Assessment of MultiLocus Sequence Analysis As a Valuable Tool for the Classification of the Genus Salinivibrio.
ABSTRACT: The genus Salinivibrio includes obligatory halophilic bacteria and is commonly isolated from hypersaline habitats and salted food products. They grow optimally between 7.5 and 10% salts and are facultative anaerobes. Currently, this genus comprises four species, one of them, S. costicola, with three subspecies. In this study we isolated and characterized an additional 70 strains from solar salterns located in different locations. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis identified these strains as belonging to the genus Salinivibrio but could not differentiate strains into species-like groups. To achieve finer phylogenetic resolution, we carried out a MultiLocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA) of the new isolates and the type strains of the species of Salinivibrio based on the individual as well as concatenated sequences of four housekeeping genes: gyrB, recA, rpoA, and rpoD. The strains formed four clearly differentiated species-like clusters called phylogroups. All of the known type and subspecies strains were associated with one of these clusters except S. sharmensis. One phylogroup had no previously described species coupled to it. Further DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) experiments with selected representative strains from these phylogroups permitted us to validate the MLSA study, correlating the species level defined by the DDH (70%) with a 97% cut-off for the concatenated MLSA gene sequences. Based on these criteria, the novel strains forming phylogroup 1 could constitute a new species while strains constructing the other three phylogroups are members of previously recognized Salinivibrio species. S. costicola subsp. vallismortis co-occurs with S. proteolyticus in phylogroup 4, and separately from other S. costicola strains, indicating its need for reclassification. On the other hand, genome fingerprinting analysis showed that the environmental strains do not form clonal populations and did not cluster according to their site of cultivation. In future studies regarding the classification and identification of new Salinivibrio strains we recommend the following strategy: (i) initial partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene for genus-level identification; (ii) sequencing and concatenation of the four before mentioned housekeeping genes for species-level discrimination; (iii) DDH experiments, only required when the concatenated MLSA similarity values among a new isolate and other Salinivibrio strains are above the 97% cut-off.
Project description:Hyphomonas, a genus of budding, prosthecate bacteria, are primarily found in the marine environment. Seven type strains, and 35 strains from our collections of Hyphomonas, isolated from the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Arctic Ocean, South China Sea and the Baltic Sea, were investigated in this study using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). The phylogenetic structure of these bacteria was evaluated using the 16S rRNA gene, and five housekeeping genes (leuA, clpA, pyrH, gatA and rpoD) as well as their concatenated sequences. Our results showed that each housekeeping gene and the concatenated gene sequence all yield a higher taxonomic resolution than the 16S rRNA gene. The 42 strains assorted into 12 groups. Each group represents an independent species, which was confirmed by virtual DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) estimated from draft genome sequences. Hyphomonas MLSA interspecies and intraspecies boundaries ranged from 93.3% to 96.3%, similarity calculated using a combined DDH and MLSA approach. Furthermore, six novel species (groups I, II, III, IV, V and XII) of the genus Hyphomonas exist, based on sequence similarities of the MLSA and DDH values. Additionally, we propose that the leuA gene (93.0% sequence similarity across our dataset) alone could be used as a fast and practical means for identifying species within Hyphomonas. Finally, Hyphomonas' geographic distribution shows that strains from the same area tend to cluster together as discrete species. This study provides a framework for the discrimination and phylogenetic analysis of the genus Hyphomonas for the first time, and will contribute to a more thorough understanding of the biological and ecological roles of this genus.
Project description:To gain a better understanding of how divergence occurs, and how taxonomy can benefit from studying natural populations, we isolated and examined 25 closely related Halorubrum strains obtained from different hypersaline communities and compared them to validly named species and other reference strains using five taxonomic study approaches: phylogenetic analysis using the 16S rRNA gene and multilocus sequencing analysis (MLSA), polar lipid profiles (PLP), average nucleotide identity (ANI) and DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH). 16S rRNA gene sequence could not differentiate the newly isolated strains from described species, while MLSA grouped strains into three major clusters. Two of those MLSA clusters distinguished candidates for new species. The third cluster with concatenated sequence identity equal to or greater than 97.5% was comprised of strains from Aran-Bidgol Lake (Iran) and solar salterns in Namibia and Spain, and two previously described species isolated from Mexico and Algeria. PLP and DDH analyses showed that Aran-Bidgol strains formed uniform populations, and that strains isolated from other geographic locations were heterogeneous and divergent, indicating that they may constitute different species. Therefore, applying only sequencing approaches and similarity cutoffs for circumscribing species may be too conservative, lumping concealed diversity into a single taxon. Further, our data support the interpretation that local populations experience unique evolutionary homogenization pressures, and once relieved of insular constraints (e.g., through migration) are free to diverge.
