Interleukin 33 exacerbates antigen driven airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammation and remodeling in a mouse model of asthma.
ABSTRACT: Interleukin 33 (IL-33) represents a potential link between the airway epithelium and induction of Th2-type inflammatory responses associated with the development of asthma. This study investigated the potential of IL-33 to exacerbate antigen driven asthma responses. An ovalbumin (OVA) asthma model was used in which sensitized C57BL/6 mice were exposed to IL-33 before each OVA challenge. IL-33 given to sensitized mice acted synergistically with antigen and aggravated airway inflammation, hyperresponsiveness and remodeling compared with mice that were only OVA sensitized and challenged and mice that were only exposed to IL-33. Elevated levels of local and systemic mast cell protease mMCP-1, as well as antigen-specific IgE production, were observed following IL-33 administration to sensitized mice. Similarly, exposing OVA-sensitized mice to IL-33 increased the Th2 cytokine levels, including IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13. Furthermore, IL-33 and OVA administration to OVA-sensitized mice increased ILC2s in the lung, suggesting a role for ILC2s in IL-33-mediated exacerbation of OVA-induced airway responses. Collectively, these findings show that IL-33 aggravates important features of antigen-driven asthma, which may have implications for asthma exacerbations.
Project description:Type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and the acquired CD4(+) Th2 and Th17 cells contribute to the pathogenesis of experimental asthma; however, their roles in Ag-driven exacerbation of chronic murine allergic airway diseases remain elusive. In this study, we report that repeated intranasal rechallenges with only OVA Ag were sufficient to trigger airway hyperresponsiveness, prominent eosinophilic inflammation, and significantly increased serum OVA-specific IgG1 and IgE in rested mice that previously developed murine allergic airway diseases. The recall response to repeated OVA inoculation preferentially triggered a further increase of lung OVA-specific CD4(+) Th2 cells, whereas CD4(+) Th17 and ILC2 cell numbers remained constant. Furthermore, the acquired CD4(+) Th17 cells in Stat6(-/-)/IL-17-GFP mice, or innate ILC2s in CD4(+) T cell-ablated mice, failed to mount an allergic recall response to OVA Ag. After repeated OVA rechallenge or CD4(+) T cell ablation, the increase or loss of CD4(+) Th2 cells resulted in an enhanced or reduced IL-13 production by lung ILC2s in response to IL-25 and IL-33 stimulation, respectively. In return, ILC2s enhanced Ag-mediated proliferation of cocultured CD4(+) Th2 cells and their cytokine production, and promoted eosinophilic airway inflammation and goblet cell hyperplasia driven by adoptively transferred Ag-specific CD4(+) Th2 cells. Thus, these results suggest that an allergic recall response to recurring Ag exposures preferentially triggers an increase of Ag-specific CD4(+) Th2 cells, which facilitates the collaborative interactions between acquired CD4(+) Th2 cells and innate ILC2s to drive the exacerbation of a murine allergic airway diseases with an eosinophilic phenotype.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>IL-25, IL-33 and TSLP are produced predominantly by epithelial cells and are known to induce Th2-type cytokines. Th2-type cytokines are involved not only in host defense against nematodes, but also in the development of Th2-type allergic diseases. TSLP was reported to be crucial for development of allergic airway inflammation in mice after inhalation of allergens to which they had been sensitized epicutaneously (EC) beforehand. However, the roles of IL-25 and IL-33 in the setting remain unclear.<h4>Methods</h4>Mice deficient in IL-25 and IL-33 were sensitized EC with ovalbumin (OVA) and then challenged intranasally with OVA. Airway inflammation, the number of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALFs) and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in the mice were determined, respectively, by histological analysis, with a hemocytometer, and by using plethysmograph chambers with a ventilator. Expression of mRNA in the skin and lungs was determined by quantitative PCR, while the BALF levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) and the serum levels of IgE were determined by ELISA.<h4>Results</h4>Normal OVA-specific Th2- and Th17-cell responses of lymph nodes and spleens were observed in IL-25-deficient (IL-25-/-) and IL-33-/- mice after EC sensitization with OVA. Nevertheless, the number of eosinophils, but not neutrophils, in the BALFs, and the levels of Th2 cytokines, but not Th17 cytokines, in the lungs were significantly decreased in the IL-25-/- and IL-33-/- mice pre-sensitized EC with OVA, followed by inhalation of OVA, whereas their levels of AHR and OVA-specific serum IgE were normal.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Both IL-25 and IL-33 are critical for induction of Th2-type cytokine-mediated allergic airway eosinophilia, but not Th17-type cytokine-mediated airway neutrophilia, at the local sites of lungs in the challenge phase of mice sensitized EC with OVA. They do not affect OVA-specific T-cell induction in the sensitization phase.
