5-HT Drives Mortality in Sepsis Induced by Cecal Ligation and Puncture in Mice.
ABSTRACT: Sepsis is defined as a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection with a high mortality. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is an important regulatory factor in inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of 5-HT on cecal ligation and puncture- (CLP-) induced sepsis in the mouse model. CLP was performed on C57B/6 wild-type (WT) mice and tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) knockout (KO) mice. The results showed that the 5-HT-sufficient group mice had a significantly lower survival rate than the 5-HT-deficient group in CLP-induced sepsis and septic shock. The KO-CLP sepsis group received a lower clinical score than the WT-CLP sepsis group. Meanwhile, the body temperature of mice in the KO-CLP sepsis group was higher than that in the WT-CLP sepsis group and was much closer to the normal body temperature 24 hours after CLP. The tissue histopathology analysis revealed that 5-HT markedly exacerbated histological damages in the peritoneum, lung, liver, kidney, intestinal tissue, and heart in sepsis. Moreover, significant lower levels of TNF-α, IL-6, bacterial loads, MPO, and ROS were discovered in the KO-CLP sepsis group in contrast to the WT-CLP sepsis group. In conclusion, 5-HT drives mortality and exacerbates organ dysfunction by promoting serum cytokines and bacterial loads as well as facilitating oxidative stress in the process of sepsis.
Project description:Alterations in the energy homeostasis contribute to sepsis-mediated multiple organ failure. The liver plays a central role in metabolism and participates to the innate immune and inflammatory responses of sepsis. Several clinical and experimental studies have suggested that females are less susceptible to the adverse outcome of sepsis. However, underlying mechanisms of organ damage in sepsis remain largely undefined. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important regulator of mitochondrial quality control. The AMPK catalytic ?1 isoform is abundantly expressed in the liver. Here, we determined the role of hepatocyte AMPK?1 in sepsis by using hepatocyte-specific AMPK?1 knockout mice (H-AMPK?1 KO) generated with Cre-recombinase expression under the control of the albumin promoter. Using a clinically relevant model of polymicrobial sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), we observed that male H-AMPK?1 KO mice had higher plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6 and exhibited a more severe liver and lung injury than male H-AMPK?1 WT mice, as evaluated by histology and neutrophil infiltration at 18 h after CLP. Plasma levels of interleukin-10 and the keratinocyte-derived chemokine were similarly elevated in both KO and WT male mice. At transmission electron microscopy analysis, male H-AMPK?1 KO mice exhibited higher liver mitochondrial damage, which was associated with a significant decrease in liver ATP levels when compared to WT mice at 18 h after sepsis. Mortality rate was significantly higher in the male H-AMPK?1 KO group (91%) when compared to WT mice (60%) at 7 days after CLP. Female H-AMPK?1 WT mice exhibited a similar degree of histological liver and lung injury, but significantly milder liver mitochondrial damage and higher autophagy when compared to male WT mice after CLP. Interestingly, H-AMPK?1 KO female mice had lower organ neutrophil infiltration, lower liver mitochondrial damage and lower levels of cytokines than WT female mice. There was no significant difference in survival rate between WT and KO mice in the female group. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that AMPK?1 is a crucial hepatoprotective enzyme during sepsis. Furthermore, our results suggest that AMPK-dependent liver metabolic functions may influence the susceptibility to multiple organ injury in a sex-dependent manner.
