Cycloheximide congeners produced by Streptomyces sp. SC0581 and photoinduced interconversion between (E)- and (Z)-2,3-dehydroanhydrocycloheximides.
ABSTRACT: Three new cycloheximide congeners, 2,3-dehydro-?-epi-isocycloheximide (1), (E)- and (Z)-2,3-dehydroanhydrocycloheximides (2 and 3), together with three known compounds, anhydroisoheximide (4), cycloheximide (5), and isocycloheximide (6), were obtained from the cultures of Streptomyces sp. SC0581. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis in combination with theoretical conformational analysis and ECD computations. The photoinduced interconversion between 2 and 3 was observed and verified and the possible reaction path and mechanism were proposed by theoretical computations. The antifungal and cytotoxic activities of 1-6 were evaluated and suggested that 2,3-dehydrogenation results in the loss of the activities and supported that the OH-? is important to the activities of cycloheximide congeners.
Project description:1. The loss of liver protein occurring in rats starved for 24 h was largely prevented by the administration of repeated doses of cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis. Similar effects were produced on tubulin, a 'fixed' liver protein. 2. Starvation accelerated, whereas cycloheximide markedly lowered, the rate of protein radioactivity decay after labelling with [3H]valine or [14C]bicarbonate, indicating that changes in catabolic rates played an important role in the above regulations of liver protein mass. 3. The total activity of several lysosomal hydrolases showed little change in livers of starved rats, but a marked progressive decline developed after the administration of cycloheximide, particularly in the activities of cathepsins B, D and L as well as acid ribonuclease. There was no evidence that these changes might be due to endogenous inhibitors (at least for cathepsin B activity, which fell to less than 30% of the control values) or enzyme leakage into the bloodstream; rather, plasma beta-galactosidase and beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase activities fell progressively during the cycloheximide treatment. 4. Endogenous proteolytic rates, measured in vitro by incubating subcellular preparations from livers prelabelled in vivo with [3H]valine, were markedly decreased in cycloheximide-treated animals. 5. The osmotic fragility of hepatic lysosomes, appreciably enhanced in starved animals, after cycloheximide treatment was found to be even lower than in fed controls. 6. The present data are consistent with the view that in starved animals the loss of liver protein is mostly accounted for by increased breakdown, due, in part at least, to enhanced autophagocytosis. 7. Cycloheximide largely counteracted these effects of starvation, altering the liver from being 'poised' in a proteolytic direction to a protein-sparing condition. The present data suggest that, besides suppression of the autophagic processes, a decrease in the lysosomal proteolytic enzyme system may also play a role in this regulation, and they seem to provide further circumstantial evidence for the existence of co-ordinating mechanisms between protein synthesis and degradation.
Project description:In what has become known as the Yusho incident, thousands of people in western Japan were poisoned by the accidental ingestion of rice bran oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and various dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. In this study, we investigated the accumulation patterns of 69 PCB congeners in the blood of Yusho patients in comparison with those of non-exposed controls. The blood samples were collected at medical check-ups in 2004 and 2005. To compare the patterns of PCB congeners, we calculated the concentration ratio of each congener relative to the 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexaCB (CB153) concentration. The concentration ratios of tetra- and penta-chlorinated congeners in the blood of Yusho patients were significantly lower than those of controls. To examine the cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent metabolic potential of the 2,3',4,4'5-pentaCB (CB118), CB153, and 2,3,3',4,4'5-hexaCB (CB156) congeners, we conducted PCB-CYP (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, and CYP2B6) docking simulation by in silico analysis. The docking models showed that human CYP1A1, CYP2A6, and CYP2B6 isozymes have the potential to metabolize CB118 and CB153. On the other hand, it was inferred that CB156 is difficult to be metabolized by these four CYP isozymes. These results indicate that CYP1 and CYP2 isozymes may be involved in the characteristic accumulation patterns of PCB congeners in the blood of Yusho patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Benzimidazoles and triazoles are useful structures for research and development of new pharmaceutical molecules and have received much attention in the last decade because of their highly potent medicinal activities. FINDINGS:A simple and efficient synthesis of triazole was carried out by treatment of 2-(4-azidophenyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole (6) with different types of terminal alkynes in t-BuOH/H2O, sodium ascorbate, and Zn(OTf)2, screened for cytotoxicity assay and achieved good results. A series of new benzimidazole-linked 1,2,3-triazole (8a-i) congeners were synthesized through cyclization of terminal alkynes and azide. These synthesized congeners 8a-i were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against five human cancer cell lines. These benzimidazole-linked 1,2,3-triazole derivatives have shown promising activity with IC50 values ranging from 0.1 to 43 ?M. Among them, the compounds (8a, 8b, 8c, and 8e) showed comparable cytotoxicity with adriamycin control drug. CONCLUSIONS:In conclusion, we have developed a simple, convenient, and an efficient convergent approach for the synthesis of benzimidazole-linked 1,2,3-triazole congeners as agents. Graphical Abstract Synthesis of 1,2,3-triazole derivatives.
