Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein F Stimulates Sirtuin-1 Gene Expression and Attenuates Nephropathy Progression in Diabetic Mice.
ABSTRACT: We investigated the mechanism of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein F (hnRNP F) renoprotective action in a type 2 diabetes (T2D) mouse model (db/db). Immortalized rat renal proximal tubular cells (IRPTCs) and kidneys from humans with T2D were also studied. The db/db mice developed hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, and nephropathy at age 20 weeks compared with their db/m littermates. These abnormalities, with the exception of hyperglycemia, were attenuated in db/dbhnRNP F-transgenic (Tg) mice specifically overexpressing hnRNP F in their RPTCs. Sirtuin-1, Foxo3?, and catalase expression were significantly decreased in RPTCs from db/db mice and normalized in db/dbhnRNP F-Tg mice. In vitro, hnRNP F overexpression stimulated Sirtuin-1 and Foxo3? with downregulation of acetylated p53 expression and prevented downregulation of Sirtuin-1 and Foxo3? expression in IRPTCs by high glucose plus palmitate. Transfection of Sirtuin-1 small interfering RNA prevented hnRNP F stimulation of Foxo3? and downregulation of acetylated p53 expression. hnRNP F stimulated Sirtuin-1 transcription via hnRNP F-responsive element in the Sirtuin-1 promoter. Human T2D kidneys exhibited more RPTC apoptosis and lower expression of hnRNP F, SIRTUIN-1, and FOXO3? than nondiabetic kidneys. Our results demonstrate that hnRNP F protects kidneys against oxidative stress and nephropathy via stimulation of Sirtuin-1 expression and signaling in diabetes.
Project description:This study investigated the mechanisms underlying tubular apoptosis in diabetes by identifying proapoptotic genes that are differentially upregulated by reactive oxygen species in renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs) in models of diabetes. Total RNAs isolated from renal proximal tubules (RPTs) of 20-week-old heterozygous db/m+, db/db, and db/db catalase (CAT)-transgenic (Tg) mice were used for DNA chip microarray analysis. Real-time quantitative PCR assays, immunohistochemistry, and mice rendered diabetic with streptozotocin were used to validate the proapoptotic gene expression in RPTs. Cultured rat RPTCs were used to confirm the apoptotic activity and regulation of proapoptotic gene expression. Additionally, studies in kidney tissues from patients with and without diabetes were used to confirm enhanced proapoptotic gene expression in RPTs. Bcl-2-modifying factor (Bmf) was differentially upregulated (P<0.01) in RPTs of db/db mice compared with db/m+ and db/db CAT-Tg mice and in RPTs of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice in which insulin reversed this finding. In vitro, Bmf cDNA overexpression in rat RPTCs coimmunoprecipated with Bcl-2, enhanced caspase-3 activity, and promoted apoptosis. High glucose (25 mmol/L) induced Bmf mRNA expression in RPTCs, whereas rotenone, catalase, diphenylene iodinium, and apocynin decreased it. Knockdown of Bmf with small interfering RNA reduced high glucose-induced apoptosis in RPTCs. More important, enhanced Bmf expression was detected in RPTs of kidneys from patients with diabetes. These data demonstrate differential upregulation of Bmf in diabetic RPTs and suggest a potential role for Bmf in regulating RPTC apoptosis and tubular atrophy in diabetes.
Project description:We investigated the molecular mechanism(s) by which insulin prevents Bcl2-modifying factor (Bmf)-induced renal proximal tubular cell (RPTC) apoptosis and loss in diabetic mice. Transgenic mice (Tg) mice specifically overexpressing human BMF in RPTCs and non-Tg littermates were studied at 10 to 20 weeks of age. Non-diabetic littermates, diabetic Akita mice +/- insulin implant, Akita Tg mice specifically overexpressing heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein F (hnRNP F) in their RPTCs and immortalized rat renal proximal tubular cells (IRPTCs) were also studied. BMF-Tg mice exhibited higher systolic blood pressure, urinary albumin/creatinine ratio, RPTC apoptosis and urinary RPTCs than non-Tg mice. Insulin treatment in Akita mice and Akita mice overexpressing hnRNP F suppressed Bmf expression and RPTC apoptosis. In hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic wild type mice, renal Bmf expression was down-regulated with up-regulation of hnRNP F. In vitro, insulin inhibited high glucose-stimulation of Bmf expression, predominantly via p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Transfection of p44/42 MAPK or hnRNP F small interfering RNA (siRNA) prevented insulin inhibition of Bmf expression. HnRNP F inhibited Bmf transcription via hnRNP F-responsive element in the Bmf promoter. Our results demonstrate that hnRNP F suppression of Bmf transcription is an important mechanism by which insulin protects RPTCs from apoptosis in diabetes.
