Characterization of a complete immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region germ-line gene of rainbow trout.
ABSTRACT: A germ-line heavy-chain variable region (VH) gene (RTVH431) has been isolated from a rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and characterized by complete nucleotide sequencing. It is characteristic of VH, as shown by the conserved octamer and TATA motif in the 5' region, the heptamernonamer recombination signal sequence in the 3' region, and the 18-amino-acid-long hydrophobic leader interrupted by an intron. The 98-amino-acid-long VH coding region has 50-70% nucleotide sequence homology and 40-60% amino acid sequence homology with VHS of various vertebrate species. We have also found unique or species-specific amino acid residues in the VHS of rainbow trout, amphibia (Xenopus), reptile (Caiman), and shark (Heterodontus) in our sequence analyses. The RTVH431 has an unusual amino acid in the conserved 34th position in complementarity-determining region 1 of VH. Southern hybridization results suggest the presence of a large gene family related to RTVH431 in the trout genome. The complex evolution of antibody V genes is discussed.
Project description:An internal portion of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) amplified from the total cDNA of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver by a PCR was used to screen a rainbow trout liver cDNA library, and recombinant clones encoding two distinct IGFs were isolated. On the basis of a 98.7% nucleotide and 98.3% predicted amino acid identity to coho salmon IGF-I, one cDNA sequence was identified as rainbow trout preproinsulin-like growth factor I (rtIGF-I). The second cDNA sequence shared 46.1% and 43.3% identity with rtIGF-I at the nucleotide and predicted amino acid levels, respectively, and was identified as rainbow trout preproinsulin-like growth factor II (rtIGF-II). Predicted amino acid sequence comparisons of rtIGFs with those of human IGFs indicate that rtIGF-I is more similar to human IGF-I than to human IGF-II, and that rtIGF-II is more similar to human IGF-II than to human IGF-I. Southern blot analysis of rainbow trout genomic DNA probed with rtIGF-I and -II cDNA suggests that these two forms of IGF originate from separate genes. The presence of a teleost IGF-II suggests that the divergence of IGFs occurred early in vertebrate evolution.
Project description:Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a rhabdovirus infecting teleost fish, has repeatedly crossed the boundary from marine fish species to freshwater cultured rainbow trout. These naturally replicated cross-species transmission events permit the study of general and repeatable evolutionary events occurring in connection with viral emergence in a novel host species. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the adaptive molecular evolution of the VHSV glycoprotein, one of the key virus proteins involved in viral emergence, following emergence from marine species into freshwater cultured rainbow trout. A comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction of the complete coding region of the VHSV glycoprotein was conducted, and adaptive molecular evolution was investigated using a maximum likelihood approach to compare different codon substitution models allowing for heterogeneous substitution rate ratios among amino acid sites. Evidence of positive selection was detected at six amino acid sites of the VHSV glycoprotein, within the signal peptide, the confirmation-dependent major neutralizing epitope, and the intracellular tail. Evidence of positive selection was found exclusively in rainbow trout-adapted virus isolates, and amino acid combinations found at the six sites under positive selection pressure differentiated rainbow trout- from non-rainbow trout-adapted isolates. Furthermore, four adaptive sites revealed signs of recurring identical changes across phylogenetic groups of rainbow trout-adapted isolates, suggesting that repeated VHSV emergence in freshwater cultured rainbow trout was established through convergent routes of evolution that are associated with immune escape.IMPORTANCE This study is the first to demonstrate that VHSV emergence from marine species into freshwater cultured rainbow trout has been accompanied by bursts of adaptive evolution in the VHSV glycoprotein. Furthermore, repeated detection of the same adaptive amino acid sites across phylogenetic groups of rainbow trout-adapted isolates indicates that adaptation to rainbow trout was established through parallel evolution. In addition, signals of convergent evolution toward the maintenance of genetic variation were detected in the conformation-dependent neutralizing epitope or in close proximity to disulfide bonds involved in the structural conformation of the neutralizing epitope, indicating adaptation to immune response-related genetic variation across freshwater cultured rainbow trout.