEG molecules can gradually dissociate from NP surface in the presence of serum albumin. The de-PEGylation kinetics of a series of different lipid-PEGs is measured with their respective NPs, and the NP performance is comprehensively investigated in vitro and in vivo. This systematic study reveals that the lipophilic tails of lipid-PEG dictate its dissociation rate from NP surface, determining the uptake by tumor cells and macrophages, pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and gene silencing efficacy of these hybrid siRNA NPs. Based on our observations, we here propose that lipid-PEGs with long and saturated lipophilic tails might be required for effective siRNA delivery to tumor cells and gene silencing of the lipid-polymer hybrid NPs after systemic administration.
Project description:The development of controlled-release nanoparticle (NP) technologies has great potential to further improve the therapeutic efficacy of RNA interference (RNAi), by prolonging the release of small interfering RNA (siRNA) for sustained, long-term gene silencing. Herein, we present an NP platform with sustained siRNA-release properties, which can be self-assembled using biodegradable and biocompatible polymers and lipids. The hybrid lipid-polymer NPs showed excellent silencing efficacy, and the temporal release of siRNA from the NPs continued for over one month. When tested on luciferase-expressed HeLa cells and A549 lung carcinoma cells after short-term transfection, the siRNA NPs showed greater sustained silencing activity than lipofectamine 2000-siRNA complexes. More importantly, the NP-mediated sustained silencing of prohibitin 1 (PHB1) generates more effective tumor cell growth inhibition in vitro and in vivo than the lipofectamine complexes. We expect that this sustained-release siRNA NP platform could be of interest in both fundamental biological studies and clinical applications.Emerging gene silencing applications could be greatly enhanced by prolonging the release of siRNA for sustained gene silencing. This team of scientists presents a hybrid lipid-polymer nanoparticle platform that successfully accomplishes this goal, paving the way to future research studies and potential clinical applications.
Project description:RNA interference (RNAi) represents a promising strategy for identification and validation of putative therapeutic targets and for treatment of a myriad of important human diseases including cancer. However, the effective systemic in vivo delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to tumors remains a formidable challenge. Using a robust self-assembly strategy, we develop a unique nanoparticle (NP) platform composed of a solid polymer/cationic lipid hybrid core and a lipid-poly(ethylene glycol) (lipid-PEG) shell for systemic siRNA delivery. The new generation lipid-polymer hybrid NPs are small and uniform, and can efficiently encapsulate siRNA and control its sustained release. They exhibit long blood circulation (t1/2 ? 8 h), high tumor accumulation, effective gene silencing, and negligible in vivo side effects. With this RNAi NP, we delineate and validate the therapeutic role of Prohibitin1 (PHB1), a target protein that has not been systemically evaluated in vivo due to the lack of specific and effective inhibitors, in treating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as evidenced by the drastic inhibition of tumor growth upon PHB1 silencing. Human tissue microarray analysis also reveals that high PHB1 tumor expression is associated with poorer overall survival in patients with NSCLC, further suggesting PHB1 as a therapeutic target. We expect this long-circulating RNAi NP platform to be of high interest for validating potential cancer targets in vivo and for the development of new cancer therapies.
Project description:Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) have demonstrated significant potential to improve the systemic delivery of RNA interference (RNAi) therapeutics, such as small interfering RNA (siRNA), for cancer therapy. However, the slow and inefficient siRNA release inside tumor cells generally observed for most biodegradable polymeric NPs may result in compromised gene silencing efficacy. Herein, a biodegradable and redox-responsive NP platform, composed of a solid poly(disulfide amide) (PDSA)/cationic lipid core and a lipid-poly(ethylene glycol) (lipid-PEG) shell for systemic siRNA delivery to tumor cells, is developed. This newly generated NP platform can efficiently encapsulate siRNA under extracellular environments and can respond to the highly concentrated glutathione (GSH) in the cytoplasm to induce fast intracellular siRNA release. By screening a library of PDSA polymers with different structures and chain lengths, the optimized NP platform shows the unique features of i) long blood circulation, ii) high tumor accumulation, iii) fast GSH-triggered intracellular siRNA release, and iv) exceptionally effective gene silencing. Together with the facile polymer synthesis technique and robust NP formulation enabling scale-up, this new redox-responsive NP platform may become an effective tool for RNAi-based cancer therapy.
