Outbreak of infection caused by Enterobacter cloacae producing the novel VEB-3 beta-lactamase in China.
ABSTRACT: Over a 4-month period from November 2002 to February 2003, 27 ceftazidime-resistant or cefotaxime-resistant nonrepetitive Enterobacter cloacae isolates were collected from 27 patients hospitalized at HuaShan Hospital, Shanghai, People's Republic of China. The Etest did not detect extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in those 27 isolates; however, screening by the NCCLS ESBL disk test and confirmatory tests detected ESBLs in 4 of 27 isolates and PCR detected ESBLs in 23 of 27 isolates. The majority of ESBL producers exhibited the same repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR pattern but harbored different ESBL genes. CTX-M-3 was the most prevalent ESBL in our study. Interestingly, 12 clonally related E. cloacae isolates possessed a novel bla(VEB)-type beta-lactamase, bla(VEB-3). Bla(VEB-3) was encoded by the chromosome and was located in an integron. Nine of the 12 isolates harbored both the bla(VEB-3) and the bla(CTX-M-3)-like ESBLs. This is the first report of a VEB-1-like ESBL in China and the first report of the simultaneous presence of VEB-1 and CTX-M-3-like ESBLs in an isolate.
Project description:Infection by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae has been increasing in Taiwan. Accurate identification of the ESBL genes is necessary for surveillance and for epidemiological studies of the mode of transmission in the hospital setting. We describe herein the development of a novel system, which consists of a multiplex PCR to identify bla(SHV), bla(CTX-M-3)-like, and bla(CTX-M-14)-like genes and a modified SHV melting-curve mutation detection method to rapidly distinguish six prevalent bla(SHV) genes (bla(SHV-1), bla(SHV-2), bla(SHV-2a), bla(SHV-5), bla(SHV-11), and bla(SHV-12)) in Taiwan. Sixty-five clinical isolates, which had been characterized by nucleotide sequencing of the bla(SHV) and bla(CTX-M) genes, were identified by the system. The system was then used to genotype the ESBLs from 199 clinical isolates, including 40 Enterobacter cloacae, 68 Escherichia coli, and 91 Klebsiella pneumoniae, collected between August 2002 and March 2003. SHV-12 (80 isolates) was the most prevalent type of ESBL identified, followed in order of frequency by CTX-M-3 (65 isolates) and CTX-M-14 (36 isolates). Seventeen (9%) of the 199 clinical isolates harbored both SHV- and CTX-M-type ESBLs. In contrast to Enterobacter cloacae, the majority of which produced SHV-type ESBLs, E. coli and K. pneumoniae were more likely to possess CTX-M-type ESBLs. Three rare CTX-M types were identified through sequencing of the bla(CTX-M-3)-like (CTX-M-15) and bla(CTX-M-14)-like (CTX-M-9 and CTX-M-13) genes. The system appears to provide an efficient differentiation of ESBLs among E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and Enterobacter cloacae in Taiwan. Moreover, the design of the system can be easily adapted for similar purposes in areas where different ESBLs are prevalent.
Project description:Of 15 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae collected from the First Municipal People's Hospital of Guangzhou, in the southern part of the People's Republic of China, 9 were found to produce CTX-M ESBLs, 3 produced SHV-12, and 3 produced both CTX-M and SHV-12. Eleven isolates produced either TEM-1B or SHV-11, in addition to an ESBL. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the 12 isolates carrying bla(CTX-M) genes revealed that they harbored three different bla(CTX-M) genes, bla(CTX-M-9) (5 isolates), bla(CTX-M-13) (1 isolate), and bla(CTX-M-14) (6 isolates). These genes have 98% nucleotide homology with bla(Toho-2). The bla(CTX-M) genes were carried on plasmids that ranged in size from 35 to 150 kb. Plasmid fingerprints and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed the dissemination of the bla(CTX-M) genes through transfer of different antibiotic resistance plasmids to different bacteria, suggesting that these resistance determinants are highly mobile. Insertion sequence ISEcp1, found on the upstream region of these genes, may be involved in the translocation of the bla(CTX-M) genes. This is the first report of the occurrence of SHV-12 and CTX-M ESBLs in China. The presence of strains with these ESBLs shows both the evolution of bla(CTX-M) genes and their dissemination among at least three species of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter cloacae, isolated within a single hospital. The predominance of CTX-M type enzymes seen in this area of China appears to be similar to that seen in South America but is different from those seen in Europe and North America, suggesting different evolutionary routes and selective pressures. A more comprehensive survey of the ESBL types from China is urgently needed.