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Norwegian production of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) has been without any outbreaks of VHS for many years until the disease emerged in a farm in western Norway in November 2007. The fish were, in addition to VHS virus, positive for gill chlamydia-like bacteria, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, and a microsporidian. A new VHS virus genotype III was isolated from the fish in RTgill-W1 cells and the complete coding region (11,065 nucleotides) was sequenced. This virus was also used in a challenge experiment to see if it could cause any mortality in rainbow trout in sea water. RESULTS: This is the first time a nearly complete sequence of a genotype III virus isolate has been presented. The organization of the genes is the same as in the other VHS virus genotypes studied (GI and GIV). Between the ORFs are nontranslated regions that contain highly conserved sequences encompassing the polyadenylation signal for one gene, and the putative transcription initiation site of the next gene. The intergenic regions vary in length from 74 nt to 128 nt. The nucleotide sequence is more similar to genotype I isolates compared to isolates from genotype II and IV. Analyses of the sequences of the N and G protein genes show that this new isolate is distinct from other VHS virus isolates and groups closely together with isolates from genotype III. In a challenge experiment, using intraperitoneal (ip) injection of the isolate, co-habitation with infected fish, and bath challenge, mortalities slightly above 40% were obtained. There was no significant difference in mortality between the bath challenged group and the ip injected group, while the mortality in the co-habitation group was as low as 30%. CONCLUSIONS: All VHS virus isolates in genotype III are from marine fish in the North East Atlantic. Unlike the other known genotype III isolates, which are of low virulence, this new isolate is moderately virulent. It was not possible to detect any changes in the virus genome that could explain the higher virulence. A major problem for the study of virulence factors is the lack of information about other genotype III isolates.
Project description:In this report we present the first complete band-3 cDNA sequence of a poikilothermic lower vertebrate. The primary structure of the anion-exchange protein band 3 (AE1) from rainbow trout erythrocytes was determined by nucleotide sequencing of cDNA clones. The overlapping clones have a total length of 3827 bp with a 5'-terminal untranslated region of 150 bp, a 2754 bp open reading frame and a 3'-untranslated region of 924 bp. Band-3 protein from trout erythrocytes consists of 918 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 101 827 Da. Comparison of its amino acid sequence revealed a 60-65% identity within the transmembrane spanning sequence of band-3 proteins published so far. An additional insertion of 24 amino acid residues within the membrane-associated domain of trout band-3 protein was identified, which until now was thought to be a general feature only of mammalian band-3-related proteins.
Project description:One of the most valuable aquaculture fish in Europe is the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, but the profitability of trout production is threatened by a highly lethal infectious disease, viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS), caused by the VHS virus (VHSV). For the past few decades, the subgenogroup Ia of VHSV has been the main cause of VHS outbreaks in European freshwater-farmed rainbow trout. Little is currently known, however, about the phylogenetic radiation of this Ia lineage into subordinate Ia clades and their subsequent geographical spread routes. We investigated this topic using the largest Ia-isolate dataset ever compiled, comprising 651 complete G gene sequences: 209 GenBank Ia isolates and 442 Ia isolates from this study. The sequences come from 11 European countries and cover the period 1971-2015. Based on this dataset, we documented the extensive spread of the Ia population and the strong mixing of Ia isolates, assumed to be the result of the Europe-wide trout trade. For example, the Ia lineage underwent a radiation into nine Ia clades, most of which are difficult to allocate to a specific geographic distribution. Furthermore, we found indications for two rapid, large-scale population growth events, and identified three polytomies among the Ia clades, both of which possibly indicate a rapid radiation. However, only about 4% of Ia haplotypes (out of 398) occur in more than one European country. This apparently conflicting finding regarding the Europe-wide spread and mixing of Ia isolates can be explained by the high mutation rate of VHSV. Accordingly, the mean period of occurrence of a single Ia haplotype was less than a full year, and we found a substitution rate of up to 7.813 × 10-4 nucleotides per site per year. Finally, we documented significant differences between Germany and Denmark regarding their VHS epidemiology, apparently due to those countries' individual handling of VHS.