Project description:Forkhead Box O3 (FOXO3) is a tumor suppressor whose activity is fine-tuned by post-translational modifications (PTMs). In this study, using the BT474 breast cancer cells and a recently established lapatinib resistant (BT474-LapR) cell line, we observed that higher FOXO3 and acetylated (Ac)-FOXO3 levels correlate with lapatinib sensitivity. Subsequent ectopic expression of EP300 led to an increase in acetylated-FOXO3 in sensitive but not in resistant cells. Drug sensitivity assays revealed that sensitive BT474 cells show increased lapatinib cytotoxicity upon over-expression of wild-type but not acetylation-deficient EP300. Moreover, FOXO3 recruitment to target gene promoters is associated with target gene expression and drug response in sensitive cells and the inability of FOXO3 to bind its target genes correlates with lapatinib-resistance in BT474-LapR cells. In addition, using SIRT1/6 specific siRNAs and chemical inhibitor, we also found that sirtuin 1 and -6 (SIRT1 and -6) play a part in fine-tuning FOXO3 acetylation and lapatinib sensitivity. Consistent with this, immunohistochemistry results from different breast cancer subtypes showed that high SIRT6/1 levels are associated with constitutive high FOXO3 expression which is related to FOXO3 deregulation/inactivation and poor prognosis in breast cancer patient samples. Collectively, our results suggest the involvement of FOXO3 acetylation in regulating lapatinib sensitivity of HER2-positive breast cancers.
Project description:We investigated whether heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein F (hnRNP F) stimulates renal ACE-2 expression and prevents TGF-?1 signalling, TGF-?1 inhibition of Ace-2 gene expression and induction of tubulo-fibrosis in an Akita mouse model of type 1 diabetes.Adult male Akita transgenic (Tg) mice overexpressing specifically hnRNP F in their renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs) were studied. Non-Akita littermates and Akita mice served as controls. Immortalised rat RPTCs stably transfected with plasmid containing either rat Hnrnpf cDNA or rat Ace-2 gene promoter were also studied.Overexpression of hnRNP F attenuated systemic hypertension, glomerular filtration rate, albumin/creatinine ratio, urinary angiotensinogen (AGT) and angiotensin (Ang) II levels, renal fibrosis and profibrotic gene (Agt, Tgf-?1, TGF-? receptor II [Tgf-?rII]) expression, stimulated anti-profibrotic gene (Ace-2 and Ang 1-7 receptor [MasR]) expression, and normalised urinary Ang 1-7 level in Akita Hnrnpf-Tg mice as compared with Akita mice. In vitro, hnRNP F overexpression stimulated Ace-2 gene promoter activity, mRNA and protein expression, and attenuated Agt, Tgf-?1 and Tgf-?rII gene expression. Furthermore, hnRNP F overexpression prevented TGF-?1 signalling and TGF-?1 inhibition of Ace-2 gene expression.These data demonstrate that hnRNP F stimulates Ace-2 gene transcription, prevents TGF-?1 inhibition of Ace-2 gene transcription and induction of kidney injury in diabetes. HnRNP F may be a potential target for treating hypertension and renal fibrosis in diabetes.
