A Case Report of Mania and Psychosis Five Months after Traumatic Brain Injury Successfully Treated Using Olanzapine.
ABSTRACT: There are few published pharmacologic trials for the treatment of acute mania following traumatic brain injury (TBI). To our knowledge, we present the first case report of an individual being treated and stabilized with olanzapine monotherapy for this condition.We describe the case of a 53-year-old African American male admitted to an inpatient psychiatric hospital with one month of behavioral changes including irritability, decreased need for sleep, hyperverbal speech, hypergraphia, and paranoia five months after TBI. Using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) criteria, he was diagnosed with bipolar disorder due to traumatic brain injury, with manic features. He was serially evaluated with clinical rating scales to measure symptom severity. The Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) score upon admission was 31, and the Clinician-Rated Dimensions of Psychosis Symptom Severity (CRDPSS) score was initially 9. After eight days of milieu treatment and gradual titration of olanzapine to 15 mg nightly, his symptoms completely abated, with YMRS and CRDPSS scores at zero on the day of discharge.Olanzapine was effective and well tolerated for the treatment of mania following TBI.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Symptoms of anxiety, irritability, and agitation (AIA) are prevalent among patients with bipolar I disorder (BD-I) mania with depressive symptoms, and could potentially be used to aid physicians in the identification of this more severe form of BD-I. Using data from two clinical trials, the aims of this post hoc analysis were to describe the phenomenology of bipolar mania in terms of AIA and depressive symptoms, and to evaluate the influence of these symptoms on the likelihood of remission during treatment. METHODS:Patients with a BD-I manic or mixed episode (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV criteria) were randomised to 3 weeks of double-blind treatment with asenapine, placebo, or olanzapine (active comparator). Anxiety was defined as a score of ?3 on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale 'anxiety' item, irritability as a score of ?4 on the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) 'irritability' item, and agitation as a score of ?3 on the YMRS 'increased motor activity-energy' item. Depressive symptoms were defined as a score of ?1 on three or more individual Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) items, or a MADRS Total score of ?20. RESULTS:A total of 960 patients with BD-I were analysed, 665 with a manic episode and 295 with a mixed episode. At baseline, 61.4% had anxiety, 62.4% had irritability, 76.4% had agitation, and 34.0% had all three AIA symptoms ('severe AIA'); 47.3% had three or more depressive symptoms, and 13.5% had a MADRS total score of ?20. Anxiety, irritability, and severe AIA (but not agitation) were statistically significantly more common in patients with depressive symptoms. Patients with anxiety or severe AIA at baseline were statistically significantly less likely to achieve remission (YMRS total <12). In general, remission rates were higher with asenapine and olanzapine than with placebo, irrespective of baseline AIA or depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS:Assessment of AIA symptoms in bipolar mania could enable physicians to identify patients with more severe depressive symptoms, allowing for appropriate intervention. Assessment and monitoring of AIA may help physicians to predict which patients may be harder to treat and at risk for self-harm. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00159744, NCT00159796. Registered 8 September 2005 (retrospectively registered).
Project description:BACKGROUND:About one in ten diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BD) has experienced a premorbid traumatic brain injury (TBI), while not fulfilling the criteria of bipolar and related disorder due to another medical condition (BD due to TBI). We investigated whether these patients have similar clinical characteristics as previously described in BD due to TBI (i.e. more aggression and irritability and an increased hypomania/mania:depression ratio) and other distinct clinical characteristics. METHODS:Five hundred five patients diagnosed with BD type I, type II, or not otherwise specified, or cyclothymia were interviewed about family, medical, and psychiatric history, and assessed with the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and the Inventory of Depressive Symptoms Clinician Rated 30 (IDS-C30). Principal component analyses of YMRS and IDS-C30 were conducted. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression analyses were used to compare clinical characteristics between patients with (n?=?37) and without (n?=?468) premorbid TBI. RESULTS:Premorbid TBI was associated with a higher YMRS disruptive component score (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.4, p?=?0.0077) and more comorbid migraine (OR 4.6, 95% CI 1.9-11, p?=?0.00090) independently of several possible confounders. Items on disruptive/aggressive behaviour and irritability had the highest loadings on the YMRS disruptive component. Premorbid TBI was not associated with an increased hypomania/mania:depression ratio. CONCLUSIONS:Disruptive symptoms and comorbid migraine characterize BD with premorbid TBI. Further studies should examine whether the partial phenomenological overlap with BD due to TBI could be explained by a continuum of pathophysiological effects of TBI across the diagnostic dichotomy. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00201526. Registered September 2005 (retrospectively registered).