Project description:Thalassospira bacteria are widespread and have been isolated from various marine environments. Less is known about their genetic diversity and biogeography, as well as their role in marine environments, many of them cannot be discriminated merely using the 16S rRNA gene. To address these issues, in this report, the phylogenetic analysis of 58 strains from seawater and deep sea sediments were carried out using the multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on acsA, aroE, gyrB, mutL, rpoD and trpB genes, and the DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) and average nucleotide identity (ANI) based on genome sequences. The MLSA analysis demonstrated that the 58 strains were clearly separated into 15 lineages, corresponding to seven validly described species and eight potential novel species. The DDH and ANI values further confirmed the validity of the MLSA analysis and eight potential novel species. The MLSA interspecies gap of the genus Thalassospira was determined to be 96.16-97.12% sequence identity on the basis of the combined analyses of the DDH and MLSA, while the ANIm interspecies gap was 95.76-97.20% based on the in silico DDH analysis. Meanwhile, phylogenetic analyses showed that the Thalassospira bacteria exhibited distribution pattern to a certain degree according to geographic regions. Moreover, they clustered together according to the habitats depth. For short, the phylogenetic analyses and biogeography of the Thalassospira bacteria were systematically investigated for the first time. These results will be helpful to explore further their ecological role and adaptive evolution in marine environments.
Project description:More than 75 "species-level" phylotypes of spirochete bacteria belonging to the genus Treponema reside within the human oral cavity. The majority of these oral treponeme phylotypes correspond to as-yet-uncultivated taxa or strains of uncertain standing in taxonomy. Here, we analyze phylogenetic and taxonomic relationships between oral treponeme strains using a multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme based on the highly conserved 16S rRNA, pyrH, recA, and flaA genes. We utilized this MLSA scheme to analyze genetic data from a curated collection of oral treponeme strains (n = 71) of diverse geographical origins. This comprises phylogroup 1 (n = 23) and phylogroup 2 (n = 48) treponeme strains, including all relevant American Type Culture Collection reference strains. The taxonomy of all strains was confirmed or inferred via the analysis of ca. 1,450-bp 16S rRNA gene sequences using a combination of bioinformatic and phylogenetic approaches. Taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships between the respective treponeme strains were further investigated by analyzing individual and concatenated flaA (1,074-nucleotide [nt]), recA (1,377-nt), and pyrH (696-nt) gene sequence data sets. Our data confirmed the species differentiation between Treponema denticola (n = 41) and Treponema putidum (n = 7) strains. Notably, our results clearly supported the differentiation of the 23 phylogroup 1 treponeme strains into five distinct "species-level" phylotypes. These respectively corresponded to "Treponema vincentii" (n = 11), Treponema medium (n = 1), "Treponema sinensis" (Treponema sp. IA; n = 4), Treponema sp. IB (n = 3), and Treponema sp. IC (n = 4). In conclusion, our MLSA-based approach can be used to effectively discriminate oral treponeme taxa, confirm taxonomic assignment, and enable the delineation of species boundaries with high confidence. IMPORTANCE:Periodontal diseases are caused by persistent polymicrobial biofilm infections of the gums and underlying tooth-supporting structures and have a complex and variable etiology. Although Treponema denticola is strongly associated with periodontal diseases, the etiological roles of other treponeme species/phylotypes are less well defined. This is due to a paucity of formal species descriptions and a poor understanding of genetic relationships between oral treponeme taxa. Our study directly addresses these issues. It represents one of the most comprehensive analyses of oral treponeme strains performed to date, including isolates from North America, Europe, and Asia. We envisage that our results will greatly facilitate future metagenomic efforts aimed at characterizing the clinical distributions of oral treponeme species/phylotypes, helping investigators to establish a more detailed understanding of their etiological roles in periodontal diseases and other infectious diseases. Our results are also directly relevant to various polymicrobial tissue infections in animals, which also involve treponeme populations.
