The genomic landscape of tuberous sclerosis complex.
ABSTRACT: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare genetic disease causing multisystem growth of benign tumours and other hamartomatous lesions, which leads to diverse and debilitating clinical symptoms. Patients are born with TSC1 or TSC2 mutations, and somatic inactivation of wild-type alleles drives MTOR activation; however, second hits to TSC1/TSC2 are not always observed. Here, we present the genomic landscape of TSC hamartomas. We determine that TSC lesions contain a low somatic mutational burden relative to carcinomas, a subset feature large-scale chromosomal aberrations, and highly conserved molecular signatures for each type exist. Analysis of the molecular signatures coupled with computational approaches reveals unique aspects of cellular heterogeneity and cell origin. Using immune data sets, we identify significant neuroinflammation in TSC-associated brain tumours. Taken together, this molecular catalogue of TSC serves as a resource into the origin of these hamartomas and provides a framework that unifies genomic and transcriptomic dimensions for complex tumours.
Project description:Hamartomas are composed of cells native to an organ but abnormal in number, arrangement or maturity. In the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), hamartomas develop in multiple organs because of mutations in TSC1 or TSC2. Here we show that TSC2-null fibroblast-like cells grown from human TSC skin hamartomas induced normal human keratinocytes to form hair follicles and stimulated hamartomatous changes. Follicles were complete with sebaceous glands, hair shafts and inner and outer root sheaths. TSC2-null cells surrounding the hair bulb expressed markers of the dermal sheath and dermal papilla. Tumour xenografts recapitulated characteristics of TSC skin hamartomas with increased mammalian target of the rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity, angiogenesis, mononuclear phagocytes and epidermal proliferation. Treatment with an mTORC1 inhibitor normalized these parameters and reduced the number of tumour cells. These studies indicate that TSC2-null cells are the inciting cells for TSC skin hamartomas, and suggest that studies on hamartomas will provide insights into tissue morphogenesis and regeneration.
Project description:Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic autosomal dominant disorder characterized by benign tumor-like lesions, called hamartomas, in multiple organ systems, including the brain, skin, heart, kidneys, and lung. These hamartomas cause a diverse set of clinical problems based on their location and often result in epilepsy, learning difficulties, and behavioral problems. TSC is caused by mutations within the TSC1 or TSC2 genes that inactivate the genes' tumor-suppressive function and drive hamartomatous cell growth. In normal cells, TSC1 and TSC2 integrate growth signals and nutrient inputs to downregulate signaling to mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), an evolutionarily conserved serine-threonine kinase that controls cell growth and cell survival. The molecular connection between TSC and mTOR led to the clinical use of allosteric mTOR inhibitors (sirolimus and everolimus) for the treatment of TSC. Everolimus is approved for subependymal giant cell astrocytomas and renal angiomyolipomas in patients with TSC. Sirolimus, though not approved for TSC, has undergone considerable investigation to treat various aspects of the disease. Everolimus and sirolimus selectively inhibit mTOR signaling with similar molecular mechanisms, but with distinct clinical profiles. This review differentiates mTOR inhibitors in TSC while describing the molecular mechanisms, pathogenic mutations, and clinical trial outcomes for managing TSC.
Project description:Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2, is characterized by the development of hamartomas in a variety of organs. Concordant with the tumor-suppressor model, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) is known to occur in these hamartomas at loci of both TSC1 and TSC2. LOH has been documented in renal angiomyolipomas (AMLs), but loss of the wild-type allele in cortical tubers appears to be very uncommon. Analysis of second, somatic events in tumors for which the status of both TSC1 and TSC2 is known is essential for exploration of the pathogenesis of TSC-lesion development. We analyzed 24 hamartomas from 10 patients for second-hit mutations, by several methods, including LOH, scanning of all exons of both TSC1 and TSC2, promoter methylation of TSC2, and clonality analysis. Our results document loss of the wild-type allele in six of seven AMLs, without evidence of the inactivation of the second allele in many of the other lesions, including tumors that appear to be clonally derived. Laser-capture microdissection further demonstrated loss of the second allele in all three cellular components of an AML. This study thus provides evidence that, in both TSC1 and TSC2, somatic mutations resulting in the loss of wild-type alleles may not be necessary in some tumor types-and that other mechanisms may contribute to tumorigenesis in this setting.