Project description:Phenomenological studies on mood disorder are rare in Nepal which prompted us to undertake the current factor analytical study of mania.It was a cross-sectional descriptive study for which we did purposive sampling technique according to certain inclusion and exclusion criteria. The study sample consists of fifty patients, who fulfilled the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Edition (ICD-10) diagnostic criteria for Manic Episode and/or Bipolar Affective Disorder-current episode mania. Tools used were ICD-10 Diagnostic Criteria for Research, Young's Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). Principal component factor analysis was applied to the 35 symptoms taken from YMRS and BPRS.Factor analysis revealed the presence of four main factors, which explained 51.082% of the total variance. These are "pure mania" which isolated 11 manic symptoms, "dysphoric mania" which isolated five depressive symptoms, "hostile mania" which isolated six symptoms, and the fourth factor, we called it "delirious mania," isolated four symptoms.The identified factors and subtypes are a useful conceptualization of atypical features among patients with acute mania. Further validation studies are required to determine whether the identified subtypes are of clinical and theoretical importance.
Project description:Rating scale items in a 6-week clinical trial of olanzapine versus placebo augmentation in patients with mixed bipolar disorder partially nonresponsive to ?14 days of divalproex monotherapy were analyzed to characterize symptom patterns that could predict remission. At baseline, the two treatment groups were similar.Factor analysis with Varimax rotation was performed post hoc on baseline items of the 21-Item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-21) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS). Backwards-elimination logistic regression ascertained factors predictive of protocol-defined endpoint remission (HDRS-21 score ? 8 and YMRS score ? 12) with subsequent determination of optimally predictive factor score cutoffs.Factors for Psychomotor activity (YMRS items for elevated mood, increased motor activity, and increased speech and HDRS-21 agitation item) and Guilt/Suicidality (HDRS-21 items for guilt and suicidality) significantly predicted endpoint remission in the divalproex+olanzapine group. No factor predicted remission in the divalproex+placebo group. Patients in the divalproex+olanzapine group with high pre-augmentation psychomotor activity (scores ?10) were more likely to remit compared to those with lower psychomotor activity (odds ratio [OR] = 3.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22-7.79), and patients with marginally high Guilt/Suicidality (scores ?2) were less likely to remit than those with lower scores (OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.13-1.03). Remission rates for divalproex+placebo vs. divalproex+olanzapine patients with high psychomotor activity scores were 22% vs. 45% (p = 0.08) and 33% vs. 48% (p = 0.29) for patients with low Guilt/Suicidality scores.Patients who were partially nonresponsive to divalproex treatment with remaining high vs. low psychomotor activity levels or minimal vs. greater guilt/suicidality symptoms were more likely to remit with olanzapine augmentation.ClinicalTrials.gov; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00402324?term=NCT00402324&rank=1, Identifier: NCT00402324.