Project description:Sepsis causes multiple-organ dysfunction including pancreatic injury, thus resulting in high mortality. Innate immune molecule surfactant protein D (SP-D) plays a critical role in host defense and regulating inflammation of infectious diseases. In this study we investigated SP-D functions in the acute pancreatic injury (API) with C57BL/6 Wild-type (WT) and SP-D knockout (KO) mice in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model. Our results confirm SP-D expression in pancreatic islets and intercalated ducts and are the first to explore the role of pancreatic SP-D in sepsis. CLP decreased pancreatic SP-D levels and caused severe pancreatic injury with higher serum amylase 24 h after CLP. Apoptosis and neutrophil infiltration were increased in the pancreas of septic KO mice (p < 0.05, vs septic WT mice), with lower Bcl-2 and higher caspase-3 levels in septic KO mice (p < 0.05). Molecular analysis revealed increased NF-κB-p65 and phosphorylated IκB-α levels along with higher serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in septic KO mice compared to septic WT mice (p < 0.01). Furthermore, in vitro islet cultures stimulated with LPS produced higher TNF-α and IL-6 (p < 0.05) from KO mice compared to WT mice. Collectively, these results demonstrate SP-D plays protective roles by inhibiting apoptosis and modulating NF-κB-mediated inflammation in CLP-induced API.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), produced by the activity of cystathionine-gamma-lyase (CSE), is a key mediator of inflammation in sepsis. The liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) are important target and mediator of sepsis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of CSE-derived H2S on inflammation and LSECs fenestrae in caecal-ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis using CSE KO mice.<h4>Methods</h4>Sepsis was induced by CLP, and mice (C57BL/6J, male) were sacrificed after 8 hours. Liver, lung, and blood were collected and processed to measure CSE expression, H2S synthesis, MPO activity, NF-?B p65, ERK1/2, and cytokines/chemokines levels. Diameter, frequency, porosity and gap area of the liver sieve were calculated from scanning electron micrographs of the LSECs.<h4>Results</h4>An increased CSE expression and H2S synthesizing activity in the liver and lung of wild-type mice following CLP-induced sepsis. This was associated with an increased liver and lung MPO activity, and increased liver and lung and plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-1?, and the chemokines MCP-1 and MIP-2?. Conversely, CSE KO mice had less liver and lung injury and reduced inflammation following CLP-induced sepsis as evidenced by decreased levels of H2S synthesizing activity, MPO activity, and pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines production. Extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and nuclear factor-?B p65 (NF-?B) became significantly activated after the CLP in WT mice but not in CSE KO mice. In addition, CLP-induced damage to the LSECs, as indicated by increased defenestration and gaps formation in the LSECs compared to WT sham control. CSE KO mice showed decreased defenestration and gaps formation following sepsis.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Mice with CSE (an H2S synthesising enzyme) gene deletion are less susceptible to CLP-induced sepsis and associated inflammatory response through ERK1/2-NF-?B p65 pathway as evidenced by reduced inflammation, tissue damage, and LSECs defenestration and gaps formation.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to elicit cardio-protective effects in sepsis. However, the underlying mechanism remains obscure. While recent studies have indicated that miR-223 is highly enriched in MSC-derived exosomes, whether exosomal miR-223 contributes to MSC-mediated cardio-protection in sepsis is unknown. In this study, loss-of-function approach was utilized, and sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). We observed that injection of miR-223-KO MSCs at 1?h post-CLP did not confer protection against CLP-triggered cardiac dysfunction, apoptosis and inflammatory response. However, WT-MSCs were able to provide protection which was associated with exosome release. Next, treatment of CLP mice with exosomes released from miR-223-KO MSCs significantly exaggerated sepsis-induced injury. Conversely, WT-MSC-derived-exosomes displayed protective effects. Mechanistically, we identified that miR-223-KO exosomes contained higher levels of Sema3A and Stat3, two known targets of miR-223 (5p &3p), than WT-exosomes. Accordingly, these exosomal proteins were transferred to cardiomyocytes, leading to increased inflammation and cell death. By contrast, WT-exosomes encased higher levels of miR-223, which could be delivered to cardiomyocytes, resulting in down-regulation of Sema3A and Stat3. These data for the first time indicate that exosomal miR-223 plays an essential role for MSC-induced cardio-protection in sepsis.
