Enhanced Stim1 expression is associated with acquired chemo-resistance of cisplatin in osteosarcoma cells.
ABSTRACT: Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor. Although cisplatin is the primary chemotherapy used in osteosarcoma treatment, the cisplatin resistance remains a big challenge for improving overall survival. The store-operated calcium (Ca2+) entry (SOCE) and its major mediator Stim1 have been shown to be implicated in a number of pathological processes typical for cancer. In this study, we showed that Stim1 expression was significantly increased in chemo-resistant osteosarcoma tissues compared with chemo-sensitivity tissues. Patients with Sitm1 expression exhibited poorer overall survival than Stim1-negative patients. Moreover, un-regulation of Stim1 expression and SOCE were also observed in cisplatin-resistant MG63/CDDP cells compared with their parental cells. Cisplatin treatment obviously reduced Stim1 expression and SOCE in cisplatin-sensitivity MG63 cells, but had no effects on MG63/CDDP cells. In addition, cisplatin resulted in a more pronounced increase of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in MG63 cells than in their resistant variants, which was evidenced by the activation of molecular markers of ER stress, GRP78, CHOP and ATF4. Knockdown of Stim1 using siRNA remarkably enhanced cisplatin-induced apoptosis and ER stress in MG63/CDDP cells, thereby sensitizing cancer cells to cisplatin. On the other hand, overexpression of Stim1 markedly reversed apoptosis and ER stress following cisplatin treatment. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Stim1 as well as Ca2+ entry contributes cisplatin resistance via inhibition of ER stress-mediated apoptosis, and provide important clues to the mechanisms involved in cisplatin resistance for osteosarcoma treatment. Stim1 represents as a target of cisplatin and blockade of Stim1-mediated Ca2+ entry may be a useful strategy to improve the efficacy of cisplatin to treat osteosarcoma.
Project description:Objective:To examine the role of store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) and stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) in survival and migration of osteosarcoma cells and investigate what blockade of store-operated Ca2+ contributes to the regulation of osteosarcoma cells. Methods:First, we examined the expression levels of STIM1 in osteosarcoma cell lines by Western analysis and in tissue specimens by immunohistochemistry. Second, we investigated the effect of SOCE and STIM1 on osteosarcoma cell viability using MTS assays and on cell proliferation using colony formation. Third, we investigated the role of SOCE and STIM1 in cell migration using wound healing assays and Boyden chamber assays. Finally, we studied the effect of SOCE on the nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) activity by luciferase assays. Results:STIM1 was overexpressed in osteosarcoma cell lines and tissue specimens and was associated with poor survival of osteosarcoma patients. Also, inhibition of SOCE and STIM1 decreased the cell viability and migration of osteosarcoma cells. Furthermore, our results showed that blockade of store-operated Ca2+ channels involved down-regulation of NFATc1 in osteosarcoma cells. Conclusions:STIM1 is essential for osteosarcoma cell functions, and STIM1 and Ca2+ entry pathway could be further explored as molecular targets in the treatment of osteosarcoma.
Project description:Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is a dynamic process that leads to refilling of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ stores through reversible gating of plasma membrane Ca2+ channels by the ER Ca2+ sensor Stromal Interaction Molecule 1 (STIM1). Pathogenic reductions in β-cell ER Ca2+ have been observed in diabetes. However, a role for impaired SOCE in this phenotype has not been tested. We measured the expression of SOCE molecular components in human and rodent models of diabetes and found a specific reduction in STIM1 mRNA and protein levels in human islets from donors with type 2 diabetes (T2D), islets from hyperglycemic streptozotocin-treated mice, and INS-1 cells (rat insulinoma cells) treated with proinflammatory cytokines and palmitate. Pharmacologic SOCE inhibitors led to impaired islet Ca2+ oscillations and insulin secretion, and these effects were phenocopied by β-cell STIM1 deletion. STIM1 deletion also led to reduced ER Ca2+ storage and increased ER stress, whereas STIM1 gain of function rescued β-cell survival under proinflammatory conditions and improved insulin secretion in human islets from donors with T2D. Taken together, these data suggest that the loss of STIM1 and impaired SOCE contribute to ER Ca2+ dyshomeostasis under diabetic conditions, whereas efforts to restore SOCE-mediated Ca2+ transients may have the potential to improve β-cell health and function.
Project description:The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ sensor STIM1 forms oligomers and translocates to ER-plasma membrane (PM) junctions to activate store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) after ER Ca2+ depletion. STIM1 also interacts with EB1 and dynamically tracks microtubule (MT) plus ends. Nevertheless, the role of STIM1-EB1 interaction in regulating SOCE remains unresolved. Using live-cell imaging combined with a synthetic construct approach, we found that EB1 binding constitutes a trapping mechanism restricting STIM1 targeting to ER-PM junctions. We further showed that STIM1 oligomers retain EB1 binding ability in ER Ca2+-depleted cells. By trapping STIM1 molecules at dynamic contacts between the ER and MT plus ends, EB1 binding delayed STIM1 translocation to ER-PM junctions during ER Ca2+ depletion and prevented excess SOCE and ER Ca2+ overload. Our study suggests that STIM1-EB1 interaction shapes the kinetics and amplitude of local SOCE in cellular regions with growing MTs and contributes to spatiotemporal regulation of Ca2+ signaling crucial for cellular functions and homeostasis.