Project description:Fibrinogen synthesis in the intact rat was perturbed by treatment with cycloheximide. Specific radioactivities of fibrinogen in plasma and liver both decreased at 2 h after treatment and increased over 2-fold by 18 h. Labelled-antibody--polyribosome binding experiments showed that more polyribosomes were engaged in fibrinogen synthesis at 18 h after treatment. Radioactivity of plasma fibrinogen chains from untreated control rats showed a constant ratio of A alpha--B beta/gamma = 1.03. At 2 h after cycloheximide treatment the A alpha- and B beta-chains showed the greatest decrease in labelling (A alpha--B beta/gamma = 0.66) and at 18 h all chains were much more labelled (the A alpha--B beta/gamma ratio chainged to 1.39). The observed imbalance in fibrinogen-chain synthesis suggests that cycloheximide has a selective effect on gene expression.
Project description:1. The liver ribosomes of rats given cycloheximide by intraperitoneal injection incorporate less amino acid into protein than ribosomes from control rat liver when they are incubated in vitro with excess of Sephadex-treated cell sap. The effect is rapid, marked and persistent. 2. Cell sap from liver of cycloheximide-treated animals is inhibitory but the inhibition can be relieved almost entirely by treating the cell sap with Sephadex. No damage has been done to the cell-sap factors: it is suggested that the dissolved cycloheximide in the cell sap causes the inhibition. 3. Cycloheximide added in vitro inhibits amino acid incorporation into protein in the presence or absence of polyuridylic acid. The inhibition is lessened by addition of excess of cell sap but is not abolished. 4. The differences between these results and those obtained with mouse liver (Trakatellis, Montjar & Axelrod, 1965) might arise because of species differences in sensitivity to the drug.
Project description:Cycloheximide is a protein synthesis inhibitor that acts specifically on the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. It has previously been shown that a short incubation of Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae in cycloheximide eliminates fluid phase endocytosis.We found that treatment with cycloheximide also causes the amoebae to retract their pseudopodia, round up and cease movement. Furthermore, fluid phase endocytosis, phagocytosis and capping cease in the presence of 2 mM cycloheximide, although membrane uptake, as measured using FM1-43, is unaffected. In the presence of cycloheximide, aggregation-competent amoebae sensitive to cAMP, although round, can still localise CRAC, ABP120, PI3K and actin polymerisation in response to a micropipette filled with cAMP. The behaviour of wild-type amoebae in the presence of cycloheximide is surprisingly similar to that of amoebae having a temperature-sensitive version of NSF at the restrictive temperature.Our results may suggest that, upon cycloheximide treatment, either a labile protein required for polarised membrane recycling is lost, or a control mechanism linking protein synthesis to membrane recycling is activated.
Project description:We have measured PCBs in 184 air samples collected at 37 sites in the city of Chicago using an innovative system of high-volume air samplers mounted on two health clinic vans. Here we describe results of sampling conducted from November 2006 to November 2007. The samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using a gas chromatograph with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The ?PCBs (sum of 169 peaks) in Chicago ranged from 75 pg m(-3) to 5500 pg m(-3) and primarily varied as a function of temperature. The congener patterns are surprisingly similar throughout the city even though the temperature-corrected concentrations vary by more than an order of magnitude. The average profile resembles a mixture of Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1254, and includes many congeners that have been identified as being aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists (dioxin-like) and/or neurotoxins. The toxic equivalence (TEQ) and neurotoxic equivalence (NEQ) in air were calculated and investigated for their spatial distribution throughout the urban-industrial complex of Chicago. The NEQ concentrations are linearly correlated with ?PCBs while the TEQ concentrations are not predictable. The findings of this study suggest that airborne PCBs in Chicago are widely present and elevated in residential communities; there are multiple sources rather than one or a few locations of very high emissions; the emission includes congeners associated with dioxin-like and neurotoxic effects and congeners associated with unidentified sources.
