Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a Salmonella Enteritidis sptP mutant as a live attenuated vaccine candidate.
ABSTRACT: Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is a highly adaptive pathogen in both humans and animals. As a Salmonella Type III secretion system (T3SS) effector, Salmonella protein tyrosine phosphatase (SptP) is critical for virulence in this genus. To investigate the feasibility of using C50336?sptP as a live attenuated oral vaccine in mice, we generated the sptP gene deletion mutant C50336?sptP in S. Enteritidis strain C50336 by ?-Red mediated recombination and evaluated the protective ability of the S. Enteritidis sptP mutant strain C50336?sptP against mice salmonellosis.We found that C50336?sptP was a highly immunogenic, effective, and safe vaccine in mice. Compared to wild-type C50336, C50336?sptP showed reduced virulence as confirmed by the 50% lethal dose (LD50) in orally infected mice. C50336?sptP also showed decreased bacterial colonization both in vivo and in vitro. Immunization with C50336?sptP had no significant effect on body weight and did not result in obvious clinical symptoms relative to control animals treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), but induced humoral and cellular immune responses at 12 and 26 days post inoculation. Immunization with 1 × 108 colony-forming units (CFU) C50336?sptP per mouse provided 100% protection against subsequent challenge with the wild-type C50336 strain, and immunized mice showed mild and temporary clinical symptoms as compared to those of control group.These results demonstrate that C50336?sptP can be a live attenuated oral vaccine for salmonellosis.
Project description:Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are a leading cause of foodborne infections worldwide, and serogroups B, C1, C2-C3 and D are the most common serogroups associated with human disease. While live vaccine candidates that protect against S. Typhimurium (serogroup B) and S. Enteritidis (serogroup D) have been described by us and others, far less effort has been directed towards vaccines that target either serogroup C1 or C2-C3 Salmonella. Here we describe a Salmonella Newport-based live-attenuated vaccine (serogroup C2-C3). Deletion of the genes clpX or rfaL, previously used in live vaccines to attenuate S. Typhimurium and/or S. Enteritidis, failed to attenuate S. Newport. However, we found that deletion of either guaBA or htrA raised the 50% lethal dose of S. Newport in an intraperitoneal infection model in BALB/c mice. Our live-attenuated vaccine candidate CVD 1966 (S. Newport ΔguaBA ΔhtrA) elicited strong antibody responses against COPS, flagellin and outer membrane proteins when administered intraperitoneally or orally. Following lethal challenge with the parental virulent strain of S. Newport, we observed vaccine efficacies of 53% for immunization via the intraperitoneal route and 47% for immunization via the oral route. Following intraperiteonal immunization, the vaccine also significantly reduced the bacterial burden of challenge organisms in the liver and spleen. Interestingly, reducing the LPS chain length by deleting rfaL did not induce a stronger immune response towards surface antigens, and failed to elicit any protection against lethal homologous challenge. In conclusion, we have developed a live-attenuated Salmonella serogroup C2-C3 vaccine that we are further evaluating.