Project description:A family of pH-responsive diblock polymers composed of poly[(ethylene glycol)-b-[(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)-co-(butyl methacrylate)], PEG-(DMAEMA-co-BMA), was reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) synthesized with 0-75 mol % BMA in the second polymer block. The relative mole % of DMAEMA and BMA was varied in order to identify a polymer that can be used to formulate PEGylated, siRNA-loaded polyplex nanoparticles (NPs) with an optimized balance of cationic and hydrophobic content in the NP core based on siRNA packaging, cytocompatibility, blood circulation half-life, endosomal escape, and in vivo bioactivity. The polymer with 50:50 mol % of DMAEMA:BMA (polymer "50 B") in the RAFT-polymerized block efficiently condensed siRNA into 100 nm NPs that displayed pH-dependent membrane disruptive behavior finely tuned for endosomal escape. In vitro delivery of siRNA with polymer 50 B produced up to 94% protein-level knockdown of the model gene luciferase. The PEG corona of the NPs blocked nonspecific interactions with constituents of human whole blood, and the relative hydrophobicity of polymer 50 B increased NP stability in the presence of human serum or the polyanion heparin. When injected intravenously, 50 B NPs enhanced blood circulation half-life 3-fold relative to more standard PEG-DMAEMA (0 B) NPs (p < 0.05), due to improved stability and a reduced rate of renal clearance. The 50 B NPs enhanced siRNA biodistribution to the liver and other organs and significantly increased gene silencing in the liver, kidneys, and spleen relative to the benchmark polymer 0 B (p < 0.05). These collective findings validate the functional significance of tuning the balance of cationic and hydrophobic content of polyplex NPs utilized for systemic siRNA delivery in vivo.
Project description:The surface properties of nanoparticles (NPs) are a major factor that influences how these nanomaterials interact with biological systems. Interactions between NPs and macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system (RES) can reduce the efficacy of NP diagnostics and therapeutics. Traditionally, to limit NP clearance by the RES system, the NP surface is neutralized with molecules like poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) which are known to resist protein adsorption and RES clearance. Unfortunately, PEG modification is not without drawbacks including difficulties with the synthesis and associations with immune reactions. To overcome some of these obstacles, we neutralized the NP surface by acetylation and compared this modification to PEGylation for RES clearance and tumor-specific targeting. We found that acetylation was comparable to PEGylation in reducing RES clearance. Additionally, we found that dendrimer acetylation did not impact folic acid (FA)-mediated targeting of tumor cells whereas PEG surface modification reduced the targeting ability of the NP. These results clarify the impact of different NP surface modifications on RES clearance and cell-specific targeting and provide insights into the design of more effective NPs.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to investigate the host response to systemically administered lipid nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulating plasmid DNA (pDNA) in the spleen using a DNA microarray. As a model for NPs, we used a multifunctional envelope-type nano device (MEND). Microarray analysis revealed that 1,581 of the differentially expressed genes could be identified by polyethylene glycol (PEG)-unmodified NP using a threefold change relative to the control. As the result of PEGylation, the NP treatment resulted in the reduction in the expression of most of the genes. However, the expression of type I interferon (IFN) was specifically increased by PEGylation. Based on the microarray and a pathway analysis, we hypothesize that PEGylation inhibited the endosomal escape of NP, and extended the interaction of toll-like receptor-9 (TLR9) with CpG-DNA accompanied by the production of type I IFN. This hypothesis was tested by introducing a pH-sensitive fusogenic peptide, GALA, which enhances the endosomal escape of PEGylated NP. As expected, type I IFN was reduced and interleukin-6 (IL-6) remained at the baseline. These findings indicate that a carrier design based on microarray analysis and the manipulation of intracellular trafficking constitutes a rational strategy for reducing the host immune response to NPs.
Project description:Calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles (NP) with an asymmetric lipid bilayer coating have been designed for targeted delivery of siRNA to the tumor. An anionic lipid, dioleoylphosphatydic acid (DOPA), was employed as the inner leaflet lipid to coat the nano-size CaP cores, which entrap the siRNA, such that the coated cores were soluble in organic solvent. A suitable neutral or cationic lipid was used as the outer leaflet lipid to form an asymmetric lipid bilayer structure verified by the measurement of NP zeta potential. The resulting NP was named LCP-II with a size of about 25 to 30nm in diameter and contained a hollow core as revealed by TEM imaging. PEGylation of NP was done by including a PEG-phospholipid conjugate, with or without a targeting ligand anisamide, in the outer leaflet lipid mixture. The sub-cellular distribution studied in the sigma receptor positive human H460 lung cancer cells indicated that LCP-II could release more cargo to the cytoplasm than our previous lipid/protamine/DNA (LPD) formulation, leading to a significant (~40 fold in vitro and ~4 fold in vivo) improvement in siRNA delivery. Bio-distribution study showed that LCP-II required more PEGylation for MPS evasion than the previous LPD, probably due to increased surface curvature in LCP-II.