Project description:Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic condition characterized by the occurrence of hamartomatous wounds stemming from the dysfunction of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. We investigated the clinical phenotypes and genetic variants in 243 unrelated probands and their families in China. Exome sequencing, targeted sequencing or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was performed in 174 children with TSC, among whom 31 (17.82%) patients/families were identified as having pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in the TSC1 gene, 120 (68.97%) as having pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in the TSC2 gene and 23 (13.21%) as having no pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants identified (NMI). In the 31 patients with pathogenic or likely pathogenic TSC1 variants, 10 novel variants were detected among 26 different variants. In all 120 patients with TSC2 variants, 39 novel variants were found among a total of 107 different variants. We compared the phenotypes of the individuals with TSC1 pathogenic variants, TSC2 pathogenic variants and NMI. Patients with TSC2 variants were first diagnosed at a younger age (p = 0.003) and had more retinal hamartomas (p = 0.003) and facial angiofibromas (p = 0.027) (age ? 3 years) than individuals with TSC1 variants. Compared with individuals with TSC1/TSC2 pathogenic variants, NMI individuals had fewer cortical tubers (p = 0.003). Compared with individuals with TSC1 pathogenic variants, NMI patients had more retinal hamartomas (p = 0.035), and compared with individuals with TSC2 pathogenic variants, they had less epilepsy (p = 0.003) and fewer subependymal nodules (SENs) (p = 0.004).
Project description:Tuberous sclerosis (TSC [MIM 191090 and MIM 191100]) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hamartomas in many organs. Two thirds of cases are sporadic and are thought to represent new mutations. TSC is caused by mutations affecting either of the presumed tumor-suppressor genes, TSC1 and TSC2. Both appear to function as tumor suppressors, because somatic loss or intragenic mutation of the corresponding wild-type allele is seen in the associated hamartomas. Here we report the first comprehensive mutation analysis of TSC1 and TSC2 in a cohort of 150 unrelated TSC patients and their families, using heteroduplex and SSCP analysis of all coding exons and using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and conventional Southern blot analysis and long PCR to screen for large rearrangements. Mutations were characterized in 120 (80%) of the 150 cases, affecting TSC1 in 22 cases and TSC2 in 98 cases. TSC1 mutations were significantly underrepresented in sporadic cases (P=. 000185). Twenty-two patients had TSC2 missense mutations that were found predominantly in the GAP-related domain (eight cases) and in a small region encoded in exons 16 and 17, between nucleotides 1849 and 1859 (eight cases), consistent with the presence of residues performing key functions at these sites. In contrast, all TSC1 mutations were predicted to be truncating, consistent with a structural or adapter role for the encoded protein. Intellectual disability was significantly more frequent in TSC2 sporadic cases than in TSC1 sporadic cases (P=.0145). These data provide the first representative picture of the distribution and spectrum of mutations across the TSC1 and TSC2 loci in clinically ascertained TSC and support a difference in severity of TSC1- and TSC2-associated disease.
Project description:Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is a relatively common hamartoma syndrome caused by mutations in either of two genes, TSC1 and TSC2. Here we report comprehensive mutation analysis in 224 index patients with TSC and correlate mutation findings with clinical features. Denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography, long-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and quantitative PCR were used for mutation detection. Mutations were identified in 186 (83%) of 224 of cases, comprising 138 small TSC2 mutations, 20 large TSC2 mutations, and 28 small TSC1 mutations. A standardized clinical assessment instrument covering 16 TSC manifestations was used. Sporadic patients with TSC1 mutations had, on average, milder disease in comparison with patients with TSC2 mutations, despite being of similar age. They had a lower frequency of seizures and moderate-to-severe mental retardation, fewer subependymal nodules and cortical tubers, less-severe kidney involvement, no retinal hamartomas, and less-severe facial angiofibroma. Patients in whom no mutation was found also had disease that was milder, on average, than that in patients with TSC2 mutations and was somewhat distinct from patients with TSC1 mutations. Although there was overlap in the spectrum of many clinical features of patients with TSC1 versus TSC2 mutations, some features (grade 2-4 kidney cysts or angiomyolipomas, forehead plaques, retinal hamartomas, and liver angiomyolipomas) were very rare or not seen at all in TSC1 patients. Thus both germline and somatic mutations appear to be less common in TSC1 than in TSC2. The reduced severity of disease in patients without defined mutations suggests that many of these patients are mosaic for a TSC2 mutation and/or have TSC because of mutations in an as-yet-unidentified locus with a relatively mild clinical phenotype.
