P62 improves AD-like pathology by increasing autophagy.
ABSTRACT: The multifunctional protein p62 is associated with neuropathological inclusions in several neurodegenerative disorders, including frontotemporal lobar degeneration, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Strong evidence shows that in AD, p62 immunoreactivity is associated with neurofibrillary tangles and is involved in tau degradation. However, it remains to be determined whether p62 also plays a role in regulating amyloid-? (A?) aggregation and degradation. Using a gene therapy approach, here we show that increasing brain p62 expression rescues cognitive deficits in APP/PS1 mice, a widely used animal model of AD. The cognitive improvement was associated with a decrease in A? levels and plaque load. Using complementary genetic and pharmacologic approaches, we found that the p62-mediated changes in A? were due to an increase in autophagy. To this end, we showed that removing the LC3-interacting region of p62, which facilitates p62-mediated selective autophagy, or blocking autophagy with a pharmacological inhibitor, was sufficient to prevent the decrease in A?. Overall, we believe these data provide the first direct in vivo evidence showing that p62 regulates A? turnover.
Project description:Extensive research on p62 has established its role in oxidative stress, protein degradation and in several diseases such as Paget's disease of the bone, frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Importantly, previous studies showed that p62 binds directly to Keap1, which is a ubiquitin E3 ligase responsible for degrading Nrf2. Indeed, colocalisation of p62 and Keap1 occurs in tumorigenesis and neurodegeneration. A serine (S) residue in the Keap1-interacting region of p62 is phosphorylated in hepatocellular carcinoma, and this phosphorylation contributes to tumour growth through the higher affinity of p62 to Keap1. However, it remains largely unknown whether p62 is phosphorylated in the Keap1-interacting region under neurodegenerative conditions.To answer this question, we generated an antibody against phosphorylated S349 (P-S349) of p62 and showed that S349 is phosphorylated following disruption of protein degradation. In particular, the ratio of P-S349 to total p62 levels was significantly increased in the brains with Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared with controls. We also compared the reactivity of the P-S349 antibody with P-S403 of p62 and showed that these two phosphorylated sites on p62 cause different responses with proteasome inhibition and show distinct localisation patterns in AD brains. In addition to disruption of protein degradation systems, activation of oxidative stress can induce P-S349.These results support the hypothesis that disruption of protein degradation systems and sustained activation of the Keap1-Nrf2 system occur in the brains with AD.
Project description:Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) is an active metabolite of sesquiterpene trioxane lactone extracted from Artemisia annua, which is used to treat malaria worldwide. DHA can activate autophagy, which is the main mechanism to remove the damaged cell components and recover the harmful or useless substances from eukaryotic cells and maintain cell viability through the autophagy lysosomal degradation system. Autophagy activation and autophagy flux correction are playing an important neuroprotective role in the central nervous system, as they accelerate the removal of toxic protein aggregates intracellularly and extracellularly to prevent neurodegenerative processes, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we explored whether this mechanism can mediate the neuroprotective effect of DHA on the AD model in vitro and in vivo. Three months of DHA treatment improved the memory and cognitive impairment, reduced the deposition of amyloid ? plaque, reduced the levels of A?40 and A?42, and ameliorated excessive neuron apoptosis in APP/PS1 mice brain. In addition, DHA treatment increased the level of LC3 II/I and decreased the expression of p62. After Bafilomycin A1 and Chloroquine (CQ) blocked the fusion of autophagy and lysosome, as well as the degradation of autolysosomes (ALs), DHA treatment increased the level of LC3 II/I and decreased the expression of p62. These results suggest that DHA treatment can correct autophagic flux, improve autophagy dysfunction, inhibit abnormal death of neurons, promote the clearance of amyloid-? peptide (A?) fibrils, and have a multi-target effect on the neuropathological process, memory and cognitive deficits of AD.
