De novo yeast genome assemblies from MinION, PacBio and MiSeq platforms.
ABSTRACT: Long-read sequencing technologies such as Pacific Biosciences and Oxford Nanopore MinION are capable of producing long sequencing reads with average fragment lengths of over 10,000 base-pairs and maximum lengths reaching 100,000 base- pairs. Compared with short reads, the assemblies obtained from long-read sequencing platforms have much higher contig continuity and genome completeness as long fragments are able to extend paths into problematic or repetitive regions. Many successful assembly applications of the Pacific Biosciences technology have been reported ranging from small bacterial genomes to large plant and animal genomes. Recently, genome assemblies using Oxford Nanopore MinION data have attracted much attention due to the portability and low cost of this novel sequencing instrument. In this paper, we re-sequenced a well characterized genome, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288C strain using three different platforms: MinION, PacBio and MiSeq. We present a comprehensive metric comparison of assemblies generated by various pipelines and discuss how the platform associated data characteristics affect the assembly quality. With a given read depth of 31X, the assemblies from both Pacific Biosciences and Oxford Nanopore MinION show excellent continuity and completeness for the 16 nuclear chromosomes, but not for the mitochondrial genome, whose reconstruction still represents a significant challenge.
Project description:De novo assemblies of four yeast strains generated by various assembly and scaffolding pipelines using yeast sequencing data from three different technologies: a short-read Illumina platform (MiSeq) and the long-read platforms of Oxford Nanopore (MinION) and Pacific Biosciences (RSII). The Pacific Biosciences data we used are from the EBI Study Accession Number PRJEB7245, while the Oxford Nanopore and Illumina data are available from the EBI Study Accession Number PRJEB19900. Analysis published in Scientific Reports 2017; 7: 3935, doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-03996-z.
The yeast strains sequenced are the two S. cerevisiae strains S288c and SK1, and the two S. paradoxus strains N44 and CBS432 respectively. Scripts to download the data and sample scripts to run the various pipelines are available on GitHub: https://github.com/fg6/YeastStrainsStudy.git.
Detailed information on the assemblies are collected in file Summary_of_assemblies.txt.
Project description:The revolution of genome sequencing is continuing after the successful second-generation sequencing (SGS) technology. The third-generation sequencing (TGS) technology, led by Pacific Biosciences (PacBio), is progressing rapidly, moving from a technology once only capable of providing data for small genome analysis, or for performing targeted screening, to one that promises high quality de novo assembly and structural variation detection for human-sized genomes. In 2014, the MinION, the first commercial sequencer using nanopore technology, was released by Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT). MinION identifies DNA bases by measuring the changes in electrical conductivity generated as DNA strands pass through a biological pore. Its portability, affordability, and speed in data production makes it suitable for real-time applications, the release of the long read sequencer MinION has thus generated much excitement and interest in the genomics community. While de novo genome assemblies can be cheaply produced from SGS data, assembly continuity is often relatively poor, due to the limited ability of short reads to handle long repeats. Assembly quality can be greatly improved by using TGS long reads, since repetitive regions can be easily expanded into using longer sequencing lengths, despite having higher error rates at the base level. The potential of nanopore sequencing has been demonstrated by various studies in genome surveillance at locations where rapid and reliable sequencing is needed, but where resources are limited.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Oxford Nanopore Technologies Ltd (Oxford, UK) have recently commercialized MinION, a small single-molecule nanopore sequencer, that offers the possibility of sequencing long DNA fragments from small genomes in a matter of seconds. The Oxford Nanopore technology is truly disruptive; it has the potential to revolutionize genomic applications due to its portability, low cost, and ease of use compared with existing long reads sequencing technologies. The MinION sequencer enables the rapid sequencing of small eukaryotic genomes, such as the yeast genome. Combined with existing assembler algorithms, near complete genome assemblies can be generated and comprehensive population genomic analyses can be performed. RESULTS:Here, we resequenced the genome of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288C strain to evaluate the performance of nanopore-only assemblers. Then we de novo sequenced and assembled the genomes of 21 isolates representative of the S. cerevisiae genetic diversity using the MinION platform. The contiguity of our assemblies was 14 times higher than the Illumina-only assemblies and we obtained one or two long contigs for 65 % of the chromosomes. This high contiguity allowed us to accurately detect large structural variations across the 21 studied genomes. CONCLUSION:Because of the high completeness of the nanopore assemblies, we were able to produce a complete cartography of transposable elements insertions and inspect structural variants that are generally missed using a short-read sequencing strategy. Our analyses show that the Oxford Nanopore technology is already usable for de novo sequencing and assembly; however, non-random errors in homopolymers require polishing the consensus using an alternate sequencing technology.