Project description:Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and their adaptive counterpart type 2 T helper (TH2) cells respond to interleukin-33 (IL-33) by producing IL-5, which is a crucial cytokine for eosinophil development in the bone marrow. The aim of this study was to determine if bone marrow ILC2s, TH cells, and eosinophils are locally regulated by IL-33 in terms of number and activation upon exposure to the common aeroallergen house dust mite (HDM). Mice that were sensitized and challenged with HDM by intranasal exposures induced eosinophil development in the bone marrow with an initial increase of IL5R?+ eosinophil progenitors, following elevated numbers of mature eosinophils and the induction of airway eosinophilia. Bone marrow ILC2s, TH2, and eosinophils all responded to HDM challenge by increased IL-33 receptor (ST2) expression. However, only ILC2s, but not TH cells, revealed increased ST2 expression at the onset of eosinophil development, which significantly correlated with the number of eosinophil progenitors. In summary, our findings suggest that airway allergen challenges with HDM activates IL-33-responsive ILC2s, TH cells, and eosinophils locally in the bone marrow. Targeting the IL-33/ST2 axis in allergic diseases including asthma may be beneficial by decreasing eosinophil production in the bone marrow.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Serum IL-22 levels are increased in patients with atopic dermatitis, which commonly precedes asthma in the atopic march. Epicutaneous sensitization in mice results in TH2-dominated skin inflammation that mimics atopic dermatitis and sensitizes the airways for antigen challenge-induced allergic inflammation characterized by the presence of both eosinophils and neutrophils. Epicutaneous sensitization results in increased serum levels of IL-22. OBJECTIVE:We sought to determine the role of IL-22 in antigen-driven airway allergic inflammation after inhalation challenge in epicutaneously sensitized mice. METHODS:Wild-type (WT) and Il22-/- mice were sensitized epicutaneously or immunized intraperitoneally with ovalbumin (OVA) and challenged intranasally with antigen. OVA T-cell receptor-specific T cells were TH22 polarized in vitro. Airway inflammation, mRNA levels in the lungs, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) were examined. RESULTS:Epicutaneous sensitization preferentially elicited an IL-22 response compared with intraperitoneal immunization. Intranasal challenge of mice epicutaneously sensitized with OVA elicited in the lungs Il22 mRNA expression, IL-22 production, and accumulation of CD3+CD4+IL-22+ T cells that coexpressed IL-17A and TNF-?. Epicutaneously sensitized Il22-/- mice exhibited diminished eosinophil and neutrophil airway infiltration and decreased AHR after intranasal OVA challenge. Production of IL-13, IL-17A, and TNF-? was normal, but IFN-? production was increased in lung cells from airway-challenged and epicutaneously sensitized Il22-/- mice. Intranasal instillation of IFN-?-neutralizing antibody partially reversed the defect in eosinophil recruitment. WT recipients of TH22-polarized WT, but not IL-22-deficient, T-cell receptor OVA-specific T cells, which secrete both IL-17A and TNF-?, had neutrophil-dominated airway inflammation and AHR on intranasal OVA challenge. Intranasal instillation of IL-22 with TNF-?, but not IL-17A, elicited neutrophil-dominated airway inflammation and AHR in WT mice, suggesting that loss of IL-22 synergy with TNF-? contributed to defective recruitment of neutrophils into the airways of Il22-/- mice. TNF-?, but not IL-22, blockade at the time of antigen inhalation challenge inhibited airway inflammation in epicutaneously sensitized mice. CONCLUSION:Epicutaneous sensitization promotes generation of antigen-specific IL-22-producing T cells that promote airway inflammation and AHR after antigen challenge, suggesting that IL-22 plays an important role in the atopic march.
