Structural and biochemical studies of human proliferating cell nuclear antigen complexes provide a rationale for cyclin association and inhibitor design.
ABSTRACT: The interactions between the tumor suppressor protein p21WAF1 and the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) complexes and with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) regulate and coordinate the processes of cell-cycle progression and DNA replication. We present the x-ray crystal structure of PCNA complexed with a 16-mer peptide related to p21 that binds with a Kd of 100 nM. Two additional crystal structures of native PCNA provide previously undescribed structures of uncomplexed human PCNA and show that significant changes on ligand binding include rigidification of a number of flexible regions on the surface of PCNA. In the competitive binding experiments described here, we show that a 20-mer sequence from p21 can be associated simultaneously with PCNA and CDK/cyclin complexes. A structural model for this quaternary complex is presented in which the C-terminal sequence of p21 acts like double-sided tape and docks to both the PCNA and cyclin molecules. The quaternary complex shows little direct interaction between PCNA and cyclin, giving p21 the role of an adaptor molecule. Taken together, the biochemical and structural results delineate a druggable inhibitor site on the surface of PCNA that may be exploited in the design of peptidomimetics, which will act independently of cyclin-groove inhibitors.
Project description:In cycling tumour cells, the binary cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk4/cyclin D or Cdk2/cyclin E complex is inhibited by p21 following DNA damage to induce G1 cell-cycle arrest. However, it is not known whether other proteins are also recruited within Cdk complexes, or their role, and this was investigated.Ovarian A2780 tumour cells were exposed to the platinum-based antitumour agent 1R,2R-diaminocyclohexane(trans-diacetato)(dichloro)platinum(IV) (DAP), which preferentially induces G1 arrest in a p21-dependent manner. The Cdk complexes were analysed by gel filtration chromatography, immunoblot and mass spectrometry.The active forms of Cdk4 and Cdk2 complexes in control tumour cells have a molecular size of ~140 kDa, which increased to ~290 kDa when inhibited following G1 checkpoint activation by DAP. Proteomic analysis identified Cdk, cyclin, p21 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the inhibited complex, and biochemical studies provided unequivocal evidence that the increase in ~150 kDa of the inhibited complex is consistent with p21-dependent recruitment of PCNA as a trimer, likely bound to three molecules of p21. Although p21 alone was sufficient to inhibit the Cdk complex, PCNA was critical for stabilising p21.G1 Cdk complexes inhibited by p21 also recruit PCNA, which inhibits degradation and, thereby, prolongs activity of p21 within the complex.
Project description:Previous studies have shown conflicting data regarding cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) complexes, and considering the widespread overexpression of cyclin D1 in cancer, it is important to fully understand their relevance. While many have shown that cyclin D1 and Cdk2 form active complexes, others have failed to show activity or association. Here, using a novel p21-PCNA fusion protein as well as p21 mutant proteins, we show that p21 is a required scaffolding protein, with cyclin D1 and Cdk2 failing to complex in its absence. These p21/cyclin D1/Cdk2 complexes are active and also bind the trimeric PCNA complex, with each trimer capable of independently binding distinct cyclin/Cdk complexes. We also show that increased p21 levels due to treatment with chemotherapeutic agents result in increased formation and kinase activity of cyclin D1/Cdk2 complexes, and that cyclin D1/Cdk2 complexes are able to phosphorylate a number of substrates in addition to Rb. Nucleophosmin and Cdh1, two proteins important for centrosome replication and implicated in the chromosomal instability of cancer, are shown to be phosphorylated by cyclin D1/Cdk2 complexes. Additionally, polypyrimidine tract binding protein-associated splicing factor (PSF) is identified as a novel Cdk2 substrate, being phosphorylated by Cdk2 complexed with either cyclin E or cyclin D1, and given the many functions of PSF, it could have important implications on cellular activity.
Project description:Replication factor C (RF-C) complex binds to DNA primers and loads PCNA onto DNA, thereby increasing the processivity of DNA polymerases. We have previously identified a distinct region, domain B, in the large subunit of human RF-C (RF-Cp145) which binds to PCNA. We show here that the functional interaction of RF-Cp145 with PCNA is regulated by cdk-cyclin kinases. Phosphorylation of either RF-Cp145 as a part of the RF-C complex or RF-Cp145 domain B by cdk-cyclin kinases inhibits their ability to bind PCNA. A cdk-cyclin phosphorylation site, Thr506 in RF-Cp145, identified by mass spectrometry, is also phosphorylated in vivo. A Thr506-->Ala RF-Cp145 domain B mutant is a poor in vitro substrate for cdk-cyclin kinase and, consequently, the ability of this mutant to bind PCNA was not suppressed by phosphorylation. By generating an antibody directed against phospho-Thr506 in RF-Cp145, we demonstrate that phosphorylation of endogenous RF-Cp145 at Thr506 is mediated by CDKs since it is abolished by treatment of cells with the cdk-cyclin inhibitor roscovitine. We have thus mapped an in vivo cdk-cyclin phosphorylation site within the PCNA binding domain of RF-Cp145.