Project description:Strains of the various Salmonella enterica serovars cause gastroenteritis or typhoid fever in humans, with virulence depending on the action of two type III secretion systems (Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 [SPI-1] and SPI-2). SptP is a Salmonella SPI-1 effector, involved in mediating recovery of the host cytoskeleton postinfection. SptP requires a chaperone, SicP, for stability and secretion. SptP has 94% identity between S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and S Typhi; direct comparison of the protein sequences revealed that S Typhi SptP has numerous amino acid changes within its chaperone-binding domain. Subsequent comparison of ?sptP S Typhi and S. Typhimurium strains demonstrated that, unlike SptP in S. Typhimurium, SptP in S Typhi was not involved in invasion or cytoskeletal recovery postinfection. Investigation of whether the observed amino acid changes within SptP of S Typhi affected its function revealed that S Typhi SptP was unable to complement S. Typhimurium ?sptP due to an absence of secretion. We further demonstrated that while S. Typhimurium SptP is stable intracellularly within S Typhi, S Typhi SptP is unstable, although stability could be recovered following replacement of the chaperone-binding domain with that of S. Typhimurium. Direct assessment of the strength of the interaction between SptP and SicP of both serovars via bacterial two-hybrid analysis demonstrated that S Typhi SptP has a significantly weaker interaction with SicP than the equivalent proteins in S. Typhimurium. Taken together, our results suggest that changes within the chaperone-binding domain of SptP in S Typhi hinder binding to its chaperone, resulting in instability, preventing translocation, and therefore restricting the intracellular activity of this effector.Studies investigating Salmonella pathogenesis typically rely on Salmonella Typhimurium, even though Salmonella Typhi causes the more severe disease in humans. As such, an understanding of S. Typhi pathogenesis is lacking. Differences within the type III secretion system effector SptP between typhoidal and nontyphoidal serovars led us to characterize this effector within S Typhi. Our results suggest that SptP is not translocated from typhoidal serovars, even though the loss of sptP results in virulence defects in S. Typhimurium. Although SptP is just one effector, our results exemplify that the behavior of these serovars is significantly different and genes identified to be important for S. Typhimurium virulence may not translate to S Typhi.
Project description:While nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) has long been recognized as a cause of self-limited gastroenteritis, it is becoming increasingly evident that multiple-antibiotic-resistant strains are also emerging as important causes of invasive bacteremia and focal infections, resulting in hospitalizations and deaths. We have constructed attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis strains that can serve as live oral vaccines and as "reagent strains" for subunit vaccine production in a safe and economical manner. Prototype attenuated vaccine strains CVD 1921 and CVD 1941, derived from the invasive wild-type strains S. Typhimurium I77 and S. Enteritidis R11, respectively, were constructed by deleting guaBA, encoding guanine biosynthesis, and clpP, encoding a master protease regulator. The clpP mutation resulted in a hyperflagellation phenotype. An additional deletion in fliD yielded reagent strains CVD 1923 and CVD 1943, respectively, which export flagellin monomers. Oral 50% lethal dose (LD??) analyses showed that the NTS vaccine strains were all highly attenuated in mice. Oral immunization with CVD 1921 or CVD 1923 protected mice against lethal challenge with wild-type S. Typhimurium I77. Immunization with CVD 1941 but not CVD 1943 protected mice against lethal infection with S. Enteritidis R11. Immune responses induced by these strains included high levels of serum IgG anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and anti-flagellum antibodies, with titers increasing progressively during the immunization schedule. Since S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis are the most common NTS serovars associated with invasive disease, these findings can pave the way for development of a highly effective, broad-spectrum vaccine against invasive NTS.
Project description:Invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections constitute a major health problem among infants and toddlers in sub-Saharan Africa; these infections also occur in infants and the elderly in developed countries. We genetically engineered a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain of multilocus sequence type 313, the predominant genotype circulating in sub-Saharan Africa. We evaluated the capacities of S. Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis ?guaBA ?clpX live oral vaccines to protect mice against a highly lethal challenge dose of the homologous serovar and determined protection against other group B and D serovars circulating in sub-Saharan Africa. The vaccines S. Typhimurium CVD 1931 and S. Enteritidis CVD 1944 were immunogenic and protected BALB/c mice against 10,000 50% lethal doses (LD50) of S. Typhimurium or S. Enteritidis, respectively. S. Typhimurium CVD 1931 protected mice against the group B serovar Salmonella enterica serovar Stanleyville (91% vaccine efficacy), and S. Enteritidis CVD 1944 protected mice against the group D serovar Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin (85% vaccine efficacy). High rates of survival were observed when mice were infected 12 weeks postimmunization, indicating that the vaccines elicited long-lived protective immunity. Whereas CVD 1931 did not protect against S. Enteritidis R11, CVD 1944 did mediate protection against S. Typhimurium D65 (81% efficacy). These findings suggest that a bivalent (S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis) vaccine would provide broad protection against the majority of invasive NTS infections in sub-Saharan Africa.