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Short-read sequencing technologies have made microbial genome sequencing cheap and accessible. However, closing genomes is often costly and assembling short reads from genomes that are repetitive and/or have extreme %GC content remains challenging. Long-read, single-molecule sequencing technologies such as the Oxford Nanopore MinION have the potential to overcome these difficulties, although the best approach for harnessing their potential remains poorly evaluated. RESULTS:We sequenced nine bacterial genomes spanning a wide range of GC contents using Illumina MiSeq and Oxford Nanopore MinION sequencing technologies to determine the advantages of each approach, both individually and combined. Assemblies using only MiSeq reads were highly accurate but lacked contiguity, a deficiency that was partially overcome by adding MinION reads to these assemblies. Even more contiguous genome assemblies were generated by using MinION reads for initial assembly, but these assemblies were more error-prone and required further polishing. This was especially pronounced when Illumina libraries were biased, as was the case for our strains with both high and low GC content. Increased genome contiguity dramatically improved the annotation of insertion sequences and secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters, likely because long-reads can disambiguate these highly repetitive but biologically important genomic regions. CONCLUSIONS:Genome assembly using short-reads is challenged by repetitive sequences and extreme GC contents. Our results indicate that these difficulties can be largely overcome by using single-molecule, long-read sequencing technologies such as the Oxford Nanopore MinION. Using MinION reads for assembly followed by polishing with Illumina reads generated the most contiguous genomes with sufficient accuracy to enable the accurate annotation of important but difficult to sequence genomic features such as insertion sequences and secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters. The combination of Oxford Nanopore and Illumina sequencing can therefore cost-effectively advance studies of microbial evolution and genome-driven drug discovery.
Project description:The MinION is a portable single-molecule DNA sequencing instrument that was released by Oxford Nanopore Technologies in 2014, producing long sequencing reads by measuring changes in ionic flow when single-stranded DNA molecules translocate through the pores. While MinION long reads have an error rate substantially higher than the ones produced by short-read sequencing technologies, they can generate de novo assemblies of microbial genomes, after an initial correction step that includes alignment of Illumina sequencing data or detection of overlaps between Oxford Nanopore reads to improve accuracy. In this study, MinION reads were generated from the multi-chromosome genome of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. Errors in the consensus two-directional (sense and antisense) "2D" sequences were first characterized by way of comparison with an internal reference assembly. Both Illumina-based correction and self-correction were performed and the resulting corrected reads assembled into high-quality hybrid and non-hybrid assemblies. Corrected read datasets and assemblies were subsequently compared. The results shown here indicate that both hybrid and non-hybrid methods can be used to assemble Oxford Nanopore reads into informative multi-chromosome assemblies, each with slightly different outcomes in terms of contiguity and accuracy.
Project description:Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) is a human pathogenic member of the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily of herpesviruses. The HSV-1 genome is a large double-stranded DNA specifying about 85 protein coding genes. The latest surveys have demonstrated that the HSV-1 transcriptome is much more complex than it had been thought before. Here, we provide a long-read sequencing dataset, which was generated by using the RSII and Sequel systems from Pacific Biosciences (PacBio), as well as MinION sequencing system from Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT). This dataset contains 39,096 reads of inserts (ROIs) mapped to the HSV-1 genome (X14112) in RSII sequencing, while Sequel sequencing yielded 77,851 ROIs. The MinION cDNA sequencing altogether resulted in 158,653 reads, while the direct RNA-seq produced 16,516 reads. This dataset can be utilized for the identification of novel HSV RNAs and transcripts isoforms, as well as for the comparison of the quality and length of the sequencing reads derived from the currently available long-read sequencing platforms. The various library preparation approaches can also be compared with each other.
Project description:Complete and accurate genome assemblies form the basis of most downstream genomic analyses and are of critical importance. Recent genome assembly projects have relied on a combination of noisy long-read sequencing and accurate short-read sequencing, with the former offering greater assembly continuity and the latter providing higher consensus accuracy. The recently introduced Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) HiFi sequencing technology bridges this divide by delivering long reads (>10 kbp) with high per-base accuracy (>99.9%). Here we present HiCanu, a modification of the Canu assembler designed to leverage the full potential of HiFi reads via homopolymer compression, overlap-based error correction, and aggressive false overlap filtering. We benchmark HiCanu with a focus on the recovery of haplotype diversity, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) variants, satellite DNAs, and segmental duplications. For diploid human genomes sequenced to 30× HiFi coverage, HiCanu achieved superior accuracy and allele recovery compared to the current state of the art. On the effectively haploid CHM13 human cell line, HiCanu achieved an NG50 contig size of 77 Mbp with a per-base consensus accuracy of 99.999% (QV50), surpassing recent assemblies of high-coverage, ultralong Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) reads in terms of both accuracy and continuity. This HiCanu assembly correctly resolves 337 out of 341 validation BACs sampled from known segmental duplications and provides the first preliminary assemblies of nine complete human centromeric regions. Although gaps and errors still remain within the most challenging regions of the genome, these results represent a significant advance toward the complete assembly of human genomes.