Project description:Chitin, which is a major component of house dust mites (HDM), fungi, crustaceans, etc., can activate immune cells, suggesting that it contributes to development of allergic disorders such as asthma. Although the pathophysiological sensitization route of asthmatic patients to allergens is considered via the respiratory tract, the roles of intranasally-administered chitin in development of asthma remain unclear. After ovalbumin (OVA) challenge, development of airway inflammation was profoundly exacerbated in mice sensitized with OVA in the presence of chitin. The exacerbation was dependent on IL-33, but not IL-25, thymic stromal lymphopoietin or IL-17A. Chitin enhanced IL-33-dependent IL-1? production by dendritic cells (DCs). Furthermore, chitin- and IL-33-stimulated DC-derived IL-1? promoted OVA-specific Th2 cell activation, resulting in aggravation of OVA-induced airway inflammation. These findings indicate the adjuvant activity of chitin via a new mechanism and provide important clues for development of therapeutics for allergic disorders caused by HDM, fungi and crustaceans.
Project description:Sex differences in asthma prevalence are well-documented but poorly understood. Murine models have contributed to our understanding of mechanisms that could regulate this sex disparity, though the majority of these studies have examined responses present after Th2 adaptive immunity is established. We have now investigated how sex influences acute activation of innate cell populations in the lung upon initial exposure to the model antigen, ovalbumin (OVA), in the presence of IL-33 (OVA+IL-33), to prime the lungs for type 2 immunity. We also examined how inflammatory responses induced by OVA+IL-33 were altered in mice lacking the STAT6 transcription factor, which is activated by IL-13, an effector cytokine of IL-33. Our data demonstrate that type 2 inflammation induced by OVA+IL-33 was more severe in female mice compared to males. Females exhibited greater cytokine and chemokine production, eosinophil influx and activation, macrophage polarization to the alternatively activated phenotype, and expansion of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s). While increases in ILC2s and eosinophils were largely independent of STAT6 in both males and females, many other responses were STAT6-dependent only in female mice. Our findings indicate that a subset of type 2 inflammatory responses induced by OVA+IL-33 require STAT6 in both males and females and that enhanced type 2 inflammation in females, compared to males, is associated with greater IL-13 protein production. Our findings suggest blunted IL-13 production in males may protect against type 2 inflammation initiated by OVA+IL-33 delivery to the lung.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Epidemiologic clinical studies suggested that chronic exposure to chlorine products is associated with development of asthma and aggravation of asthmatic symptoms. However, its underlying mechanism was not clearly understood. Studies were undertaken to define the effects and mechanisms of chronic low-dose chlorine exposure in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR).<h4>Methods</h4>Six week-old female BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with OVA in the presence and absence of chronic low dose chlorine exposure of naturally vaporized gas of 5% sodium hypochlorite solution. Airway inflammation and AHR were evaluated by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell recovery and non-invasive phlethysmography, respectively. Real-time qPCR, Western blot assay, and ELISA were used to evaluate the mRNA and protein expressions of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators. Human A549 and murine epithelial (A549 and MLE12) and macrophage (AMJ2-C11) cells were used to define the responses to low dose chlorine exposure in vitro.<h4>Results</h4>Chronic low dose chlorine exposure significantly augmented airway inflammation and AHR in OVA-sensitized and challenged mice. The expression of Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 and proinflammatory cytokine IL-1? and IL-33 were significantly increased in OVA/Cl group compared with OVA group. The chlorine exposure also activates the major molecules associated with inflammasome pathway in the macrophages with increased expression of epithelial alarmins IL-33 and TSLP in vitro.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Chronic low dose exposure of chlorine aggravates allergic Th2 inflammation and AHR potentially through activation of inflammasome danger signaling pathways.