Project description:A multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme was developed for characterization of strains and species from the genus Achromobacter, which are increasingly recovered from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Five conserved housekeeping genes were selected for the MLSA, which was applied to a diverse collection of 77 strains originating from Europe, Asia, and South America and including type strains of the seven recognized Achromobacter species, six environmental strains, eight non-CF clinical strains, and 56 CF clinical strains. The discriminatory power of MLSA, based on 2,098 nucleotides (nt), was much superior to a 16S rRNA gene comparison based on 1,309 nt. Congruence was observed between single-gene trees and a concatenated gene tree. MLSA differentiated all seven current Achromobacter species and also demonstrated the presence of at least four novel potential species within the genus. CF isolates were predominantly Achromobacter xylosoxidans (64%), an undescribed Achromobacter species (18%), and Achromobacter ruhlandii (7%). A clone of Achromobacter, which has spread among patients from Danish CF centers in Aarhus and Copenhagen, was identified as Achromobacter ruhlandii. MLSA facilitates the specific identification of isolates of Achromobacter necessary for describing their role in clinical infections.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Salinivibrios are moderately halophilic bacteria found in salted meats, brines and hypersaline environments. We obtained three novel conspecific Salinivibrio strains closely related to S. costicola, from Socompa Lake, a high altitude hypersaline Andean lake (approx. 3,570 meters above the sea level). RESULTS:The three novel Salinivibrio spp. were extremely resistant to arsenic (up to 200 mM HAsO42-), NaCl (up to 15%), and UV-B radiation (19 KJ/m2, corresponding to 240 minutes of exposure) by means of phenotypic tests. Our subsequent draft genome ionsequencing and RAST-based genome annotation revealed the presence of genes related to arsenic, NaCl, and UV radiation resistance. The three novel Salinivibrio genomes also had the xanthorhodopsin gene cluster phylogenetically related to Marinobacter and Spiribacter. The genomic taxonomy analysis, including multilocus sequence analysis, average amino acid identity, and genome-to-genome distance revealed that the three novel strains belong to a new Salinivibrio species. CONCLUSIONS:Arsenic resistance genes, genes involved in DNA repair, resistance to extreme environmental conditions and the possible light-based energy production, may represent important attributes of the novel salinivibrios, allowing these microbes to thrive in the Socompa Lake.
Project description:A comparative taxonomic study of Halorubrum distributum, Halorubrum terrestre, Halorubrum arcis and Halorubrum litoreum was carried out using different approaches, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), phylogenomic analysis based on the comparison of the core genome, orthologous average nucleotide identity (OrthoANI), Genome-to-Genome Distance Calculator (GGDC), synteny plots and polar lipid profile (PLP). The MLSA study, using the five concatenated housekeeping genes atpB, EF-2, glnA, ppsA and rpoB', and the phylogenomic analysis based on 1347 core translated gene sequences obtained from their genomes showed that Halorubrum distributum JCM 9100T, Halorubrum terrestre JCM 10247T, Halorubrum arcis JCM 13916T and Halorubrum litoreum JCM 13561T formed a robust cluster, clearly separated from the rest of species of the genus Halorubrum. The OrthoANI and digital DDH values, calculated by the GGDC, showed percentages among Hrr. distributum JCM 9100T, Hrr. terrestre JCM 10247T, Hrr. arcis JCM 13916T and Hrr. litoreum JCM 13561T that ranged from 98.1 to 97.5?%, and 84.0 to 78.0?%, respectively, while these values among those strains and the type strains of their most related species of Halorubrum were equal or lower than 90.8 and 41.2 %, respectively. Moreover, degree of synteny across the four genomes was very high, especially between the genomes of Halorubrum litoreum JCM 13561T and Halorubrum arcis JCM 13916T. In addition, the PLP is quite similar among the four strains studied, showing a common pattern typical of the neutrophilic species of the genus Halorubrum. Overall, these data show that Hrr. distributum, Hrr. terrestre, Hrr. arcis and Hrr. litoreum constitute a single species. Thus, the latter three should be considered as later, heterotypic synonyms of Hrr. distributum based on the rules for priority of names. We propose an emended description of Hrr. distributum, including the features of Hrr. terrestre, Hrr. arcis and Hrr. litoreum.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Members of the genus Proteus are mostly opportunistic pathogens that cause a variety of infections in humans. The molecular evolutionary characteristics and genetic relationships among Proteus species have not been elucidated to date. In this study, we developed a multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) approach based on five housekeeping genes (HKGs) to delineate phylogenetic relationships of species within the genus Proteus. RESULTS:Of all 223 Proteus strains collected in the current study, the phylogenetic tree of five concatenated HKGs (dnaJ, mdh, pyrC, recA and rpoD) divided 223 strains into eleven clusters, which were representative of 11 species of Proteus. Meanwhile, the phylogenetic trees of the five individual HKGs also corresponded to that of the concatenated tree, except for recA, which clustered four strains at an independent cluster. The evaluation of inter- and intraspecies distances of HKG concatenation indicated that all interspecies distances were