Project description:Autophagy is a major self-degradative process that maintains cellular homeostasis and function in mammalian cells. Autophagic dysfunction occurs in the early pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and directly regulates amyloid-? (A?) metabolism. Although it has been proven that the cytokine IFN-? enhances autophagy in macrophage cell lines, whether the signaling cascade is implicated in A? degradation in AD mouse models remains to be elucidated. Here, we found that 9 days of the intraperitoneal administration of IFN-? significantly increased the LC3II/I ratio and decreased the level of p62 in APP/PS1 mice, an AD mouse model. In vitro, IFN-? protected BV2 cells from A? toxicity by upregulating the expressions of Atg7 and Atg5 and the LC3II/I ratio, whereas these protective effects were ablated by interference with Atg5 expression. Moreover, IFN-? enhanced autophagic flux, probably through suppressing the AKT/mTOR pathway both in vivo and in vitro. Importantly, using intravital two-photon microscopy and fluorescence staining, we found that microglia interacted with exogenous IFN-? and A?, and surrounded A? in APP/PS1;CX3CR1-GFP+/- mice. In addition, IFN-? treatment decreased the A? plaque load in the cortex and hippocampus and rescued cognitive deficits in APP/PS1 mice. Our data suggest a possible mechanism by which the peripheral injection of IFN-? restores microglial autophagy to induce the phagocytosis of cerebral A?, which represents a potential therapeutic approach for the use of exogenous IFN-? in AD.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia worldwide. The deposition of amyloid ? (A?) is one of the most important pathological changes in AD. Autophagy, which mediates degradation of toxic proteins and maintains normal neuronal function, is dysfunctional in AD; dysfunctional autophagy is believed to be a critical pathological feature of AD. Here, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo effects of a traditional Chinese medicinal formula called Yizhiqingxin formula (YQF) on autophagy. We determined that treatment with a high dose of YQF improved spatial memory and decreased the hippocampal A? burden in APP/PS1 mice, an early onset AD model. Transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemical data revealed that YQF enhanced autophagosome formation and also increased the levels of LC3II/LC3I and Beclin1. Further, we found that YQF treatment promoted autophagic activity by inhibiting the phosphorylation of the Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) at the Ser2448 site. Moreover, the level of 4EBP1 increased after YQF intervention, indicating a suppression of mTOR signaling. YQF was also found to promote autophagosome degradation, as indicated by the decreased p62 levels and increased cathepsin D and V-ATPase levels. Taken together, YQF could improve spatial learning in APP/PS1 mice and ameliorate the accumulation of A? while promoting autophagy via mTOR pathway modulation.
Project description:TARDBP/TDP-43 (TAR DNA binding protein) proteinopathies are a common feature in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), and Alzheimer disease (AD). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying TARDBP-induced neurotoxicity are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that TARDBP proteinopathies induce impairment in the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), as evidenced by an accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and a reduction in proteasome activity in neuronal cells. Through kinase inhibitor screening, we identified PTK2/FAK (PTK2 protein tyrosine kinase 2) as a suppressor of neurotoxicity induced by UPS impairment. Importantly, PTK2 inhibition significantly reduced ubiquitin aggregates and attenuated TARDBP-induced cytotoxicity in a Drosophila model of TARDBP proteinopathies. We further identified that phosphorylation of SQSTM1/p62 (sequestosome 1) at S403 (p-SQSTM1 [S403]), a key component in the autophagic degradation of poly-ubiquitinated proteins, is increased upon TARDBP overexpression and is dependent on the activation of PTK2 in neuronal cells. Moreover, expressing a non-phosphorylated form of SQSTM1 (SQSTM1S403A) significantly repressed the accumulation of insoluble poly-ubiquitinated proteins and neurotoxicity induced by TARDBP overexpression in neuronal cells. In addition, TBK1 (TANK binding kinase 1), a kinase that phosphorylates S403 of SQSTM1, was found to be involved in the PTK2-mediated phosphorylation of SQSTM1. Taken together, our data suggest that the PTK2-TBK1-SQSTM1 axis plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of TARDBP by regulating neurotoxicity induced