Project description:1. Cycloheximide inhibited immediately the incorporation of L-[4,5-3H]leucine and D-]2-3H]mannose into mammary proteins, suggesting that the mannosylation of mammary glycoproteins requires the continued supply of newly synthesized polypeptides. 2. The incorporation of radioactivity from N-acetyl-D-[1-14C] glucosamine into protein was not inhibited until approx. 30 min after cycloheximide addition. Much (greater than 90%) of this radioactivity was present as N-acetylgalactosamine. 3. N-Glycosylation appears to be inhibited immediately by cycloheximide due to a lack of newly synthesized acceptor polypeptides, whereas O-glycosylation continues for 30 min, the time taken for acceptor peptides to move from their site of synthesis to the Golgi region and for completion of glycosylation. 4. There was a transient increase in the incorporation of mannose into lipid-linked oligosaccharide in the presence of cycloheximide, followed by a decrease in the radioactivity in this fraction. 5. The major lipid-linked oligosaccharide extracted from explants incubated for 2h in the presence of cycloheximide (6-7 monosaccharide units) was smaller than that extracted from control explants (10-12 monosaccharide units).
Project description:Microcystins (MC), representing >100 congeners being produced by cyanobacteria, are a hazard for aquatic species. As MC congeners vary in their toxicity, the congener composition of a bloom primarily dictates the severity of adverse effects and appears primarily to be governed by toxicokinetics, i.e., whether transport of MCs occurs via organic anion-transporting polypeptides (Oatps). Differences in observed MC toxicity in various fish species suggest differential expression of Oatp subtypes leading to varying tissue distribution of the very same MC congener within different species. The objectives of this study were the functional characterization and analysis of the tissue distribution of Oatp subtypes in zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a surrogate model for cyprinid fish. Zebrafish Oatps (zfOatps) were cloned, and the organ distribution was determined at the mRNA level. zfOatps were transiently expressed in HEK293 cells for functional characterization using the Oatp substrates estrone-3-sulfate, taurocholate and methotrexate and specific MC congeners (MC-LR, MC-RR, MC-LF and MC-LW). Novel zfOatp isoforms were isolated. Among these isoforms, the organ-specific expression of zfOatp1d1 and of members of the zfOatp1f subfamily was identified. At the functional level, zfOatp1d1, zfOatp1f2, zfOatp1f3 and zfOatp1f4 transported at least one of the Oatp substrates, and zfOatp1d1, zfOatp1f2 and zfOatp1f4 were shown to transport MC congeners. MC-LF and MC-LW were generally transported faster than MC-LR and MC-RR. The subtype-specific expression of zfOatp1d1 and of members of the zfOatp1f subfamily as well as differences in the transport of MC congeners could explain the MC congener-dependent differences in toxicity in cyprinids.
Project description:Cyanobacterial blooms increasingly impair inland waters, with the potential for a concurrent increase in cyanotoxins that have been linked to animal and human mortalities. Microcystins (MCs) are among the most commonly detected cyanotoxins, but little is known about the distribution of different MC congeners despite large differences in their biomagnification, persistence, and toxicity. Using raw-water intake data from sites around the Great Lakes basin, we applied multivariate canonical analyses and regression tree analyses to identify how different congeners (MC-LA, -LR, -RR, and -YR) varied with changes in meteorological and nutrient conditions over time (10 years) and space (longitude range: 77°2'60 to 94°29'23 W). We found that MC-LR was associated with strong winds, warm temperatures, and nutrient-rich conditions, whereas the equally toxic yet less commonly studied MC-LA tended to dominate under intermediate winds, wetter, and nutrient-poor conditions. A global synthesis of lake data in the peer-reviewed literature showed that the composition of MC congeners differs among regions, with MC-LA more commonly reported in North America than Europe. Global patterns of MC congeners tended to vary with lake nutrient conditions and lake morphometry. Ultimately, knowledge of the environmental factors leading to the formation of different MC congeners in freshwaters is necessary to assess the duration and degree of toxin exposure under future global change.