significantly different from intraspecies distances, which revealed that these HKG concatenations can be used as gene markers to distinguish different Proteus species. Further web-based DNA-DNA hybridization estimated by genome of type strains confirmed the validity of the MLSA, and each of eleven clusters was congruent with the most abundant Proteus species. In addition, we used the established MLSA method to identify the randomly collected Proteus and found that P. mirabilis is the most abundant species. However, the second most abundant species is P. terrae but not P. vulgaris. Combined with the genetic, genomic and phenotypic characteristics, these findings indicate that three species, P. terrae, P. cibarius and Proteus genospecies 5, should be regarded as heterotypic synonyms, and the species should be renamed P. terrae, while Proteus genospecies 5 has not been named to date. CONCLUSIONS:This study suggested that MLSA is a powerful method for the discrimination and classification of Proteus at the species level. The MLSA scheme provides a rapid and inexpensive means of identifying Proteus strains. The identification of Proteus species determined by the MLSA approach plays an important role in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of Proteus infection.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pseudomonas syringae is a highly diverse bacterial species complex capable of causing a wide range of serious diseases on numerous agronomically important crops. We examine the evolutionary relationships of 391 agricultural and environmental strains using whole-genome sequencing and evolutionary genomic analyses. RESULTS:We describe the phylogenetic distribution of all 77,728 orthologous gene families in the pan-genome, reconstruct the core genome phylogeny using the 2410 core genes, hierarchically cluster the accessory genome, identify the diversity and distribution of type III secretion systems and their effectors, predict ecologically and evolutionary relevant loci, and establish the molecular evolutionary processes operating on gene families. Phylogenetic and recombination analyses reveals that the species complex is subdivided into primary and secondary phylogroups, with the former primarily comprised of agricultural isolates, including all of the well-studied P. syringae strains. In contrast, the secondary phylogroups include numerous environmental isolates. These phylogroups also have levels of genetic diversity typically found among distinct species. An analysis of rates of recombination within and between phylogroups revealed a higher rate of recombination within primary phylogroups than between primary and secondary phylogroups. We also find that "ecologically significant" virulence-associated loci and "evolutionarily significant" loci under positive selection are over-represented among loci that undergo inter-phylogroup genetic exchange. CONCLUSIONS:While inter-phylogroup recombination occurs relatively rarely, it is an important force maintaining the genetic cohesion of the species complex, particularly among primary phylogroup strains. This level of genetic cohesion, and the shared plant-associated niche, argues for considering the primary phylogroups as a single biological species.
Project description:The bacterial family Brucellaceae is currently composed of seven genera, including species of the genus Brucella, a number of which are significant veterinary and zoonotic pathogens. The bacteriological identification of pathogenic Brucella spp. may be hindered by their close phenotypic similarity to other members of the Brucellaceae, particularly of the genus Ochrobactrum. Additionally, a number of novel atypical Brucella taxa have recently been identified, which exhibit greater genetic diversity than observed within the previously described species, and which share genomic features with organisms outside of the genus. Furthermore, previous work has indicated that the genus Ochrobactrum is polyphyletic, raising further questions regarding the relationship between the genus Brucella and wider Brucellaceae. We have applied whole genome sequencing (WGS) and pan-family multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) approaches to a comprehensive panel of Brucellaceae type strains, in order to characterize relationships within the family. Phylogenies based on WGS core genome alignments were able to resolve phylogenetic relationships of 31 non-Brucella spp. type strains from within the family, alongside type strains of twelve Brucella species. A phylogeny based on concatenated pan-family MLSA data was largely consistent with WGS based analyses. Notably, recently described atypical Brucella isolates were consistently placed in a single clade with existing species, clearly distinct from all members of the genus Ochrobactrum and wider family. Both WGS and MLSA methods closely grouped Brucella spp. with a sub-set of Ochrobactrum species. However, results also confirmed that the genus Ochrobactrum is polyphyletic, with seven species forming a separate grouping. The pan-family MLSA scheme was subsequently applied to a panel of 50 field strains of the family Brucellaceae, isolated from a wide variety of sources. This analysis confirmed the utility of the pan-Brucellaceae MLSA scheme in placing field isolates in relation to recognized type strains. However, a significant number of these isolates did not cluster with currently identified type strains, suggesting the existence of additional taxonomic diversity within some members of the Brucellaceae. The WGS and pan-family MLSA approaches applied here provide valuable tools for resolving the identity and phylogenetic relationships of isolates from an expanding bacterial family containing a number of important pathogens.