Project description:Chrysin and its analogues, belongs to flavonoid family and possess potential anti-tumour activity. The aim of this study is to determine the molecular mechanism by which chrysin controls cell growth and induce apoptosis in A375 cells.Effect of chrysin and its analogues on cell viability and cell cycle analysis was determined by MTT assay and flowcytometry. A series of Western blots was performed to determine the effect of chrysin on important cell cycle regulatory proteins (Cdk2, cyclin D1, p53, p21, p27). The fluorimetry and calorimetry based assays was conducted for characterization of chrysin as HDAC inhibitor. The changes in histone tail modification such as acetylation and methylation was studied after chrysin treatment was estimated by immuno-fluorescence and western blot analysis. The expression of Bcl-xL, survivin and caspase-3 was estimated in chrysin treated cells. The effect of chrysin on p21 promoter activity was studied by luciferase and ChIP assays.Chrysin cause G1 cell cycle arrest and found to inhibit HDAC-2 and HDAC-8. Chrysin treated cells have shown increase in the levels of H3acK14, H4acK12, H4acK16 and decrease in H3me2K9 methylation. The p21 induction by chrysin treatment was found to be independent of p53 status. The chromatin remodelling at p21WAF1 promoter induces p21 activity, increased STAT-1 expression and epigenetic modifications that are responsible for ultimate cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.Chrysin shows in vitro anti-cancer activity that is correlated with induction of histone hyperacetylation and possible recruitment of STAT-1, 3, 5 proteins at STAT (-692 to -684) region of p21 promoter. Our results also support an unexpected action of chrysin on the chromatin organization of p21WAF1 promoter through histone methylation and hyper-acetylation. It proposes previously unknown sequence specific chromatin modulations in the STAT responsive elements for regulating cell cycle progression negatively via the induction of the CDK inhibitor p21WAF1.
Project description:To study the regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity during mitotic exit in mammalian cells, we constructed murine cell lines that constitutively express a stabilized mutant of cyclin A (cyclin A47). Even though cyclin A47 was expressed throughout mitosis and in G1 cells, its associated CDK activity was inactivated after the transition from metaphase to anaphase. Cyclin A47 associated with both p21 and p27 during mitotic exit, implicating these proteins in CDK inactivation. However, cyclin A47 was fully inhibited during the M-to-G1 transition in p21(-/-) p27(-/-) fibroblasts. Also, the CDKs associated with cyclin A47 were not inactivated by phosphorylation at tyrosines. The protein responsible for CDK inactivation during mitotic exit in p21/p27 null cells was the Rb family member, p107. p107 bound to cyclin A47 when p21 and p27 were absent, and cyclin A47-CDK activity was not inactivated during the M-to-G1 transition in p21(-/-) p27(-/-) p107(-/-) null fibroblasts. Enforced expression of cyclin A in cells lacking all three CDK inhibitors induced rapid tetraploidization, indicative of mitotic failure/endoreduplication. We concluded that cyclin proteolysis and CDK inhibitors constitute redundant pathways that control cyclin A-CDK activity during mitotic exit in mammalian cells and that loss of these pathways can cause genetic instability.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs) exhibit poor prognosis and are usually resistant to conventional chemotherapy. Absence of p21WAF1/CIP1, a cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitor, has been linked to drug resistance in many in vitro cellular models. RNA activation (RNAa) is a transcriptional activation phenomena guided by double-strand RNA (dsRNA) targeting promoter region of target gene. METHODS: In this study, we explored the effect of up-regulation of p21 gene expression on drug-resistance in A549 non-small-cell lung carcinoma cells by transfecting the dsRNA targeting the promoter region of p21 into A549 cells. RESULTS: Enhanced p21 expression was observed in A549 cells after transfection of dsRNA, which was correlated with a significant growth inhibition and enhancement of chemosensitivity to cisplatin in A549 cells in vitro. Moreover, in vivo experiment showed that saRNA targeting the promoter region of p21 could significantly inhibit A549 xenograft tumor growth. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that p21 plays a role in lung cancer drug-resistance process. In addition, this study also provides evidence for the usage of saRNA as a therapeutic option for up-regulating lower-expression genes in lung cancer.