Project description:Defective Ca2+ handling is a key mechanism underlying hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dysfunction in obesity. ER Ca2+ level is in part monitored by the store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) system, an adaptive mechanism that senses ER luminal Ca2+ concentrations through the STIM proteins and facilitates import of the ion from the extracellular space. Here, we show that hepatocytes from obese mice displayed significantly diminished SOCE as a result of impaired STIM1 translocation, which was associated with aberrant STIM1 O-GlycNAcylation. Primary hepatocytes deficient in STIM1 exhibited elevated cellular stress as well as impaired insulin action, increased glucose production and lipid droplet accumulation. Additionally, mice with acute liver deletion of STIM1 displayed systemic glucose intolerance. Conversely, over-expression of STIM1 in obese mice led to increased SOCE, which was sufficient to improve systemic glucose tolerance. These findings demonstrate that SOCE is an important mechanism for healthy hepatic Ca2+ balance and systemic metabolic control.
Project description:Ca2+ plays a significant role in linking the induction of apoptosis. The key anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, has been reported to regulate the movement of Ca2+ across the ER membrane, but the exact effect of Bcl-2 on Ca2+ levels remains controversial. Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), a major mode of Ca2+ uptake in non-excitable cells, is activated by depletion of Ca2+ in the ER. Depletion of Ca2+ in the ER causes translocation of the SOC channel activator, STIM1, to the plasma membrane. Thereafter, STIM1 binds to Orai1 or/and TRPC1 channels, forcing them to open and thereby allow Ca2+ entry. In addition, several anti-cancer drugs have been reported to induce apoptosis of cancer cells via the SOCE pathway. However, the detailed mechanism underlying the regulation of SOCE by Bcl-2 is not well understood. In this study, a three-amino acid mutation within the Bcl-2 BH1 domain was generated to verify the role of Bcl-2 in Ca2+ handling during ER stress. The subcellular localization of the Bcl-2 mutant (mt) is similar to that in the wild-type Bcl-2 (WT) in the ER and mitochondria. We found that mt enhanced thapsigargin and tunicamycin-induced apoptosis through ER stress-mediated apoptosis but not through the death receptor- and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, while WT prevented thapsigargin- and tunicamycin-induced apoptosis. In addition, mt depleted Ca2+ in the ER lumen and also increased the expression of SOCE-related molecules. Therefore, a massive Ca2+ influx via SOCE contributed to caspase activation and apoptosis. Furthermore, inhibiting SOCE or chelating either extracellular or intracellular Ca2+ inhibited mt-mediated apoptosis. In brief, our results explored the critical role of Bcl-2 in Ca2+ homeostasis and the modulation of ER stress.
Project description:Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) provides a major Ca2+ entry route in cancer cells. SOCE is mediated by the assembly of Stim and Orai proteins at endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-plasma membrane junctions upon depletion of the ER Ca2+ store. Additionally, Stim and Orai proteins underpin constitutive Ca2+ entry in a growing number of cancer cell types due to the partial depletion of their ER Ca2+ reservoir. Herein, we investigated for the first time the structure and function of SOCE in primary cultures of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) established from primary tumor (pCRC) and metastatic lesions (mCRC) of human subjects. Stim1-2 and Orai1-3 transcripts were equally expressed in pCRC and mCRC cells, although Stim1 and Orai3 proteins were up-regulated in mCRC cells. The Mn2+-quenching technique revealed that constitutive Ca2+ entry was significantly enhanced in pCRC cells and was inhibited by the pharmacological and genetic blockade of Stim1, Stim2, Orai1 and Orai3. The larger resting Ca2+ influx in pCRC was associated to their lower ER Ca2+ content as compared to mCRC cells. Pharmacological and genetic blockade of Stim1, Stim2, Orai1 and Orai3 prevented ER-dependent Ca2+ release, thereby suggesting that constitutive SOCE maintains ER Ca2+ levels. Nevertheless, pharmacological and genetic blockade of Stim1, Stim2, Orai1 and Orai3 did not affect CRC cell proliferation and migration. These data provide the first evidence that Stim and Orai proteins mediate constitutive Ca2+ entry and replenish ER with Ca2+ in primary cultures of CRC cells. However, SOCE is not a promising target to design alternative therapies for CRC.