Project description:Virulence effectors delivered into intestinal epithelial cells by Salmonella trigger actin remodeling to direct pathogen internalization and intracellular replication in Salmonella-containing vacuoles (SCVs). One such effector, SptP, functions early during pathogen entry to deactivate Rho GTPases and reverse pathogen-induced cytoskeletal changes following uptake. SptP also harbors a C-terminal protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) domain with no clear host substrates. Investigating SptP's longevity in infected cells, we uncover a late function of SptP, showing that it associates with SCVs, and its PTPase activity increases pathogen replication. Direct SptP binding and specific dephosphorylation of the AAA+ ATPase valosin-containing protein (VCP/p97), a facilitator of cellular membrane fusion and protein degradation, enhanced pathogen replication in SCVs. VCP and its adaptors p47 and Ufd1 were necessary for generating Salmonella-induced filaments on SCVs, a membrane fusion event characteristic of the pathogen replicative phase. Thus, Salmonella regulates the biogenesis of an intracellular niche through SptP-mediated dephosphorylation of VCP.
Project description:gammadelta T cells are considered crucial to the outcome of various infectious diseases. The present study was undertaken to characterize gammadelta (T-cell receptor 1(+) [TCR1(+)]) T cells phenotypically and functionally in avian immune response. Day-old chicks were orally immunized with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis live vaccine or S. enterica serovar Enteritidis wild-type strain and infected using the S. enterica serovar Enteritidis wild-type strain on day 44 of life. Between days 3 and 71, peripheral blood was examined flow cytometrically for the occurrence of gammadelta T-cell subpopulations differentiated by the expression of T-cell antigens. Three different TCR1(+) cell populations were found to display considerable variation regarding CD8alpha antigen expression: (i) CD8alpha(+high) TCR1(+) cells, (ii) CD8alpha(+dim) TCR1(+) cells, and (iii) CD8alpha(-) TCR1(+) cells. While most of the CD8alpha(+high) TCR1(+) cells expressed the CD8alphabeta heterodimeric antigen, the majority of the CD8alpha(+dim) TCR1(+) cells were found to express the CD8alphaalpha homodimeric form. After immunization, a significant increase of CD8alphaalpha(+high) gammadelta T cells was observed within the CD8alpha(+high) TCR1(+) cell population. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR revealed reduced interleukin-7 receptor alpha (IL-7Ralpha) and Bcl-x expression and elevated IL-2Ralpha mRNA expression of the CD8alphaalpha(+high) gammadelta T cells. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated a significant increase of CD8alpha(+) and TCR1(+) cells in the cecum and spleen and a decreased percentage of CD8beta(+) T cells in the spleen after Salmonella immunization. After infection of immunized animals, immune reactions were restricted to intestinal tissue. The study showed that Salmonella immunization of very young chicks is accompanied by an increase of CD8alphaalpha(+high) gammadelta T cells in peripheral blood, which are probably activated, and thus represent an important factor for the development of a protective immune response to Salmonella organisms in chickens.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Human Salmonellosis is one of the most frequently reported foodborne zoonoses in the European Union. The most common source of human infections is the consumption of poultry products. Besides management and hygiene practices vaccination of poultry livestock is seen as one way to reduce Salmonella infections in humans. Turkey flocks in Europe are frequently infected with Salmonella and until recently there was no live vaccine for turkeys available. The aim of the present study was to examine the development of humoral antibodies after repeated vaccination with a bivalent live Salmonella vaccine containing attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis strains. Furthermore the colonization of the caecum with the vaccine strains and their spread to liver and spleen as well as the course of their fecal excretion was observed. RESULTS:Antibody production was hardly detectable after the first vaccination but increased after booster vaccinations. Both the Salmonella Enteritidis and the Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine strain were reisolated from caecum contents and organ samples. After booster vaccinations the re-isolation rates were reduced. The shedding of the vaccine strains was most pronounced after the first vaccination.