Project description:Asthma is a complex disease that is promoted by dysregulated immunity and the presence of many cytokine and lipid mediators. Despite this, there is a paucity of data demonstrating the combined effects of multiple mediators in asthma pathogenesis. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) have recently been shown to play important roles in the initiation of allergic inflammation; however, it is unclear whether lipid mediators, such as cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs), which are present in asthma, could further amplify the effects of IL-33 on ILC2 activation and lung inflammation. In this article, we show that airway challenges with the parent CysLT, leukotriene C4 (LTC4), given in combination with low-dose IL-33 to naive wild-type mice, led to synergistic increases in airway Th2 cytokines, eosinophilia, and peribronchial inflammation compared with IL-33 alone. Further, the numbers of proliferating and cytokine-producing lung ILC2s were increased after challenge with both LTC4 and IL-33. Levels of CysLT1R, CysLT2R, and candidate leukotriene E4 receptor P2Y12 mRNAs were increased in ILC2s. The synergistic effect of LTC4 with IL-33 was completely dependent upon CysLT1R, because CysLT1R-/- mice, but not CysLT2R-/- mice, had abrogated responses. Further, CysLTs directly potentiated IL-5 and IL-13 production from purified ILC2s stimulated with IL-33 and resulted in NFAT1 nuclear translocation. Finally, CysLT1R-/- mice had reduced lung eosinophils and ILC2 responses after exposure to the fungal allergen Alternaria alternata Thus, CysLT1R promotes LTC4- and Alternaria-induced ILC2 activation and lung inflammation. These findings suggest that multiple pathways likely exist in asthma to activate ILC2s and propagate inflammatory responses.
Project description:IL-11 and IL-11 receptor (R)alpha are induced by Th2 cytokines. However, the role(s) of endogenous IL-11 in antigen-induced Th2 inflammation has not been fully defined. We hypothesized that IL-11, signaling via IL-11Ralpha, plays an important role in aeroallergen-induced Th2 inflammation and mucus metaplasia. To test this hypothesis, we compared the responses induced by the aeroallergen ovalbumin (OVA) in wild-type (WT) and IL-11Ralpha-null mutant mice. We also generated and defined the effects of an antagonistic IL-11 mutein on pulmonary Th2 responses. Increased levels of IgE, eosinophilic tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) inflammation, IL-13 production, and increased mucus production and secretion were noted in OVA-sensitized and -challenged WT mice. These responses were at least partially IL-11 dependent because each was decreased in mice with null mutations of IL-11Ralpha. Importantly, the administration of the IL-11 mutein to OVA-sensitized mice before aerosol antigen challenge also caused a significant decrease in OVA-induced inflammation, mucus responses, and IL-13 production. Intraperitoneal administration of the mutein to lung-specific IL-13-overexpressing transgenic mice also reduced BAL inflammation and airway mucus elaboration. These studies demonstrate that endogenous IL-11R signaling plays an important role in antigen-induced sensitization, eosinophilic inflammation, and airway mucus production. They also demonstrate that Th2 and IL-13 responses can be regulated by interventions that manipulate IL-11 signaling in the murine lung.
Project description:Food-mediated allergic reactions have emerged as a major health problem. The underlying mechanisms that promote uncontrolled type 2 immune responses to dietary allergens in the gastrointestinal tract remain elusive.We investigated whether altering IL-25 signaling enhances or attenuates allergic responses to food allergens.Mice of an IL-25 transgenic mouse line (iIL-25Tg mice), which constitutively overexpress intestinal IL-25, and Il17rb(-/-) mice, in which Il17rb gene expression is disrupted, were sensitized and gavage fed with ovalbumin (OVA). We assessed symptomatic characteristics of experimental food allergy, including incidence of diarrhea, incidence of hypothermia, intestinal TH2 immune response, and serum OVA-specific IgE and mast cell protease 1 production.Rapid induction of Il25 expression in the intestinal epithelium preceded onset of the anaphylactic response to ingested OVA antigen. iIL-25Tg mice were more prone and Il17rb(-/-) mice were more resistant to experimental food allergy. Resident intestinal type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) were identified as the major producers of IL-5 and IL-13 in response to IL-25. Reconstituting irradiated wild-type mice with Rora(-/-) or Il17rb(-/-) bone marrow resulted in a deficiency or dysfunction of the ILC2 compartment, respectively, and resistance to experimental food allergy. Repeated intragastric antigen challenge induced a significant increase in numbers of CD4(+) TH2 cells, which enhance IL-25-stimulated IL-13 production by ILC2s ex vivo and in vivo. Finally, reconstituted IL-13-deficient ILC2s had reduced capability to promote allergic inflammation, resulting in increased resistance to experimental food allergy.IL-25 and CD4(+) TH2 cells induced by ingested antigens enhance ILC2-derived IL-13 production, thereby promoting IgE-mediated experimental food allergy.