Acute rejection after kidney transplantation promotes graft fibrosis with elevated adenosine level in rat.
ABSTRACT: Chronic allograft nephropathy is a worldwide issue with the major feature of progressive allograft fibrosis, eventually ending with graft loss. Adenosine has been demonstrated to play an important role in process of fibrosis. Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between adenosine and fibrosis in renal allograft acute rejection in rat.Wistar rats and SD rats were selected as experimental animals. Our study designed two groups. In the allograft transplantation group, kidneys of Wistar rats were orthotopically transplanted into SD rat recipients, the same species but not genetically identical, to induce acute rejection. Kidney transplantations of SD rats to SD rats which were genetically identical were served as the control. We established rat models and detected a series of indicators. All data were analyzed statistically. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.Compared with the control group, levels of adenosine increased significantly in the allograft transplantation group, in which acute rejection was induced (P<0.05). Progressive allograft fibrosis as well as collagen deposition were observed.These findings suggested that level of adenosine was upregulated in acute rejection after kidney allograft transplantation in rat. Acute rejection may promote renal allograft fibrosis via the adenosine signaling pathways.
Project description:Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a recently identified regulator of inflammation, but little is known about its role in liver transplantation. Therefore, in this study, we explored the roles and the underlying mechanisms of IL-22 in acute allograft rejection by using a rat allogeneic liver transplantation model. Results showed that allograft liver transplantation led to damage of the parent liver and to significantly increased IL-22 expression in the allograft liver and plasma of the recipient rats compared with the rats who received isografts. Moreover, the significantly increased IL-22 expression was accompanied by markedly increased level of phospho-STAT3 in the allogeneic liver tissues after transplantation. Of note, neutralization of the IL-22 protein in recipient rats significantly worsened the function of the allograft liver at 1 day post-transplantation (ischemia-reperfusion injury, IRI) but improved the function at 7 days post-transplantation (acute rejection, AR). At IRI stage, IL-22 protected liver function through the increase of anti-apoptosis and pro-regeneration cytokines. However, IL-22 led to the increase of pro-inflammation factors at AR stage, accompanied by the marked increase of the Th17 and the marked decrease of Treg cells in allograft recipient rats through modulating the expression of chemokines for different cell types, which however were reversed by in vivo IL-22 neutralization. Results indicate the dual roles of IL-22 and suggest the differential potential clinical application of IL-22 at different stage of allograft liver transplantation.
Project description:Acute rejection episodes trigger chronic renal allograft vasculopathy. Numerous leukocytes, predominantly monocytes, accumulate in graft blood vessels during reversible acute rejection preceding chronic rejection of rat kidneys. We speculate that they contribute to transplant vasculopathy and set out to characterize them. Allogeneic renal transplantation was performed in the Fischer 344 to Lewis rat strain combination, Lewis isografts served as controls. Leukocytes were harvested by intensive perfusion of graft blood vessels and subjected to flow cytometry, quantitative RT-PCR and genome-wide transcriptional profiling. Overall design: Kidneys of LEW and F344 rats were transplanted in LEW rats. Five biological replicates were performed for both isogenic and allogenic transplantation. Transcriptomes of allogenics were compared to isogenics on 5 dual-color hybridizations.
Project description:Acute rejection episodes trigger chronic renal allograft vasculopathy. Numerous leukocytes, predominantly monocytes, accumulate in graft blood vessels during reversible acute rejection preceding chronic rejection of rat kidneys. We speculate that they contribute to transplant vasculopathy and set out to characterize them. Allogeneic renal transplantation was performed in the Fischer 344 to Lewis rat strain combination, Lewis isografts served as controls. Leukocytes were harvested by intensive perfusion of graft blood vessels and subjected to flow cytometry, quantitative RT-PCR and genome-wide transcriptional profiling. Kidneys of LEW and F344 rats were transplanted in LEW rats. Five biological replicates were performed for both isogenic and allogenic transplantation. Transcriptomes of allogenics were compared to isogenics on 5 dual-color hybridizations.