Project description:Estrogen hormones interact with cellular ERs to exert their biological effects in vertebrate animals. Similar to other animals, fishes have two distinct ER subtypes, ERalpha (NR3A1) and ERbeta (NR3A2). The ERbeta subtype is found as two different isoforms in several fish species because of a gene duplication event. Although predicted, two different isoforms of ERalpha have not been demonstrated in any fish species. In the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the only ER described is an isoform of the ERalpha subtype (i.e. ERalpha1, NR3A1a). The purpose of this study was to determine whether the gene for the other ERalpha isoform, ERalpha2 (i.e., NR3A1b), exists in the rainbow trout. A RT-PCR and cloning strategy, followed by screening a rainbow trout BAC library yielded a unique DNA sequence coding for 558 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence had a 75.4% overall similarity to ERalpha1. Both the rainbow trout ERbeta subtypes, ERbeta1 [NR3A2a] and ERbeta2, [NR3A2b] which were previously unknown in this species, were also sequenced as part of this study, and the amino acid sequences were found to be very different from the ERalphas (approximately 40% similarity). ERbeta1 and ERbeta2 had 594 and 604 amino acids, respectively, and had 57.6% sequence similarity when compared to one another. This information provides what we expect to be the first complete nuclear ER gene family in a fish. A comprehensive phylogenetic analysis with all other known fish ER gene sequences was undertaken to understand the evolution of fish ERs. The results show a single ERalpha subtype clade, with the closest relative to rainbow trout ERalpha2 being rainbow trout ERalpha1, suggesting a recent, unique duplication event to create these two isoforms. For the ERbeta subtype there are two distinct subclades, one represented by the ERbeta1 isoform and the other by the ERbeta2 isoform. The rainbow trout ERbeta1 and ERbeta2 are not closely associated with each other, but instead fall into their respective ERbeta subclades with other known fish species. Real-time RT-PCR was used to measure the mRNA levels of all four ER isoforms (ERalpha1, ERalpha2, ERbeta1, and ERbeta2) in stomach, spleen, heart, brain, pituitary, muscle, anterior kidney, posterior kidney, liver, gill, testis and ovary samples from rainbow trout. The mRNAs for each of the four ERs were detected in every tissue examined. The liver tended to have the highest ER mRNA levels along with the testes, while the lowest levels were generally found in the stomach or heart. The nuclear ERs have a significant and ubiquitous distribution in the rainbow trout providing the potential for complex interactions that involve the functioning of many organ systems.
Project description:In order to evaluate the application potential of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) heads and skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) heads; proximate composition, amino acids, fatty acids, carnosine, and anserine contents were analyzed in this study. Rainbow trout heads showed significantly higher protein (29.31 g/100 g FW, FW is abbreviation of fresh weight) and lipid (6.03 g/100 g FW) contents than skipjack tuna heads (18.47 g/100 g FW protein and 4.83 g/100 g FW lipid) (p < 0.05). Rainbow trout heads and skipjack tuna heads exhibited similar amino acid composition. Essential amino acids constituted more than 40% of total amino acids in both rainbow trout head and skipjack tuna head. The fatty acid profile was different between rainbow trout heads and skipjack tuna heads. Rainbow trout heads mainly contained 38.64% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and 38.57% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), whereas skipjack tuna heads mainly contained 54.46% saturated fatty acids (SFAs). Skipjack tuna heads contained 4563 mg/kg FW anserine and 1761 mg/kg FW carnosine, which were both significantly higher than those of rainbow trout heads (p < 0.05). These results demonstrate that both rainbow trout heads and skipjack tuna heads may be used as materials for recycling high-quality protein. Meanwhile, rainbow trout heads can be used to extract oil with high contents of unsaturated fatty acids, while skipjack tuna heads may be a source for obtaining carnosine and anserine.