Project description:Background: Data sets from long-read sequencing platforms (Oxford Nanopore Technologies and Pacific Biosciences) allow for most prokaryote genomes to be completely assembled - one contig per chromosome or plasmid. However, the high per-read error rate of long-read sequencing necessitates different approaches to assembly than those used for short-read sequencing. Multiple assembly tools (assemblers) exist, which use a variety of algorithms for long-read assembly. Methods: We used 500 simulated read sets and 120 real read sets to assess the performance of eight long-read assemblers (Canu, Flye, Miniasm/Minipolish, NECAT, NextDenovo/NextPolish, Raven, Redbean and Shasta) across a wide variety of genomes and read parameters. Assemblies were assessed on their structural accuracy/completeness, sequence identity, contig circularisation and computational resources used. Results: Canu v2.0 produced reliable assemblies and was good with plasmids, but it performed poorly with circularisation and had the longest runtimes of all assemblers tested. Flye v2.8 was also reliable and made the smallest sequence errors, though it used the most RAM. Miniasm/Minipolish v0.3/v0.1.3 was the most likely to produce clean contig circularisation. NECAT v20200119 was reliable and good at circularisation but tended to make larger sequence errors. NextDenovo/NextPolish v2.3.0/v1.2.4 was reliable with chromosome assembly but bad with plasmid assembly. Raven v1.1.10 was the most reliable for chromosome assembly, though it did not perform well on small plasmids and had circularisation issues. Redbean v2.5 and Shasta v0.5.1 were computationally efficient but more likely to produce incomplete assemblies. Conclusions: Of the assemblers tested, Flye, Miniasm/Minipolish and Raven performed best overall. However, no single tool performed well on all metrics, highlighting the need for continued development on long-read assembly algorithms.
Project description:Second generation sequencing has revolutionized genomic studies. However, most genomes contain repeated DNA elements that are longer than the read lengths achievable with typical sequencers, so the genomic order of several generated contigs cannot be easily resolved. A new generation of sequencers offering substantially longer reads is emerging, notably the Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) RS II system and the MinION system, released in early 2014 by Oxford Nanopore Technologies through an early access program. The latter has highly advantageous portability and sequences samples by measuring changes in ionic current when single-stranded DNA molecules are translocated through nanopores. We show that the MinION system produces long reads with high mapability that can be used for scaffolding bacterial genomes, despite currently producing substantially higher error rates than PacBio reads. With further development we anticipate that MinION will be useful not only for assembling genomes, but also for rapid detection of organisms, potentially in the field.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Scaffolding is an important step in genome assembly that orders and orients the contigs produced by assemblers. However, repetitive regions in contigs usually prevent scaffolding from producing accurate results. How to solve the problem of repetitive regions has received a great deal of attention. In the past few years, long reads sequenced by third-generation sequencing technologies (Pacific Biosciences and Oxford Nanopore) have been demonstrated to be useful for sequencing repetitive regions in genomes. Although some stand-alone scaffolding algorithms based on long reads have been presented, scaffolding still requires a new strategy to take full advantage of the characteristics of long reads. RESULTS:Here, we present a new scaffolding algorithm based on long reads and contig classification (SLR). Through the alignment information of long reads and contigs, SLR classifies the contigs into unique contigs and ambiguous contigs for addressing the problem of repetitive regions. Next, SLR uses only unique contigs to produce draft scaffolds. Then, SLR inserts the ambiguous contigs into the draft scaffolds and produces the final scaffolds. We compare SLR to three popular scaffolding tools by using long read datasets sequenced with Pacific Biosciences and Oxford Nanopore technologies. The experimental results show that SLR can produce better results in terms of accuracy and completeness. The open-source code of SLR is available at https://github.com/luojunwei/SLR. CONCLUSION:In this paper, we describes SLR, which is designed to scaffold contigs using long reads. We conclude that SLR can improve the completeness of genome assembly.