Project description:Patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) develop hamartomas containing biallelic inactivating mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2, resulting in mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation. Hamartomas overgrow epithelial and mesenchymal cells in TSC skin. The pathogenetic mechanisms for these changes had not been investigated, and the existence or location of cells with biallelic mutations ("two-hit" cells) was unclear. We compared TSC skin hamartomas (angiofibromas and periungual fibromas) with normal-appearing skin of the same patient, and we observed more proliferation and mTOR activation in hamartoma epidermis. Two-hit cells were not detected in the epidermis. Fibroblast-like cells in the dermis, however, exhibited allelic deletion of TSC2, in both touch preparations of fresh tumor samples and cells grown from TSC skin tumors, suggesting that increased epidermal proliferation and mTOR activation were not caused by second-hit mutations in the keratinocytes but by mesenchymal-epithelial interactions. Gene expression arrays, used to identify potential paracrine factors released by mesenchymal cells, revealed more epiregulin mRNA in fibroblast-like angiofibroma and periungual fibroma cells than in fibroblasts from normal-appearing skin of the same patient. Elevation of epiregulin mRNA was confirmed with real-time PCR, and increased amounts of epiregulin protein were demonstrated with immunoprecipitation. Epiregulin stimulated keratinocyte proliferation and phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 in vitro. These results suggest that hamartomatous TSC skin tumors are induced by paracrine factors released by two-hit cells in the dermis and that proliferation with mTOR activation of the overlying epidermis is an effect of epiregulin.
Project description:Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by the development of hamartomas in a variety of organs and tissues. The disease is caused by mutations in either the TSC1 gene on chromosome 9q34 or the TSC2 gene on chromosome 16p13.3. The TSC1 and TSC2 gene products, TSC1 and TSC2, interact to form a protein complex that inhibits signal transduction to the downstream effectors of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Here we investigate the effects of putative TSC1 missense mutations identified in individuals with signs and/or symptoms of TSC on TSC1-TSC2 complex formation and mTOR signalling. We show that specific amino-acid substitutions close to the N-terminal of TSC1 reduce steady-state levels of TSC1, resulting in the activation of mTOR signalling and leading to the symptoms of TSC.
Project description:Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant neurogenetic disorder caused by mutations in one of two genes, TSC1 or TSC2, which encode the proteins hamartin and tuberin, respectively 123. Common features of TSC include intractable epilepsy, mental retardation, and autistic features. TSC is associated with specific brain lesions, including cortical tubers, subependymal nodules and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas. In addition, this disease frequently produces characteristic tumors, termed hamartomas, in the kidneys, heart, skin, retina, and lungs. Disease severity in TSC can be quite variable and is not determined by the primary mutation alone. In fact, there is often considerable variability in phenotype within single families, where all affected individuals carry the same mutation. Factors suspected to influence phenotype in TSC include the specific primary mutation, random occurrence of second-hit somatic mutations, mosaicism, "modifying genes", and environmental factors. In addition to these factors, we hypothesize that differences in mRNA expression from the non-mutated TSC allele, or possibly from the mutated allele, play a part in modifying disease severity. Common genetic variants that regulate mRNA expression have previously been shown to play important roles in human phenotypic variability, including disease susceptibility. A prediction based on this idea is that common regulatory variants that influence disease severity in TSC should be detectable in non-affected individuals.A PCR/primer extension assay was used to measure allele specific expression of TSC1 and TSC2 mRNAs in leukocytes isolated from normal volunteers. This assay can be used to measure "allelic expression imbalance" (AEI) in individuals by making use of heterozygous "marker" single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located within their mRNA.In this study we show for the first time that TSC1 and TSC2 genes exhibit allele-specific differences in mRNA expression in blood leukocytes isolated from normal individuals.These results support the possibility that allele-specific variation in TSC mRNA expression contributes to the variable severity of symptoms in TSC patients.
Project description:Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder due to mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2 that affects many organs with hamartomas and tumors. TSC-associated brain lesions include subependymal nodules, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas and tubers. Neurologic manifestations in TSC comprise a high frequency of mental retardation and developmental disorders including autism, as well as epilepsy. Here, we describe a new mouse model of TSC brain lesions in which complete loss of Tsc1 is achieved in multiple brain cell types in a stochastic pattern. Injection of an adeno-associated virus vector encoding Cre recombinase into the cerebral ventricles of mice homozygous for a Tsc1 conditional allele on the day of birth led to reduced survival, and pathologic findings of enlarged neurons, cortical heterotopias, subependymal nodules, and hydrocephalus. The severity of clinical and pathologic findings as well as survival was shown to be dependent upon the dose and serotype of Cre virus injected. Although several other models of TSC brain disease exist, this model is unique in that the pathology reflects a variety of TSC-associated lesions involving different numbers and types of cells. This model provides a valuable and unique addition for therapeutic assessment.