Project description:The plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDL, rho 1.085-1.21 g/ml) of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) have been shown to contain large amounts of apolipoprotein (apo) AI (Mr 28,000) and several other apolipoproteins of Mr less than 14,000 (apo C-like) and of Mr 37,000-38,000, 44,000-45,000 and 53,000-54,000. Comparison of apo AI from trout and human HDL shows them to be similar in Mr and to have some cross-immunoreactivity, whereas apo AII differs in Mr but also possesses common antigenic sites. It is suggested that the major apolipoproteins of fish and human HDL may fulfil similar roles in lipid transport.
Project description:Viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) is one of the most serious fish viral diseases for cultured rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), although VHS virus (VHSV) seems to be ubiquitous among marine fishes. In the present study, VHSV isolation was performed with free-living and cultured turbot (Psetta maxima) in the Trabzon coastal area of the Black Sea to evaluate participation of VHSV in mass mortalities of seed-produced turbot larvae. VHSV was detected in 14 of 66 free-living spawners (positive ratio, 21.2%), 1 of 65 free-living immature fish (1.5%) and 7 of 40 cultured brood stock (17.5%), respectively. Based on a partial glycoprotein gene nucleotide sequence, Turkish VHSV isolates were classified into the class I-e of genotype I and were the most closely related to the GE-1.2 isolate (>98% identity), which was found >20 years ago in Georgia. Thus, it was revealed that Turkish VHSV isolates were not introduced from European countries, it could be an indigenous type of VHSV distributing in the Black Sea environment. In pathogenicity tests, the Turkish isolates did not induce mortality in turbot larvae and rainbow trout fingerlings. Mass mortalities at a rate of approximately 90% occurred in turbot larvae produced by experimental seeding, although VHSV was not detected in any dead fish. Thus, it was concluded that mass mortality in the seed-produced turbot larvae was not caused by VHSV infection.
Project description:Human autonomous VH/VL single-domain antibodies (sdAbs) are attractive therapeutic molecules, but often suffer from suboptimal stability, solubility and affinity for cognate antigens. Most commonly, human sdAbs have been isolated from in vitro display libraries constructed via synthetic randomization of rearranged VH/VL domains. Here, we describe the design and characterization of three novel human VH/VL sdAb libraries through a process of: (i) exhaustive biophysical characterization of 20 potential VH/VL sdAb library scaffolds, including assessment of expression yield, aggregation resistance, thermostability and tolerance to complementarity-determining region (CDR) substitutions; (ii) in vitro randomization of the CDRs of three VH/VL sdAb scaffolds, with tailored amino acid representation designed to promote solubility and expressibility; and (iii) systematic benchmarking of the three VH/VL libraries by panning against five model antigens. We isolated ?1 antigen-specific human sdAb against four of five targets (13 VHs and 7 VLs in total); these were predominantly monomeric, had antigen-binding affinities ranging from 5?nM to 12?µM (average: 2-3?µM), but had highly variable expression yields (range: 0.1-19?mg/L). Despite our efforts to identify the most stable VH/VL scaffolds, selection of antigen-specific binders from these libraries was unpredictable (overall success rate for all library-target screens: ~53%) with a high attrition rate of sdAbs exhibiting false positive binding by ELISA. By analyzing VH/VL sdAb library sequence composition following selection for monomeric antibody expression (binding to protein A/L followed by amplification in bacterial cells), we found that some VH/VL sdAbs had marked growth advantages over others, and that the amino acid composition of the CDRs of this set of sdAbs was dramatically restricted (bias toward Asp and His and away from aromatic and hydrophobic residues). Thus, CDR sequence clearly dramatically impacts the stability of human autonomous VH/VL immunoglobulin domain folds, and sequence-stability tradeoffs must be taken into account during the design of such libraries.