Project description:The impact of primary cytomegalovirus infection (pCMV) on renal allograft function and histology is controversial. We evaluated the influence on incidence of acute rejection, allograft loss, allograft function and interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (IF/TA). Retrospective case-control study, recipients transplanted between 2000 and 2014. Risk of acute rejection and allograft loss for those who experienced pCMV infection compared with those who did not, within an exposure period of two months after transplantation. Besides, its influence on allograft function and histology at one to three years after transplantation. Of 113 recipients experienced pCMV infection, 306 remained CMV seronegative. pCMV infection in the exposure period could not be proven as increasing the risk for acute rejection [HR = 2.18 (95% CI 0.80-5.97) P = 0.13] or allograft loss [HR = 1.11 (95%CI 0.33-3.72) P = 0.87]. Combination of pCMV infection and acute rejection posed higher hazard for allograft loss than acute rejection alone [HR = 3.69 (95% CI 1.21-11.29) P = 0.02]. eGFR(MDRD) values did not significantly differ at years one [46 vs. 50], two [46 vs. 51] and three [46 vs. 52]. No association between pCMV infection and IF/TA could be demonstrated [OR = 2.15 (95%CI 0.73-6.29) P = 0.16]. pCMV infection was not proven to increase the risk for acute rejection or allograft loss. However, it increased the risk for rejection-associated allograft loss. In remaining functioning allografts, it was not significantly associated with decline in function nor with presence of IF/TA.
Project description:We previously described that in a rat model of heart transplantation tolerance was dependent on CD8+CD45RClow Tregs that over-expressed fibrinogen-like protein 2 (FGL2)/fibroleukin. Little is known on the immunoregulatory properties of FGL2. Here we analyzed the transplantation tolerance mechanisms that are present in Lewis 1A rats treated with FGL2. Over-expression of FGL2 in vivo through adenovirus associated virus -mediated gene transfer without any further treatment resulted in inhibition of cardiac allograft rejection. Adoptive cell transfer of splenocytes from FGL2-treated rats with long-term graft survival (> 80 days) in animals that were transplanted with cardiac allografts inhibited acute and chronic organ rejection in a donor-specific and transferable tolerance manner, since iterative adoptive transfer up to a sixth consecutive recipient resulted in transplantation tolerance. Adoptive cell transfer also efficiently inhibited anti-donor antibody production. Analysis of all possible cell populations among splenocytes revealed that B lymphocytes were sufficient for this adoptive cell tolerance. These B cells were also capable of inhibiting the proliferation of CD4+ T cells in response to allogeneic stimuli. Moreover, gene transfer of FGL2 in B cell deficient rats did not prolong graft survival. Thus, this is the first description of FGL2 resulting in long-term allograft survival. Furthermore, allograft tolerance was transferable and B cells were the main cells responsible for this effect.
Project description:Successful lung transplantation for patients with pulmonary fibrosis from telomerase mutations may be limited by systemic complications of telomerase dysfunction, including myelosuppression, cirrhosis, and malignancy. We describe clinical outcomes in 14 lung transplant recipients with telomerase mutations.Subjects underwent lung transplantation between February 2005 and April 2014 at 5 transplant centers. Data were abstracted from medical records, focusing on outcomes reflecting post-transplant treatment effects likely to be complicated by telomerase mutations.The median age of subjects was 60.5 years (interquartile range = 52.0-62.0), 64.3% were male, and the mean post-transplant observation time was 3.2 years (SD ± 2.9). A mutation in telomerase reverse transcriptase was present in 11 subjects, a telomerase RNA component mutation was present in 2 subjects, and an uncharacterized mutation was present in 1 subject. After lung transplantation, 10 subjects were leukopenic and 5 did not tolerate lymphocyte anti-proliferative agents. Six subjects developed recurrent lower respiratory tract infections, 7 developed acute cellular rejection (A1), and 4 developed chronic lung allograft dysfunction. Eight subjects developed at least 1 episode of acute renal failure and 10 developed chronic renal insufficiency. In addition, 3 subjects developed cancer. No subjects had cirrhosis. At data censorship, 13 subjects were alive.The clinical course for lung transplant recipients with telomerase mutations is complicated by renal disease, leukopenia with intolerance of lymphocyte anti-proliferative agents, and recurrent lower respiratory tract infections. In contrast, cirrhosis was absent, acute cellular rejection was mild, and development of chronic lung allograft dysfunction was comparable to other lung transplant recipients. Although it poses challenges, lung transplantation may be feasible for patients with pulmonary fibrosis from telomerase mutations.