by UPS impairment. Therefore, targeting the PTK2-TBK1-SQSTM1 axis may represent a novel therapeutic intervention for neurodegenerative diseases with TARDBP proteinopathies.Abbreviations: ALP: macroautophagy/autophagy lysosomal pathway; ALS: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; ATXN2: ataxin 2; BafA1: bafilomycin A1; cCASP3: cleaved caspase 3; CSNK2: casein kinase 2; FTLD: frontotemporal lobar degeneration; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; OPTN: optineurin; PTK2/FAK: PTK2 protein tyrosine kinase 2; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; TARDBP/TDP-43: TAR DNA binding protein; TBK1: TANK binding kinase 1; ULK1: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1; UPS: ubiquitin-proteasome system.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common types of dementia that causes memory, thinking, and behavior problems. The most important feature of AD is the gradual irreversible loss of cognitive ability through the formation of amyloid ? (A?) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles composed of tau protein. The metabolism of A? and tau proteins is closely related to and is affected by autophagy. Current research speculates that autophagy dysfunction leads to an increase in harmful proteins in AD. ?-Asarone is the main constituent of Acorus tatarinowii Schott and has important effects on the central nervous system. In this paper, we primarily explored the effects of ?-asarone on the clearance of noxious proteins and the associated potential mechanisms via autophagy in a PC12 cell AD model. A CCK-8 assay and LDH experiments were used to assess cell viability/toxicity, and SPiDER-?Gal was used to detect cellular senescence. The important proteins associated with the pathogenesis of AD including APP, PS1, A?, BACE1, and SYN1 were analyzed by immunofluorescence (IF) and Western blot analysis. Antimycin A (A3) and cyclosporine A (CSA) were selected as the activators and inhibitors of autophagy, respectively. LC3, BECN, P62, PINK1, and Parkin protein expression were also examined by IF and Western blot analysis. The data showed that ?-asarone administration significantly dose-dependently increased cell proliferation and decreased cytotoxicity; moreover, ?-asarone inhibited SA-?Gal and improved cell senescence. The results further showed that, compared to the model, APP, PS1, A?, BACE1, and p62 were reduced, while SYN1, BECN1, and LC3 were increased after treatment with ?-asarone. The results of Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) showed a highly significant relationship between the pathological factors of AD and the protein expression of autophagy. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that ?-asarone can inhibit A?, and this effect may occur by promoting autophagy in a cell model of AD.
Project description:Purpose:Chlorogenic acid (CGA), a phenolic acid isolated from fruits and vegetables, has been established to have neuroprotective properties in relation to Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the precise mechanism by which CGA prevents cognitive deficits in AD has not been well studied. This study aimed to explore the potential molecular mechanism of CGA action using an A?25-35-induced SH-SY5Y neuron injury and cogxnitive deficits model in APP/PS1 mice. Methods:Three-month-old male APP/PS1 double transgenic mice and a human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y) were used to assess the effects of CGA on AD in vivo and in vitro, respectively. Cognitive function in mice was measured using a Morris water maze (MWM) test. Hematoxylin and eosin, monodansylcadaverine fluorescence, LysoTracker Red (LTR), and immunofluorescence staining were used to evaluate the morphological changes in vivo and in vitro. The protein expressions of autophagy markers (LC3B-II/LC3B-I, p62/SQSTM, beclin1 and Atg5) and lysosomal-function-related markers (cathepsin D, mTOR, p-mTOR P70S6K, p-p70s6k and TFEB) were analyzed with Western blot analyses. Results:CGA treatment significantly improved spatial memory, relieved neuron damage, and inhibited autophagy in APP/PS1 mice (P<0.05). Moreover, CGA notably suppressed autophagosome production and enhanced autophagy flux in SH-SY5Y cells induced by A?25-35 (P<0.05). Further analysis showed that CGA markedly promoted lysosomal activity, and this was accompanied by upregulated cathepsin D protein expression, which was induced by the mTOR/TFEB signaling pathway in APP/PS1 mice and A?25-35-exposed SH-SY5Y cells (P<0.05). Conclusion:CGA treatment restored autophagic flux in the brain and alleviated cognitive impairments in APP/PS1 mice via enhanced activation of the mTOR/TFEB signaling pathway.