Project description:Over a 21/2-month period in 1999, 37 ceftazidime-resistant nonrepetitive enterobacterial isolates were collected from 37 patients in a Bangkok hospital, Thailand. Eighty-one percent of these strains expressed a clavulanic acid-inhibited extended-cephalosporin resistance profile. An identical extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), VEB-1, was found in 16 unrelated enterobacterial isolates (Escherichia coli, n = 10; Enterobacter cloacae, n = 2; Enterobacter sakazakii, n = 1; and Klebsiella pneumoniae, n = 3) and in two clonally related E. cloacae isolates. The bla(VEB-1) gene was located on mostly self-conjugative plasmids (ca. 24 to 200 kb) that conferred additional non-beta-lactam antibiotic resistance patterns. Additionally, the bla(VEB-1) gene cassette was part of class 1 integrons varying in size and structure. The bla(VEB-1)-containing integrons were mostly associated with bla(OXA-10)-like and arr-2-like gene cassettes, the latter conferring resistance to rifampin. These data indicated the spread of bla(VEB-1) in Bangkok due to frequent transfer of different plasmids and class 1 integrons and rarely to clonally related strains. Plasmid- and integron-mediated resistance to rifampin was also found in enterobacterial isolates.
Project description:Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae have rapidly spread worldwide and pose a serious threat for health care-associated (HA) infection. We conducted molecular detection and characterization of ESBL-related bla genes, including bla(TEM), bla(SHV), bla(CTX-M), bla(VEB), bla(OXA), bla(PER), and bla(GES), among 362 isolates of ESBL-producing E. coli (n = 235) and ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae (n = 127) collected from patients who met the definition of HA infection at two major university hospitals in Thailand from December 2004 to May 2005. The prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli and ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae, patient demographics and the susceptibilities of these bacteria to various antimicrobial agents were described. A total of 87.3% of isolates carried several bla genes. The prevalence of bla(CTX-M) was strikingly high: 99.6% for ESBL-producing E. coli (CTX-M-14, -15, -27, -40, and -55) and 99.2% for ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae (CTX-M-3, -14, -15, -27, and -55). ISEcp1 was found in the upstream region of bla(CTX-M) in most isolates. Up to 77.0% and 71.7% of ESBL-producing E. coli and ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae, respectively, carried bla(TEM); all of them encoded TEM-1. ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae carried bla(SHV) at 87.4% (SHV-1, -2a, -11, -12, -27, -71, and -75) but only at 3.8% for ESBL-producing E. coli (SHV-11 and -12). bla genes encoding VEB-1 and OXA-10 were found in both ESBL-producing E. coli (8.5% and 8.1%, respectively) and ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae (10.2% and 11.8%, respectively). None of the isolates were positive for bla(PER) and bla(GES). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that there was no major clonal relationship among these ESBL producers. This is the first study to report CTX-M-3, CTX-M-27, CTX-M-40, SHV-27, SHV-71, and SHV-75 in Thailand and to show that CTX-M ESBL is highly endemic in the country.