Project description:Previous reports showed that chromatin-associated PCNA couples DNA replication with Cul4-DDB1(Cdt2)-dependent proteolysis of the licensing factor Cdt1. The CDK inhibitor p21, another PCNA-binding protein, is also degraded both in S phase and after UV irradiation. Here we show that p21 is degraded by the same ubiquitin-proteasome pathway as Cdt1 in HeLa cells. When PCNA or components of Cul4-DDB1(Cdt2) were silenced or when the PCNA binding site on p21 was mutated, degradation of p21 was prevented both in S phase and after UV irradiation. p21 was co-immunoprecipitated with Cul4A and DDB1 proteins when expressed in cells. The purified Cul4A-DDB1(Cdt2) complex ubiquitinated p21 in vitro. Consistently, p21 protein levels are low during S phase and increase around G(2) phase. Mutational analysis suggested that in addition to the PCNA binding domain, its flanking regions are also important for recognition by Cul4-DDB1(Cdt2). Our findings provide a new aspect of proteolytic control of p21 during the cell cycle.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare, yet potentially aggressive disease. Although literature regarding female breast cancer (FBC) is extensive, little is known about the etiopathogenesis of male breast cancer. Studies from our laboratory show that MBCs have a distinct immunophenotypic profile, suggesting that the etiopathogenesis of MBC is different from FBCs. The aim of this study was to evaluate and correlate the immunohistochemical expression of cell cycle proteins in male breast carcinoma to significant clinico-biological endpoints.<h4>Methods</h4>75 cases of MBC were identified using the records of the Saskatchewan Cancer Agency over 26 years (1970-1996). Cases were reviewed and analyzed for the immunohistochemical expression of PCNA, Ki67, p27, p16, p57, p21, cyclin-D1 and c-myc and correlated to clinico-biological endpoints of tumor size, node status, stage of the disease, and disease free survival (DFS).<h4>Results</h4>Decreased DFS was observed in the majority of tumors that overexpressed PCNA (98%, p = 0.004). The overexpression of PCNA was inversely correlated to the expression of Ki67 which was predominantly negative (78.3%). Cyclin D1 was overexpressed in 83.7% of cases. Cyclin D1 positive tumors were smaller than 2 cm (55.6%, p = 0.005), had a low incidence of lymph node metastasis (38.2%, p = 0.04) and were associated with increased DFS of >150 months (p = 0.04). Overexpression of c-myc (90%) was linked with a higher incidence of node negativity (58.3%, p = 0.006) and increased DFS (p = 0.04). p27 over expression was associated with decreased lymph node metastasis (p = 0.04). P21 and p57 positive tumors were related to decreased DFS (p = 0.04). Though p16 was overexpressed in 76.6%, this did not reach statistical significance with DFS (p = 0.06) or nodal status (p = 0.07).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Aberrant cell cycle protein expression supports our view that these are important pathways involved in the etiopathogenesis of MBC. Tumors with overexpression of Cyclin D1 and c-myc had better outcomes, in contrast to tumors with overexpression of p21, p57, and PCNA with significantly worse outcomes. P27 appears to be a predictive marker for lymph nodal status. Such observation strongly suggests that dysregulation of cell cycle proteins may play a unique role in the initiation and progression of disease in male breast cancer. Such findings open up new avenues for the treatment of MBC as a suitable candidate for novel CDK-based anticancer therapies in the future.
Project description:The Cip/Kip family of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitors includes p21(Cip1), p27(Kip1) and p57(Kip2). Their kinase inhibitory activities are mediated by a homologous N-terminal kinase inhibitory domain. The Cdk inhibitory activity and stability of p27 have been shown to be regulated by a two-step phosphorylation mechanism involving a tyrosine residue within the kinase inhibitory domain and a threonine residue within the flexible C-terminus. We show that these residues are conserved in p21 and p57, suggesting that a similar phosphorylation cascade regulates these Cdk inhibitors. However, the presence of a cyclin binding motif within its C-terminus alters the regulatory interplay between p21 and Cdk2/cyclin A, as well as its responses to tyrosine phosphorylation and altered p21:Cdk2/cyclin A stoichiometry. We also show that the Cip/Kip proteins can be phosphorylated in vitro by representatives of many non-receptor tyrosine kinase (NRTK) sub-families, suggesting that NRTKs may generally regulate the activity and stability of these Cdk inhibitors. Our results further suggest that the Cip/Kip proteins integrate signals from various NRTK pathways and cell cycle regulation.
Project description:We have isolated Xenopus p28Kix1, a member of the p21CIP1/p27KIP1/p57KIP2 family of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitors. Members of this family negatively regulate cell cycle progression in mammalian cells by inhibiting the activities of Cdks. p28 shows significant sequence homology with p21, p27, and p57 in its N-terminal region, where the Cdk inhibition domain is known to reside. In contrast, the C-terminal domain of p28 is distinct from that of p21, p27, and p57. In co-immunoprecipitation experiments, p28 was found to be associated with Cdk2, cyclin E, and cyclin A, but not the Cdc2/cyclin B complex in Xenopus egg extracts. Xenopus p28 associates with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen, but with a substantially lower affinity than human p21. In kinase assays with recombinant Cdks, p28 inhibits pre-activated Cdk2/cyclin E and Cdk2/cyclin A, but not Cdc2/cyclin B. However, at high concentrations, p28 does prevent the activation of Cdc2/cyclin B by the Cdk-activating kinase. Consistent with the role of p28 as a Cdk inhibitor, recombinant p28 elicits an inhibition of both DNA replication and mitosis upon addition to egg extracts, indicating that it can regulate multiple cell cycle transitions. The level of p28 protein shows a dramatic developmental profile: it is low in Xenopus oocytes, eggs, and embryos up to stage 11, but increases approximately 100-fold between stages 12 and 13, and remains high thereafter. The induction of p28 expression temporally coincides with late gastrulation. Thus, although p28 may play only a limited role during the early embryonic cleavages, it may function later in development to establish a somatic type of cell cycle. Taken together, our results indicate that Xenopus p28 is a new member of the p21/p27/p57 class of Cdk inhibitors, and that it may play a role in developmental processes.