Project description:The imbalance between ß-amyloid (Aß) generation and clearance plays a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The sporadic form of AD is characterized by an overall impairment in Aß clearance. Immunotherapy targeting Aß clearance is believed to be a promising approach and is under active clinical investigation. Autophagy is a conserved pathway for degrading abnormal protein aggregates and is crucial for Aß clearance. We previously reported that oral vaccination with a recombinant AAV/Aß vaccine increased the clearance of Aß from the brain and improved cognitive ability in AD animal models, while the underlying mechanisms were not well understood. In this study, we first demonstrated that oral vaccination with rAAV/Aß decreased the p62 level and up-regulated the LC3B-II/LC3B-I ratio in APP/PS1 mouse brain, suggesting enhanced autophagy. Further, inhibition of the Akt/mTOR pathway may account for autophagy enhancement. We also found increased anti-Aß antibodies in the sera of APP/PS1 mice with oral vaccination, accompanied by elevation of complement factors C1q and C3 levels in the brain. Our results indicate that autophagy is closely involved in oral vaccination-induced Aß clearance, and modulating the autophagy pathway may be an important strategy for AD prevention and intervention.
Project description:Macroautophagy (autophagy) is a key catabolic pathway for the maintenance of proteostasis through constant digestion of selective cargoes. The selectivity of autophagy is mediated by autophagy receptors that recognize and recruit cargoes to autophagosomes. SQSTM1/p62 is a prototype autophagy receptor, which is commonly found in protein aggregates associated with major neurodegenerative diseases. While accumulation of SQSTM1 implicates a disturbance of selective autophagy pathway, the pathogenic mechanism that contributes to impaired autophagy degradation remains poorly characterized. Herein we show that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD)-linked mutations of TBK1 and SQSTM1 disrupt selective autophagy and cause neurotoxicity. Our data demonstrates that proteotoxic stress activates serine/threonine kinase TBK1, which coordinates with autophagy kinase ULK1 to promote concerted phosphorylation of autophagy receptor SQSTM1 at the UBA domain and activation of selective autophagy. In contrast, ALS-FTLD-linked mutations of TBK1 or SQSTM1 reduce SQSTM1 phosphorylation and compromise ubiquitinated cargo binding and clearance. Moreover, disease mutation SQSTM1G427R abolishes phosphorylation of Ser351 and impairs KEAP1-SQSTM1 interaction, thus diminishing NFE2L2/Nrf2-targeted gene expression and increasing TARDBP/TDP-43 associated stress granule formation under oxidative stress. Furthermore, expression of SQSTM1G427R in neurons impairs dendrite morphology and KEAP1-NFE2L2 signaling. Therefore, our results reveal a mechanism whereby pathogenic SQSTM1 mutants inhibit selective autophagy and disrupt NFE2L2 anti-oxidative stress response underlying the neurotoxicity in ALS-FTLD.Abbreviations: ALS: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; FTLD: frontotemporal lobar degeneration; G3BP1: GTPase-activating protein (SH3 domain) binding protein 1; GSTM1: glutathione S-transferase, mu 1; HMOX/HO-1: Heme oxygenase 1; IP: immunoprecipitation; KEAP1: kelch-like ECH associated protein 1; KI: kinase inactive; KIR: KEAP1 interaction region; KO: knockout; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; MBP: maltose binding protein; NBR1: NBR1, autophagy cargo receptor; NFE2L2/Nrf2: nuclear factor, erythroid derived 2, like 2; NQO1: NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; SOD1: superoxide dismutase 1, soluble; S.S.: serum starvation; TARDBP/TDP-43: TAR DNA binding protein; TBK1: TANK binding kinase 1; UBA: ubiquitin association; ULK1: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1; WT: wild type.
Project description:The autophagy cargo receptor p62 facilitates the condensation of misfolded, ubiquitin-positive proteins and their degradation by autophagy, but the molecular mechanism of p62 signaling to the core autophagy machinery is unclear. Here, we show that disordered residues 326-380 of p62 directly interact with the C-terminal region (CTR) of FIP200. Crystal structure determination shows that the FIP200 CTR contains a dimeric globular domain that we designated the "Claw" for its shape. The interaction of p62 with FIP200 is mediated by a positively charged pocket in the Claw, enhanced by p62 phosphorylation, mutually exclusive with the binding of p62 to LC3B, and it promotes degradation of ubiquitinated cargo by autophagy. Furthermore, the recruitment of the FIP200 CTR slows the phase separation of ubiquitinated proteins by p62 in a reconstituted system. Our data provide the molecular basis for a crosstalk between cargo condensation and autophagosome formation.