Project description:The activities of ceftazidime-avibactam, ceftolozane-tazobactam, and comparators were evaluated for 733 isolates displaying resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins and carrying extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) genes detected by whole-genome sequencing analysis. Isolates were collected during 2017 in U.S. hospitals. The ESBL producers were 486 Escherichia coli, 190 Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 42 Enterobacter cloacae isolates and isolates from 3 other species. The most common groups of ESBL-encoding genes were bla CTX-M-15-like (n?=?491 isolates) and bla CTX-M-15 alone (n?=?168) or plus bla OXA-1 (n?=?260), followed by bla CTX-M-14-like (n?=?162), which included bla CTX-M-27 and bla CTX-M-14 (104 and 51 isolates, respectively), and bla SHV-12 and bla SHV-7 (48 and 22 isolates, respectively). ESBL producers carried other ?-lactamases, including 1 E. cloacae harboring bla KPC-3 All ESBL-producing isolates were susceptible to ceftazidime-avibactam, and 90.2/83.9% (CLSI/EUCAST breakpoints) were susceptible to ceftolozane-tazobactam. Tigecycline (98.1/95.8% susceptible) and colistin (99.2%) were comparators that displayed the greatest activity against these isolates. Ceftolozane-tazobactam inhibited 91.4/83.9% of isolates carrying bla CTX-M-15-like and 97.5/95.1% of isolates carrying bla CTX-M-14-like, and its activity was more limited against the 91 isolates carrying bla SHV (66.7/61.1% susceptible). Ceftolozane-tazobactam inhibited 95.5% of the E. coli isolates but only 83.0%, 64.3%, and 80.0% of K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae, and other species harboring ESBL-encoding genes (CLSI breakpoints), respectively. Outer membrane protein sequences for ceftolozane-tazobactam-nonsusceptible isolates did not exhibit significant differences compared to those in genetically related ceftolozane-tazobactam-susceptible isolates. Ceftazidime-avibactam was more active than other agents tested, including ceftolozane-tazobactam, and the activity of this combination was stable regardless of species or ESBL gene carried.
Project description:There is a global increase in infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae with plasmid-borne ?-lactamases that confer resistance to third-generation cephalosporins. The epidemiology of these bacteria is not well understood, and was, therefore, investigated in a selection of 636 clinical Enterobacteriaceae with a minimal inhibitory concentration >1 mg/L for ceftazidime/ceftriaxone from a national survey (75% E. coli, 11% E. cloacae, 11% K. pneumoniae, 2% K. oxytoca, 2% P. mirabilis). Isolates were investigated for extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) and ampC genes using microarray, PCR, gene sequencing and molecular straintyping (Diversilab and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST)). ESBL genes were demonstrated in 512 isolates (81%); of which 446 (87%) belonged to the CTX-M family. Among 314 randomly selected and sequenced isolates, bla(CTX-M-15) was most prevalent (n?=?124, 39%), followed by bla(CTX-M-1) (n?=?47, 15%), bla(CTX-M-14) (n?=?15, 5%), bla(SHV-12) (n?=?24, 8%) and bla(TEM-52) (n?=?13, 4%). Among 181 isolates with MIC ?16 mg/L for cefoxitin plasmid encoded AmpCs were detected in 32 and 27 were of the CMY-2 group. Among 102 E. coli isolates with MIC ?16 mg/L for cefoxitin ampC promoter mutations were identified in 29 (28%). Based on Diversilab genotyping of 608 isolates (similarity cut-off >98%) discriminatory indices of bacteria with ESBL and/or ampC genes were 0.994, 0.985 and 0.994 for E. coli, K. pneumoniae and E. cloacae, respectively. Based on similarity cut-off >95% two large clusters of E. coli were apparent (of 43 and 30 isolates) and 21 of 21 that were typed by belonged to ST131 of which 13 contained bla(CTX-M-15). Our findings demonstrate that bla(CTX-M-15) is the most prevalent ESBL and we report a larger than previously reported prevalence of ampC genes among Enterobacteriaceae responsible for resistance to third-generation cephalosporins.
Project description:The expanded-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) gene bla(VEB-1), identified worldwide in Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is associated with either class 1 integrons or repeated elements. We report here the first association of bla(VEB-1a) with the insertion sequence ISCR2 in six Acinetobacter species isolates recovered from Argentina. That genetic structure was likely at the origin of the mobilization of this ESBL gene.