Project description:Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) mediates the increase in intracellular calcium (Ca2+) in endothelial cells (ECs) that regulates several EC functions including tissue-fluid homeostasis. Stromal-interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), upon sensing the depletion of (Ca2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) store, organizes as puncta that trigger store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) via plasmalemmal Ca2+-selective Orai1 channels. While the STIM1 and Orai1 binding interfaces have been mapped, signaling mechanisms activating STIM1 recruitment of Orai1 and STIM1-Orai1 interaction remains enigmatic. Here, we show that ER Ca2+-store depletion rapidly induces STIM1 phosphorylation at Y361 via proline-rich kinase 2 (Pyk2) in ECs. Surprisingly, the phospho-defective STIM1-Y361F mutant formed puncta but failed to recruit Orai1, thereby preventing. SOCE Furthermore, studies in mouse lungs, expression of phosphodefective STIM1-Y361F mutant in ECs prevented the increase in vascular permeability induced by the thrombin receptor, protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1). Hence, Pyk2-dependent phosphorylation of STIM1 at Y361 is a critical phospho-switch enabling recruitment of Orai1 into STIM1 puncta leading to SOCE. Therefore, Y361 in STIM1 represents a novel target for limiting SOCE-associated vascular leak.
Project description:Mediated through the combined action of STIM proteins and Orai channels, store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) functions ubiquitously among different cell types. The existence of multiple STIM and Orai genes has made it difficult to assign specific roles of each STIM and Orai homolog in mediating Ca2+ signals. Using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing tools, we generated cells with both STIM or all three Orai homologs deleted and directly monitored store Ca2+ and Ca2+ signals. We found that unstimulated, SOCE null KO cells still retain 50~70% of ER Ca2+ stores of wildtype (wt) cells. After brief exposure to store-emptying conditions, acute refilling of ER Ca2+ stores was totally blocked in KO cells. However, after 24 h in culture, stores were eventually refilled. Thus, SOCE is critical for immediate refilling of ER Ca2+ but is dispensable for the maintenance of long-term ER Ca2+ homeostasis. Using the Orai null background triple Orai-KO cells, we examined the plasma membrane translocation properties of a series of truncated STIM1 variants. FRET analysis reveals that, even though PM tethering of STIM1 expedites the activation of STIM1 by facilitating its oligomerization, migration, and accumulation in ER-PM junctions, it is not required for the conformational switch, oligomerization, and clustering of STIM1. Even without overt puncta formation at ER-PM junctions, STIM11-491 and STIM11-666 could still rescue SOCE when expressed in STIM KO cells. Thus, ER-PM trapping and clustering of STIM molecules only facilitates the process of SOCE activation, but is not essential for the activation of Orai channels.
Project description:Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) has mitogenic and chemotactic effects on fibroblasts. An increase in intracellular Ca2+ is one of the first events that occurs following the stimulation of PDGF receptors (PDGFRs). PDGF activates Ca2+ elevation by activating the phospholipase C gamma (PLCγ)-signaling pathway, resulting in ER Ca2+ release. Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is the major form of extracellular Ca2+ influx following depletion of ER Ca2+ stores and stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) is a key molecule in the regulation of SOCE. In this study, wild-type and STIM1 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) cells were used to investigate the role of STIM1 in PDGF-induced Ca2+ oscillation and its functions in MEF cells. The unexpected findings suggest that STIM1 knockout enhances PDGFR?PLCγ?STIM2 signaling, which in turn increases PDGF-BB-induced Ca2+ elevation. Enhanced expressions of PDGFRs and PLCγ in STIM1 knockout cells induce Ca2+ release from the ER store through PLCγ?IP3 signaling. Moreover, STIM2 replaces STIM1 to act as the major ER Ca2+ sensor in activating SOCE. However, activation of PDGFRs also activate Akt, ERK, and JNK to regulate cellular functions, such as cell migration. These results suggest that alternative switchable pathways can be observed in cells, which act downstream of the growth factors that regulate Ca2+ signaling.
Project description:Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is a major Ca2+ signaling pathway facilitating extracellular Ca2+ influx in response to the initial release of intracellular endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) Ca2+ stores. Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) is the Ca2+ sensor that activates SOCE following ER/SR Ca2+ depletion. The EF-hand and the adjacent sterile ?-motif (EFSAM) domains of STIM1 are essential for detecting changes in luminal Ca2+ concentrations. Low ER Ca2+ levels trigger STIM1 destabilization and oligomerization, culminating in the opening of Orai1-composed Ca2+ channels on the plasma membrane. NO-mediated S-nitrosylation of cysteine thiols regulates myriad protein functions, but its effects on the structural mechanisms that regulate SOCE are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that S-nitrosylation of Cys49 and Cys56 in STIM1 enhances the thermodynamic stability of its luminal domain, resulting in suppressed hydrophobic exposure and diminished Ca2+ depletion-dependent oligomerization. Using solution NMR spectroscopy, we pinpointed a structural mechanism for STIM1 stabilization driven by complementary charge interactions between an electropositive patch on the core EFSAM domain and the S-nitrosylated nonconserved region of STIM1. Finally, using live cells, we found that the enhanced luminal domain stability conferred by either Cys49 and Cys56S-nitrosylation or incorporation of negatively charged residues into the EFSAM electropositive patch in the full-length STIM1 context significantly suppresses SOCE. Collectively, our results suggest that S-nitrosylation of STIM1 inhibits SOCE by interacting with an electropositive patch on the EFSAM core, which modulates the thermodynamic stability of the STIM1 luminal domain.