Project description:The virulence of Salmonella is linked to its invasive capacity and suppression of adaptive immunity. This does not explain, however, the rapid dissemination of the pathogen after it breaches the gut. In our study, S. Typhimurium suppressed degranulation of local mast cells (MCs), resulting in limited neutrophil recruitment and restricting outflow of vascular contents into infection sites, thus facilitating bacterial spread. MC suppression was mediated by secreted effector protein (SptP), which shares structural homology with Yersinia YopH. SptP functioned by dephosphorylating the vesicle fusion protein N-ethylmalemide-sensitive factor and by blocking phosphorylation of Syk. Without SptP, orally challenged S. Typhimurium failed to suppress MC degranulation and exhibited limited colonization of the mesenteric lymph nodes. Administration of SptP to sites of E. coli infection markedly enhanced its virulence. Thus, SptP-mediated inactivation of local MCs is a powerful mechanism utilized by S. Typhimurium to impede early innate immunity.
Project description:Salmonella enterica is an important enteric pathogen and its various serovars are involved in causing both systemic and intestinal diseases in humans and domestic animals. The emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of Salmonella leading to increased morbidity and mortality has further complicated its management. Live attenuated vaccines have been proven superior over killed or subunit vaccines due to their ability to induce protective immunity. Of the various strategies used for the generation of live attenuated vaccine strains, focus has gradually shifted towards manipulation of virulence regulator genes. Hfq is a RNA chaperon which mediates the binding of small RNAs to the mRNA and assists in post-transcriptional gene regulation in bacteria. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of the Salmonella Typhimurium ?hfq strain as a candidate for live oral vaccine in murine model of typhoid fever. Salmonella hfq deletion mutant is highly attenuated in cell culture and animal model implying a significant role of Hfq in bacterial virulence. Oral immunization with the Salmonella hfq deletion mutant efficiently protects mice against subsequent oral challenge with virulent strain of Salmonella Typhimurium. Moreover, protection was induced upon both multiple as well as single dose of immunizations. The vaccine strain appears to be safe for use in pregnant mice and the protection is mediated by the increase in the number of CD4(+) T lymphocytes upon vaccination. The levels of serum IgG and secretory-IgA in intestinal washes specific to lipopolysaccharide and outer membrane protein were significantly increased upon vaccination. Furthermore, hfq deletion mutant showed enhanced antigen presentation by dendritic cells compared to the wild type strain. Taken together, the studies in murine immunization model suggest that the Salmonella hfq deletion mutant can be a novel live oral vaccine candidate.
Project description:Nontyphoidal Salmonellae cause a devastating burden of invasive disease in sub-Saharan Africa with high levels of antimicrobial resistance. Vaccination has potential for a major global health impact, but no licensed vaccine is available. The lack of commercial incentive makes simple, affordable technologies the preferred route for vaccine development. Here we compare equivalent Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA) outer membrane vesicles and O-antigen-CRM197 glycoconjugates to deliver lipopolysaccharide O-antigen in bivalent Salmonella Typhimurium and Enteritidis vaccines. Salmonella strains were chosen and tolR deleted to induce GMMA production. O-antigens were extracted from wild-type bacteria and conjugated to CRM197 Purified GMMA and glycoconjugates were characterized and tested in mice for immunogenicity and ability to reduce Salmonella infection. GMMA and glycoconjugate O-antigen had similar structural characteristics, O-acetylation, and glucosylation levels. Immunization with GMMA induced higher anti-O-antigen IgG than glycoconjugate administered without Alhydrogel adjuvant. With Alhydrogel, antibody levels were similar. GMMA induced a diverse antibody isotype profile with greater serum bactericidal activity than glycoconjugate, which induced almost exclusively IgG1. Immunization reduced bacterial colonization of mice subsequently infected with Salmonella S Typhimurium numbers were lower in tissues of mice vaccinated with GMMA compared with glycoconjugate. S. Enteritidis burden in the tissues was similar in mice immunized with either vaccine. With favorable immunogenicity, low cost, and ability to induce functional antibodies and reduce bacterial burden, GMMA offer a promising strategy for the development of a nontyphoidal Salmonella vaccine compared with established glycoconjugates. GMMA technology is potentially attractive for development of vaccines against other bacteria of global health significance.