Project description:Background and Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of bla NDM, bla PER, bla VEB, bla IMP, and bla VIM type genes among A. baumannii isolates from hospitalized patients in two hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Patients and Methods. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion and Broth microdilution methods. The frequency of MBL (metallo-beta-lactamase) and ESBL (extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase) producers was evaluated by CDDT. The ? -lactamases genes were detected by PCR and sequencing methods. Results. The resistance of A. baumannii isolates against tested antibiotics was as follows: 103 (95.4%) to ceftazidime, 108 (100%) to cefotaxime, 105 (95.7%) to cefepime, 99 (91.7%) to imipenem, 99 (91.7%) to meropenem, 87 (80.6%) to amikacin, 105 (97.2%) to piperacillin, 100 (92.6%) to ciprofloxacin, 103 (95.4%) to piperacillin/tazobactam, 44 (40.7%) to gentamicin, 106 (98.1%) to ampicillin/sulbactam, 106 (98.1%) to co-trimoxazole, 87 (80.6%) to tetracycline, and 1 (1.8%) to colistin. Using combined disk diffusion test, 91 (84.2%) and 86 (86.86%) were ESBL and MBL producers, respectively. The prevalence of bla PER-1, bla VEB-1, bla IMP-1, and bla VIM-1 genes was 71 (78.03%), 36 (39.5%), 3 (3.48%), and 15 (17.44%), respectively. Conclusions. The prevalence of ESBLs and MBLs-producing A. baumannii strains detected in this study is a major concern and highlights the need of infection control measures.
Project description:The emergence of antimicrobial resistance among Enterobacter spp., including resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC), is of great concern in both human and veterinary medicine. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among 60 isolates of Enterobacter spp., including E. cloacae (n = 44), E. aerogenes (n = 10), and E. asburiae (n = 6), from clinical specimens of dogs and cats from 15 prefectures in Japan. Furthermore, we characterized the resistance mechanisms harbored by these isolates, including extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR); and assessed the genetic relatedness of ESC-resistant Enterobacter spp. strains by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing demonstrated the resistance rates to ampicillin (93.3%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (93.3%), cefmetazole (93.3%), chloramphenicol (46.7%), ciprofloxacin (43.3%), tetracycline (40.0%), ceftazidime (33.3%), cefotaxime (33.3%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (28.3%), gentamicin (23.3%), and meropenem (0%). Phenotypic testing detected ESBLs in 16 of 18 ESC-resistant E. cloacae isolates but not in the other species. The most frequent ESBL was CTX-M-15 (n = 8), followed by SHV-12 (n = 7), and CTX-M-3 (n = 1). As for AmpC ?-lactamases, CMY-2 (n = 2) and DHA-1 (n = 2) were identified in ESC-resistant E. cloacae strains with or without ESBLs. All of the ESC-resistant E. cloacae strains also harbored one or two PMQRs, including qnrB (n = 15), aac(6')-Ib-cr (n = 8), and qnrS (n = 2). Based on MLST and PFGE analysis, E. cloacae clones of ST591-SHV-12, ST171-CTX-M-15, and ST121-CTX-M-15 were detected in one or several hospitals. These results suggested intra- and inter-hospital dissemination of E. cloacae clones co-harboring ESBLs and PMQRs among companion animals. This is the first report on the large-scale monitoring of antimicrobial-resistant isolates of Enterobacter spp. from companion animals in Japan.
Project description:In this work, by high-throughput sequencing, antibiotic resistance genes, including class A (bla CTX-M, bla Z, bla TEM, bla VEB, bla KLUC, and bla SFO), class C (bla SHV, bla DHA, bla MIR, bla AZECL-29, and bla ACT), and class D (bla OXA) ?-lactamase genes, were identified among the pooled genomic DNA from 212 clinical Enterobacter cloacae isolates. Six bla MIR-positive E. cloacae strains were identified, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed that these strains were not clonally related. The complete genome of the bla MIR -positive strain (Y546) consisted of both a chromosome (4.78?Mb) and a large plasmid pY546 (208.74?kb). The extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) (bla SHV-12 and bla CTX-M-9a) and AmpC (bla MIR) were encoded on the chromosome, and the pY546 plasmid contained several clusters of genes conferring resistance to metals, such as copper (pco), arsenic (ars), tellurite (ter), and tetrathionate (ttr), and genes encoding many divalent cation transporter proteins. The comparative genomic analyses of the whole plasmid sequence and of the heavy metal resistance gene-encoding regions revealed that the plasmid sequences of Klebsiella pneumoniae (such as pKPN-332, pKPN-3967, and pKPN-262) shared the highest similarity with those of pY546. It may be concluded that a variety of ?-lactamase genes present in E. cloacae which confer resistance to ?-lactam antibiotics and the emergence of plasmids carrying heavy metal resistance genes in clinical isolates are alarming and need further surveillance.