Project description:The aim of this analysis was to identify Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) meaningful benchmarks for clinicians (severity threshold, minimal clinically significant difference [MCSD]) using the Clinical Global Impressions Bipolar (CGI-BP) mania scale, to provide a clinical perspective to randomized clinical trials (RCTs) results. We used the cohort of patients with acute manic/mixed state of bipolar disorders (N?=?3459) included in the European Mania in Bipolar Longitudinal Evaluation of Medication (EMBLEM) study. A receiver-operating characteristic analysis was performed on randomly selected patients to determine the YMRS optimal severity threshold with CGI-BP mania score???"Markedly ill" defining severity. The MCSD (clinically meaningful change in score relative to one point difference in CGI-BP mania for outcome measures) of YMRS, was assessed with a linear regression on baseline data. At baseline, YMRS mean score was 26.4 (±9.9), CGI-BP mania mean score was 4.8 (±1.0) and 61.7% of patients had a score???5. The optimal YMRS severity threshold of 25 (positive predictive value [PPV]?=?83.0%; negative predictive value [NPV]?=?66.0%) was determined. In this cohort, a YMRS score of 20 (typical cutoff for RCTs inclusion criteria) corresponds to a PPV of 74.6% and to a NPV of 77.6%, meaning that the majority of patients included would be classified as severely ill. The YMRS minimal clinically significant difference was 6.6 points.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) are among the most widely used outcome measures for clinical trials of medications for Bipolar Disorder (BD). Nonetheless, very few studies have examined the measurement characteristics of the YMRS and MADRS in individuals with BD using modern psychometric methods. The present study evaluated the YMRS and MADRS in the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for BD (STEP-BD) study using Item Response Theory (IRT). METHODS:Baseline data from 3716 STEP-BD participants were available for the present analysis. The Graded Response Model (GRM) was fit separately to YMRS and MADRS item responses. Differential item functioning (DIF) was examined by regressing a variety of clinically relevant covariates (e.g., sex, substance dependence) on all test items and on the latent symptom severity dimension, within each scale. RESULTS:Both scales: 1) contained several items that provided little or no psychometric information, 2) were inefficient, in that the majority of item response categories did not provide incremental psychometric information, 3) poorly measured participants outside of a narrow band of severity, 4) evidenced DIF for nearly all items, suggesting that item responses were, in part, determined by factors other than symptom severity. LIMITATIONS:Limited to outpatients; DIF analysis only sensitive to certain forms of DIF. CONCLUSIONS:The present study provides evidence for significant measurement problems involving the YMRS and MADRS. More work is needed to refine these measures and/or develop suitable alternative measures of BD symptomatology for clinical trials research.
Project description:Objective:In bipolar disorder, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level decreases leading to dysfunctions of critical neurotrophic, cellular plasticity and neuroprotective processes. The present study was conducted to evaluate the change in serum BDNF level with oxcarbazepine monotherapy in bipolar mania. Methods:The present study is a prospective, interventional, open label clinical study conducted on 25 patients of bipolar mania and 25 healthy controls. Detailed history, clinical evaluation including Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) scoring and serum BDNF were assessed at baseline for all 50 subjects. The bipolar patients were prescribed tablet oxcarbazepine and followed up after 4 weeks for clinical evaluation and re-estimation of serum BDNF and YMRS scoring. Results:The serum BDNF level in bipolar manic patients were compared with healthy controls at baseline and results revealed that there is a significant reduction (p=0.002) in serum BDNF level in bipolar patients. At follow-up after 4 weeks, the mean change in serum BDNF in bipolar group who were on oxcarbazepine monotherapy was found statistically significant (p=0.02) in comparison to healthy controls. In bipolar group, the YMRS score and serum BDNF at baseline have an inverse relation(r=-0.59) whereas change of the YMRS score had a positive correlation (r=0.67) with the change of serum BDNF over 4 weeks. Conclusion:In bipolar mania serum BDNF level is low and it is found to be increased with short term monotherapy with oxcarbazepine.