Project description:Liver X receptors (LXR)-?,? regulate intracellular cholesterol homeostasis and inhibit inflammatory gene expression. We studied the effects of the LXR?,?-agonist GW3965 on acute and chronic organ damage in the F344-LEW rat kidney transplantation model. In addition, to gain LXR isoform and cell-specific insights BALB/c kidneys were transplanted into mice with macrophage overexpression of LXR? (mLXR?-tg) and evaluated 7 and 42 days after transplantation. After 56 days GW3965 improved significantly function and morphology of rat kidney allografts by substantial reduction of mononuclear cell infiltrate and fibrosis; in vitro GW3965 reduced inflammatory activity of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) and alloreactivity of T cells. Kidneys transplanted into mLXR?-tg mice were also protected from development of chronic allograft dysfunction. Similarly to GW3965-activated BMDMs, mLXR?-tg macrophages secreted significantly less monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and macrophage inflammatory protein 1?. Interestingly, 7 days after transplantation, when the total number of intragraft macrophages did not differ, evidently more arginase 1- and mannose receptor C type 1-positive cells were found in LXR rat and mice kidney allografts; in vitro both LXR activation by GW3965 and mLXR? overexpression accentuated the induction of alternative activation of BMDMs by IL-4/IL-13, suggesting an additional mechanism by LXRs to prevent graft damage. The results highlight the relevance of macrophage LXR? in allograft rejection and prevention of fibrosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Chronic rejection remains the Achilles heel in vascularized composite allotransplantation. Animal models to specifically study chronic rejection in vascularized composite allotransplantation do not exist so far. However, there are established rat models to study chronic rejection in solid organ transplantation such as allogeneic transplantation between the rat strains Lewis and Fischer344. Thus, we initiated this study to investigate the applicability of hindlimb transplantation between these strains to imitate chronic rejection in vascularized composite allotransplantation and identify potential markers. METHODS:Allogeneic hindlimb transplantation were performed between Lewis (recipient) and Fischer344 (donor) rats with either constant immunosuppression or a high dose immunosuppressive bolus only in case of acute skin rejections. Histology, immunohistochemistry, microarray and qPCR analysis were used to detect changes in skin and muscle at postoperative day 100. RESULTS:We were able to demonstrate significant intimal proliferation, infiltration of CD68 and CD4 positive cells, up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines and initiation of muscular fibrosis in the chronic rejection group. Microarray analysis and subsequent qPCR identified CXC ligands 9-11 as potential markers of chronic rejection. CONCLUSIONS:The Fischer344 to Lewis hindlimb transplantation model may represent a new option to study chronic rejection in vascularized composite allotransplantation in an experimental setting. CXC ligands 9-11 deserve further research to investigate their role as chronic rejection markers.
Project description:Lung transplantation is the only viable option for patients suffering from otherwise incurable end-stage pulmonary diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Despite aggressive immunosuppression, acute rejection of the lung allograft occurs in over half of transplant recipients, and the factors that promote lung acceptance are poorly understood. The contribution of lymphatic vessels to transplant pathophysiology remains controversial, and data that directly address the exact roles of lymphatic vessels in lung allograft function and survival are limited. Here, we have shown that there is a marked decline in the density of lymphatic vessels, accompanied by accumulation of low-MW hyaluronan (HA) in mouse orthotopic allografts undergoing rejection. We found that stimulation of lymphangiogenesis with VEGF-C156S, a mutant form of VEGF-C with selective VEGFR-3 binding, alleviates an established rejection response and improves clearance of HA from the lung allograft. Longitudinal analysis of transbronchial biopsies from human lung transplant recipients demonstrated an association between resolution of acute lung rejection and decreased HA in the graft tissue. Taken together, these results indicate that lymphatic vessel formation after lung transplantation mediates HA drainage and suggest that treatments to stimulate lymphangiogenesis have promise for improving graft outcomes.
Project description:The kidney is the most frequently transplanted solid organ. Recruitment of inflammatory cells, ranging from diffuse to nodular accumulations with defined microarchitecture, is a hallmark of acute and chronic renal allograft injury. Lymphotoxins (LTs) mediate the communication of lymphocytes and stromal cells and play a pivotal role in chronic inflammation and formation of lymphoid tissue. The aim of this study was to assess the expression of members of the LT system in acute rejection (AR) and chronic renal allograft injury such as transplant glomerulopathy (TG) and interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (IFTA). We investigated differentially regulated components in transcriptomes of human renal allograft biopsies. By microarray analysis, we found the upregulation of LT?, LIGHT, HVEM and TNF receptors 1 and 2 in AR and IFTA in human renal allograft biopsies. In addition, there was clear evidence for the activation of the NF?B pathway, most likely a consequence of LT? receptor stimulation. In human renal allograft biopsies with transplant glomerulopathy (TG) two distinct transcriptional patterns of LT activation were revealed. By quantitative RT-PCR robust upregulation of LT?, LT? and LIGHT was shown in biopsies with borderline lesions and AR. Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of LT? in tubular epithelial cells and inflammatory infiltrates in transplant biopsies with AR and IFTA. Finally, activation of LT signaling was reproduced in a murine model of renal transplantation with AR. In summary, our results indicate a potential role of the LT system in acute renal allograft rejection and chronic transplant injury. Activation of the LT system in allograft rejection in rodents indicates a species independent mechanism. The functional role of the LT system in acute renal allograft rejection and chronic injury remains to be determined.