Project description:Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors could have antiatherosclerotic action, in addition to antihyperglycemic roles. Because macrophage foam cells are key components of atherosclerosis, we investigated the effect of the DPP-4 inhibitor teneligliptin on foam cell formation and its related gene expression levels in macrophages extracted from diabetic db/db (C57BLKS/J Iar -+Leprdb/+Leprdb ) mice and type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients ex vivo. We incubated mouse peritoneal macrophages and human monocyte-derived macrophages differentiated by 7-day culture with oxidized low-density lipoprotein in the presence/absence of teneligliptin (10?nmol/L) for 18 hours. We observed remarkable suppression of foam cell formation by teneligliptin treatment ex vivo in macrophages isolated from diabetic db/db mice (32%) and T2D patients (38%); this effect was accompanied by a reduction of CD36 (db/db mice, 43%; T2D patients, 46%) and acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) gene expression levels (db/db mice, 47%; T2D patients, 45%). Molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are associated with downregulation of CD36 and ACAT-1 by teneligliptin. The suppressive effect of a DPP-4 inhibitor on foam cell formation in T2D is conserved across species and is worth studying to elucidate its potential as an intervention for antiatherogenesis in T2D patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Increasing evidence indicates that renal recovery from AKI stems from dedifferentiation and proliferation of surviving tubule epithelial cells. Both EGF receptor (EGFR) and the Hippo signaling pathway are implicated in cell proliferation and differentiation, and previous studies showed that activation of EGFR in renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (RPTCs) plays a critical role in recovery from ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). In this study, we explored RPTC activation of Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional coactivator with PDZ binding motif (TAZ), two key downstream effectors of the Hippo pathway, and their potential involvement in recovery from AKI. METHODS:We used immunofluorescence to examine YAP expression in kidney biopsy samples from patients with clinical AKI and controls (patients with minimal change disease). Studies of RPTC activation of YAP and TAZ used cultured human RPTCs that were exposed to hypoxia-reoxygenation as well as knockout mice (with inducible deletions of Yap, Taz, or both occurring specifically in RPTCs) that were subjected to bilateral IRI. RESULTS:YAP was activated in RPTCs in kidneys from post-AKI patients and post-IRI mouse kidneys. Inhibition of the interaction of YAP and the TEA domain (TEAD) transcription factor complex by verteporfin or conditional deletion of YAP in RPTCs delayed renal functional and structural recovery from IRI, whereas TAZ deletion had no effect. Activation of the EGFR-PI3K-Akt pathway in response to IRI signaled YAP activation, which promoted cell cycle progression. CONCLUSIONS:This study shows that EGFR-PI3K-Akt-dependent YAP activation plays an essential role in mediating epithelial cell regeneration during kidney recovery from AKI.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Excessive intrahepatic lipid accumulation is the major characteristic of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We sought to identify the mechanisms involved in hepatic triglyceride (TG) homeostasis. Forkhead box class O (FoxO) transcription factors have been shown to play an important role in hepatic metabolism. However, little is known about the effect of FoxO3 on hepatic TG metabolism. METHODS:Liver biopsy samples from patients with NALFD and liver tissues from high glucose and high sucrose (HFHS) fed mice, ob/ob mice and db/db mice were collected for protein and mRNA analysis. HepG2 cells were transfected with small interfering RNA to mediate FoxO3 knockdown, or adenovirus and plasmid to mediate FoxO3 overexpression. FoxO3-cDNA was delivered by adenovirus to the liver of C57BL/6?J male mice on a chow diet or on a high-fat diet, followed by determination of hepatic lipid metabolism. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c) luciferase reporter gene plasmid was co-transfected into HepG2 cells with FoxO3 overexpression plasmid. RESULTS:FoxO3 expression was increased in the livers of HFHS mice, ob/ob mice, db/db mice and patients with NAFLD. Knockdown of FoxO3 reduced whereas overexpression of FoxO3 increased cellular TG concentrations in HepG2 cells. FoxO3 gain-of-function caused hepatic TG deposition in C57BL/6?J mice on a chow diet and aggravated hepatic steatosis when fed a high-fat diet. Analysis of the transcripts established the increased expression of genes related to TG synthesis, including SREBP1c, SCD1, FAS, ACC1, GPAM and DGAT2 in mouse liver. Mechanistically, overexpression of FoxO3 stimulated the expression of SREBP1c, whereas knockdown of FoxO3 inhibited the expression of SREBP1c. Luciferase reporter assays showed that SREBP1c regulated the transcriptional activity of the SREBP1c promoter. CONCLUSIONS:FoxO3 promotes the transcriptional activity of the SREBP1c promoter, thus leading to increased TG synthesis and hepatic TG accumulation.