Project description:Population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling (via NONMEM) was used to describe longitudinal exposure-response relationships for total cariprazine (sum of cariprazine and its major active metabolites) in 2,558 patients with schizophrenia or bipolar mania. Drug exposure metrics were explored for potential relationships with efficacy and safety end points. Total cariprazine exposures were significantly related to reductions in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) or Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) total scores in schizophrenia or bipolar mania, respectively, via a maximum effect (Emax )-type relationship. Typical steady-state plasma concentrations after 3 and 4.5 mg/day were associated with 50% of maximum typical reductions in PANSS and YMRS total scores, respectively. Time-weighted cariprazine exposures had significant relationships with the probability of common adverse events (AEs). Dose increase was associated with increased efficacy but was also associated with an increase in AEs. Results of these pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analyses support that the recommended dose range (1.5-6 mg/day for schizophrenia and 3-6 mg/day for bipolar mania) provides an appropriate benefit-risk balance between cariprazine efficacy and safety.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Despite lithium's clinical efficacy in treating mania in bipolar disorder (BD), studies evaluating early improvement and subsequent treatment response are sparse. This study investigated whether early improvement (within one week) to lithium monotherapy predicted later response and remission in individuals with BD mania. METHODS:BD-I patients (n=46) experiencing a manic episode received lithium monotherapy for four weeks (initial dose: 600mg/d, adjusted to therapeutic levels); individuals experiencing a mixed episode, rapid cyclers, previous non-responders to lithium, and those with current drug abuse/dependence were excluded. Symptoms were rated using the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) at baseline and at Days 7, 14, 21, and 28. RESULTS:Thirty-three percent of the total sample responded to lithium within the first week of treatment, defined as a ?50% decrease from baseline YMRS scores; 63% responded by study endpoint. In addition, 39% of the total sample showed early improvement (at least 20% decrease in YMRS scores) after one week of treatment. In this group, 79% responded to lithium by study endpoint. Among those showing less than 20% improvement at Week 1, only 23% responded to lithium by study endpoint. LIMITATIONS:History of episodes sequence was not assessed. CONCLUSIONS:Early improvement in response to lithium monotherapy in subjects with BD mania predicted later response and remission. Most patients who did not show early improvement in response to lithium during the first week of treatment showed no response after one month. The findings provide a valuable clinical tool for early identification of those patients most likely to benefit from lithium in clinical practice.
Project description:RATIONALE:Lithium is an effective prophylactic and anti-manic treatment in bipolar disorder; however, its use is declining through perceived poor tolerance and toxicity. Lithium inhibits inositol monophosphatase (IMPase), a probable key therapeutic mechanism. The anti-inflammatory drug, ebselen, also inhibits IMPase and appears well-tolerated and safe. OBJECTIVES:To assess the efficacy of adjunctive ebselen in mania using the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) (primary outcome) and the Altman Self-Rating Mania (ASRM) Scale and Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S) among the secondary outcomes. METHODS:Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial conducted between October 2017 and June 2019, at Oxford Health NHS Foundation Trust. Pharmacy-controlled randomisation was computer-generated, with full allocation concealment. In/outpatients (n?=?68) aged 18-70, experiencing mania or hypomania, were assigned to 3 weeks ebselen (600 mg bd) (n?=?33) or placebo (n?=?35). Participants received usual clinical care and psychotropic medication. RESULTS:Ebselen was numerically, but not statistically, superior to placebo in lowering scores on the YMRS (adjusted mean difference and 95% confidence interval, -?1.71 (-?5.34 to 1.91), p =?0.35) and ASRM (-?1.36 (-?3.75 to 1.17), p =?0.29). However, scores on the CGI-S were significantly lower at week 3 in ebselen-treated participants (adjusted mean difference, -?0.58 (-?1.14 to -?0.03), p =?0.04). A post hoc analysis excluding patients taking concomitant valproate treatment magnified the difference between ebselen and placebo on the YMRS. Adverse events were comparable between groups, and mild. CONCLUSIONS:Ebselen merits further investigation where concomitant psychotropic medication is better controlled and participants taking valproate are excluded. If effective, ebselen's superior tolerance and safety could make it a useful alternative to lithium. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Trial Registry: www.clinicaltrials.gov , Identifier: NCT03013400.