Project description:Sepsis is the leading cause of death in critically ill patients. While myocardial dysfunction has been recognized as a major manifestation in severe sepsis, the underlying molecular mechanisms associated with septic cardiomyopathy remain unclear. In this study, we performed a miRNA array analysis in hearts collected from a severe septic mouse model induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Among the 19 miRNAs that were dys-regulated in CLP-mouse hearts, miR-223(3p) and miR-223*(5p) were most significantly downregulated, compared with sham-operated mouse hearts. To test whether a drop of miR-223 duplex plays any roles in sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction and inflammation, a knockout (KO) mouse model with a deletion of the miR-223 gene locus and wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to CLP or sham surgery. We observed that sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction, inflammatory response and mortality were remarkably aggravated in CLP-treated KO mice, compared with control WTs. Using Western-blotting and luciferase reporter assays, we identified Sema3A, an activator of cytokine storm and a neural chemorepellent for sympathetic axons, as an authentic target of miR-223* in the myocardium. In addition, we validated that miR-223 negatively regulated the expression of STAT-3 and IL-6 in mouse hearts. Furthermore, injection of Sema3A protein into WT mice revealed an exacerbation of sepsis-triggered inflammatory response and myocardial depression, compared with control IgG1 protein-treated WT mice following CLP surgery. Taken together, these data indicate that loss of miR-223/-223* causes an aggravation of sepsis-induced inflammation, myocardial dysfunction and mortality. Our study uncovers a previously unrecognized mechanism underlying septic cardiomyopathy and thereby, may provide a new strategy to treat sepsis.
Project description:Sepsis can induce an overwhelming systemic inflammatory response, resulting in organ damage and death. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) negatively regulates signaling by cytokine receptors and Toll-like receptors (TLRs). However, the cellular targets and molecular mechanisms for SOCS1 activity during polymicrobial sepsis are unknown. To address this, we utilized a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model for sepsis; C57BL/6 mice subjected to CLP were then treated with a peptide (iKIR) that binds the SOCS1 kinase inhibitory region (KIR) and blocks its activity. Treatment with iKIR increased CLP-induced mortality, bacterial burden, and inflammatory cytokine production. Myeloid cell-specific SOCS1 deletion (Socs1?myel) mice were also more susceptible to sepsis, demonstrating increased mortality, higher bacterial loads, and elevated inflammatory cytokines, compared with Socs1fl littermate controls. These effects were accompanied by macrophage metabolic reprograming, as evidenced by increased lactic acid production and elevated expression of the glycolytic enzymes hexokinase, lactate dehydrogenase A, and glucose transporter 1 in septic Socs1?myel mice. Upregulation was dependent on the STAT3/HIF-1?/glycolysis axis, and blocking glycolysis ameliorated increased susceptibility to sepsis in iKIR-treated CLP mice. These results reveal a role of SOCS1 as a regulator of metabolic reprograming that prevents overwhelming inflammatory response and organ damage during sepsis.
Project description:Strategies are needed to reverse the immune cell hyporesponsiveness and prevent bacterial overgrowth associated with high mortality rates in septic patients. Adenosine signaling may be mediating immunosuppressive signals within the inflammatory microenvironment that are safeguarding bacteria by rendering immune cells hyporesponsive. We examined A2A adenosine receptor (A2AR)-mediated immune responses in a chronic model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis using both wild-type (WT) and A2AR knockout (KO) mice. In this model, chronic bacterial peritonitis was established that results in the first death on day 4. A2A adenosine receptors promoted bacterial overgrowth that was associated with a high 28-day sepsis mortality (WT 87% vs. A2AR KO 13%; P < 0.0001). Chronic bacteremia persisted in both WT and A2AR KO mice over the 28-day study period. Bacteremia was significantly decreased in A2AR KO mice 2 days after antibiotic therapy cessation (day 6 after CLP; P < 0.005). Local and disseminated bacteria levels were compared at the end of the 28-day study period or from moribund mice. A2A adenosine receptor deficiency dramatically decreased peritoneal (P < 0.05), splenic (P < 0.05), and blood (P < 0.01) bacterial levels. A2A adenosine receptor deficiency caused an early reduction in inflammatory mediators IL-6, macrophage inflammatory protein 2, TNF-srI, and TNF-srII (P < 0.05), but not in TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-10, or monocyte chemotactic protein 1 within 24 h after CLP. In response to an intravenous lipopolysaccharide (day 5 after CLP) challenge, A2AR KO mice showed enhanced secretion of TNF-? (2 h), IFN-?, IL-6, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, IL-10, and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (9 h) (P < 0.05), suggesting that A2ARs attenuate inflammatory responses to repeat infectious insults. These data demonstrate that A2AR blockade may be an effective immunotherapy treatment to prevent bacterial overgrowth and reduce mortality secondary to immunosuppression in septic patients.