Project description:To investigate the effects of specific retinoic acid receptor (RAR) agonists in diabetes and fatty liver disease.Synthetic agonists for RAR?2 were administered to wild-type (wt) mice in a model of high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetes (T2D) and to ob/ob and db/db mice (genetic models of obesity-associated T2D).We show that administration of synthetic agonists for RAR?2 to either wt mice in a model of HFD-induced T2D or to ob/ob and db/db mice reduces hyperglycaemia, peripheral insulin resistance and body weight. Furthermore, RAR?2 agonists dramatically reduce steatosis, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in the liver, pancreas and kidneys of obese, diabetic mice. RAR?2 agonists also lower levels of mRNAs involved in lipogenesis, such as sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP1) and fatty acid synthase, and increase mRNAs that mediate mitochondrial fatty acid ?-oxidation, such as CPT1?, in these organs. RAR?2 agonists lower triglyceride levels in these organs, and in muscle.Collectively, our data show that orally active, rapid-acting, high-affinity pharmacological agonists for RAR?2 improve the diabetic phenotype while reducing lipid levels in key insulin target tissues. We suggest that RAR?2 agonists should be useful drugs for T2D therapy and for treatment of hepatic steatosis.
Project description:BACKGROUNDS:Heterogeneous ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) are involved in the metastasis-related network. Our previous study demonstrated that hnRNP K is associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in A549 cells. However, the precise molecular mechanism of hnRNP K involved in TGF-β1-induced EMT remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the function and mechanism of hnRNP K interacted with microtubule-associated protein 1B light chain (MAP 1B-LC1) in TGF-β1-induced EMT. METHODS:Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of hnRNP K in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). GST-pull down and immunofluorescence were performed to demonstrate the association between MAP 1B-LC1 and hnRNP K. Immunofluorescence, transwell assay and western blot was used to study the function and mechanism of the interaction of MAP 1B-LC1 with hnRNP K during TGF-β1-induced EMT in A549 cells. RESULTS:hnRNP K were highly expressed in NSCLC, and NSCLC with higher expression of hnRNP K were more frequently rated as high-grade tumors with poor outcome. MAP 1B-LC1 was identified and validated as one of the proteins interacting with hnRNP K. Knockdown of MAP 1B-LC1 repressed E-cadherin downregulation, vimentin upregulation and actin filament remodeling, decreased cell migration and invasion during TGF-β1-induced EMT in A549 cells. hnRNP K increased microtubule stability via interacting with MAP 1B-LC1 and was associated with acetylated ɑ-tubulin during EMT. CONCLUSION:hnRNP K can promote the EMT process of lung cancer cells induced by TGF-β1 through interacting with MAP 1B-LC1. The interaction of MAP 1B/LC1 with hnRNP K may improve our understanding on the mechanism of TGF-β1-induced EMT in lung cancer.
Project description:We investigated whether renal hedgehog interacting protein (Hhip) expression contributes to the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and studied its related mechanism(s) in vivo and in vitro. Here, we show that Hhip expression is highly elevated in glomerular endothelial cells of adult type 1 diabetic (T1D) Akita and T2D db/db mouse kidneys as compared to non-diabetic control littermates. Hyperglycemia enhances reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation via NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) activation and stimulates renal Hhip gene expression, and that elevated renal Hhip gene expression subsequently activates the TGF?1- Smad2/3 cascade and promotes endothelial to mesenchymal transition associated with endothelial cell fibrosis/apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, kidneys of low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetic heterozygous Hhip deficient (Hhip+/-) mice displayed a normal albumin/creatinine ratio with fewer features of DN (glomerulosclerosis/fibrosis and podocyte apoptosis/loss) and less evidence of renal compensation (glomerular hypertrophy and hyperfiltration) as compared to diabetic wild type controls (Hhip+/+). Thus, our studies demonstrated that renal Hhip expression is associated with nephropathy development in diabetes and that hyperglycemia-induced renal Hhip expression may mediate glomerular endothelial fibrosis and apoptosis in diabetes, a novel finding.