Project description:Nanoparticles (NPs) based on amphiphilic block copolymers of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and biodegradable polyesters are of particular current interest in drug nanodelivery due to their easily manipulated properties. The interaction of these NPs with biological environments is highly influenced by shell features, which drive biological identity after administration. To widen the strategies available for tuning particle surface chemistry, here we developed a panel of amine-bearing PEGylated NPs with a poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) core for the delivery of lipophilic drugs, and investigated the impact of NP modifications on their interaction with abundant circulating proteins (human serum albumin-HSA-and mucin), as well as their transport through biological barriers (artificial mucus-AM, extracellular matrix-ECM). We prepared NPs based on a diamino-terminated PCL (amine-NPs) and its mixture with PEG-PCL copolymers (amine/PEG-NPs) at different PEG molecular weights by nanoprecipitation, as well as corresponding NPs of PEG-PCL (PEG-NPs). The presence of an amine-bearing polymer resulted in NPs with a net positive charge and a zeta potential dependent on the length of PEG in the copolymer. Amine/PEG-NPs had a larger fixed aqueous layer thickness as compared to PEG-NPs, suggesting that PEG conformation is affected by the presence of positive charges. In general, amine-bearing NPs promptly interacted with the dysopsonic protein HSA, due to electrostatic interactions, and lose stability, thereby undergoing time-related aggregation. On the other hand, amine/PEG-NPs interaction with mucin induced switching to a negative surface charge but did not alter the quality of the dispersion. The transport kinetics of NPs through a layer of artificial mucus and tumor extracellular matrix was studied by means of fluorescent NPs based upon FRET. Amine/PEG-NPs did not cross the ECM, but they were promptly transported through the AM, with swifter transport noted at increasing MWs of PEG in the copolymer. Finally, we demonstrated that all the different NP types developed in this study are internalized by human monocytes and, despite the positive charge, they did not induce a measurable inflammatory effect. In conclusion, we showed that the concurrent presence of both PEG and amine groups on NP surface is a promising strategy for directing their interaction with body compartments. While PEG-NPs are confirmed for their capacity to cross ECM-like compartments, amine/PEG-NPs are revealed as a powerful platform to widen the arsenal of nanotools available for overcoming mucus-covered epithelia.
Project description:Here we report the development of a new cationic liposome-hyaluronic acid (HA) hybrid nanoparticle (NP) system and present our characterization of these NPs as an intranasal vaccine platform using a model antigen and F1-V, a candidate recombinant antigen for Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague. Incubation of cationic liposomes composed of DOTAP and DOPE with anionic HA biopolymer led to efficient ionic complexation and formation of homogenous liposome-polymer hybrid NPs, as evidenced by fluorescence resonance energy transfer, dynamic light scattering, and nanoparticle tracking analyses. Incorporation of cationic liposomes with thiolated HA allowed for facile surface decoration of NPs with thiol-PEG, resulting in the formation of DOTAP/HA core-PEG shell nanostructures. These NPs, termed DOTAP-HA NPs, exhibited improved colloidal stability and prolonged antigen release. In addition, cytotoxicity associated with DOTAP liposomes (LC50~0.2mg/ml) was significantly reduced by at least 20-fold with DOTAP-HA NPs (LC50>4mg/ml), as measured with bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). Furthermore, NPs co-loaded with ovalbumin (OVA) and a molecular adjuvant, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) promoted BMDC maturation and upregulation of co-stimulatory markers, including CD40, CD86, and MHC-II, and C57BL/6 mice vaccinated with NPs via intranasal route generated robust OVA-specific CD8(+) T cell and antibody responses. Importantly, intranasal vaccination with NPs co-loaded with F1-V and MPLA induced potent humoral immune responses with 11-, 23-, and 15-fold increases in F1-V-specific total IgG, IgG1, and IgG2c titers in immune sera by day 77, respectively, and induced balanced Th1/Th2 humoral immune responses, whereas mice immunized with the equivalent doses of soluble F1-V vaccine failed to achieve sero-conversion. Overall, these results suggest that liposome-polymer hybrid NPs may serve as a promising vaccine delivery platform for intranasal vaccination against Y. pestis and other infectious pathogens.
Project description:Despite great potential, delivery remains as the most significant barrier to the widespread use of siRNA therapeutics. siRNA has delivery limitations due to susceptibility to RNase degradation, low cellular uptake, and poor tissue-specific localization. Here, we report the development of a hybrid nanoparticle (NP)/hydrogel system that overcomes these challenges. Hydrogels provide localized and sustained delivery via controlled release of entrapped siRNA/NP complexes while NPs protect and enable efficient cytosolic accumulation of siRNA. To demonstrate therapeutic efficacy, regenerative siRNA against WW domain-containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 (Wwp1) complexed with NP were entrapped within poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogels and implanted at sites of murine mid-diaphyseal femur fractures. Results showed localization of hydrogels and controlled release of siRNA/NPs at fractures for 28 days, a timeframe over which fracture healing occurs. siRNA/NP sustained delivery from hydrogels resulted in significant Wwp1 silencing at fracture callus compared to untreated controls. Fractures treated with siRNA/NP hydrogels exhibited accelerated bone formation and significantly increased biomechanical strength. This NP/hydrogel siRNA delivery system has outstanding therapeutic promise to augment fracture healing. Owing to the structural similarities of siRNA, the development of the hydrogel platform for in vivo siRNA delivery has myriad therapeutic possibilities in orthopaedics and beyond.