Project description:Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP), released into the circulation during sepsis, causes lung injury via an as yet unknown mechanism. Since endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is associated with acute lung injury (ALI), we hypothesized that CIRP causes ALI via induction of ER stress. To test this hypothesis, we studied the lungs of wild-type (WT) and CIRP knockout (KO) mice at 20?h after induction of sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). WT mice had significantly more severe ALI than CIRP KO mice. Lung ER stress markers (BiP, pIRE1?, sXBP1, CHOP, cleaved caspase-12) were increased in septic WT mice, but not in septic CIRP KO mice. Effector pathways downstream from ER stress - apoptosis, NF-?B (p65), proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1?), neutrophil chemoattractants (MIP-2, KC), neutrophil infiltration (MPO activity), lipid peroxidation (4-HNE), and nitric oxide (iNOS) - were significantly increased in WT mice, but only mildly elevated in CIRP KO mice. ER stress markers were increased in the lungs of healthy WT mice treated with recombinant murine CIRP, but not in the lungs of TLR4 KO mice. This suggests CIRP directly induces ER stress via TLR4 activation. In summary, CIRP induces lung ER stress and downstream responses to cause sepsis-associated ALI.
Project description:HDL has been considered to be a protective factor in sepsis; however, most contributing studies were conducted using the endotoxic animal model, and evidence from clinically relevant septic animal models remains limited and controversial. Furthermore, little is known about the roles of HDL in sepsis other than LPS neutralization. In this study, we employed cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), a clinically relevant septic animal model, and utilized apoA-I knock-out (KO) and transgenic mice to elucidate the roles of HDL in sepsis. ApoA-I-KO mice were more susceptible to CLP-induced septic death as shown by the 47.1% survival of apoA-I-KO mice versus the 76.7% survival of C57BL/6J (B6) mice (p = 0.038). ApoA-I-KO mice had exacerbated inflammatory cytokine production during sepsis compared with B6 mice. Further study indicated that serum from apoA-I-KO mice displayed less capacity for LPS neutralization compared with serum from B6 mice. In addition, apoA-I-KO mice had less LPS clearance, reduced corticosterone generation, and impaired leukocyte recruitment in sepsis. In contrast to apoA-I-KO mice, apoA-I transgenic mice were moderately resistant to CLP-induced septic death compared with B6 mice. In conclusion, our findings reveal multiple protective roles of HDL in CLP-induced sepsis. In addition to its well established role in neutralization of LPS, HDL exerts its protection against sepsis through promoting LPS clearance and modulating corticosterone production and leukocyte recruitment. Our study supports efforts to raise HDL levels as a therapeutic approach for sepsis.
Project description:Thrombocytopenia impairs host defense and hemostasis in sepsis. However, the mechanisms of how platelets regulate host defense are not fully understood. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a danger-associated molecular pattern protein, is released during infection and contributes to the pathogenesis of sepsis. Platelets express HMGB1, which is released on activation and has been shown to play a critical role in thrombosis, monocyte recruitment, and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) production. However, the contribution of platelet HMGB1 to host defense is unknown. To determine the role of platelet HMGB1 in polymicrobial sepsis, platelet-specific HMGB1 knockout (HMGB1 platelet factor 4 [PF4]) mice were generated and were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), a clinically relevant intra-abdominal sepsis model. Compared with HMGB1 Flox mice and wild-type (WT) mice, HMGB1 PF4 mice showed significantly higher bacterial loads in the peritoneum and blood, an exaggerated systemic inflammation response, and significantly greater mortality after CLP. Deletion of HMGB1 in platelets was associated with lower platelet-derived chemokines (PF4 and RANTES) in the peritoneal cavity, and a decrease of platelet-neutrophil interaction in the lung after CLP. In vitro, neutrophils cocultured with activated HMGB1 knockout platelets showed fewer platelet-neutrophil aggregates, reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst as compared with control. Taken together, these data reveal an unrecognized role of platelet HMGB1 in the regulation of neutrophil recruitment and activation via modulation of platelet activation during sepsis.