NK1.1- CD4+ NKG2D+ T cells suppress DSS-induced colitis in mice through production of TGF-?.
ABSTRACT: CD4+ NKG2D+ T cells are associated with tumour, infection and autoimmune diseases. Some CD4+ NKG2D+ T cells secrete IFN-? and TNF-? to promote inflammation, but others produce TGF-? and FasL to facilitate tumour evasion. Here, murine CD4+ NKG2D+ T cells were further classified into NK1.1- CD4+ NKG2D+ and NK1.1+ CD4+ NKG2D+ subpopulations. The frequency of NK1.1- CD4+ NKG2D+ cells decreased in inflamed colons, whereas more NK1.1+ CD4+ NKG2D+ cells infiltrated into colons of mice with DSS-induced colitis. NK1.1- CD4+ NKG2D+ cells expressed TGF-? and FasL without secreting IFN-?, IL-21 and IL-17 and displayed no cytotoxicity. The adoptive transfer of NK1.1- CD4+ NKG2D+ cells suppressed DSS-induced colitis largely dependent on TGF-?. NK1.1- CD4+ NKG2D+ cells did not expressed Foxp3, CD223 (LAG-3) and GITR. The subpopulation was distinct from NK1.1+ CD4+ NKG2D+ cells in terms of surface markers and RNA transcription. NK1.1- CD4+ NKG2D+ cells also differed from Th2 or Th17 cells because the former did not express GATA-3 and ROR-?t. Thus, NK1.1- CD4+ NKG2D+ cells exhibited immune regulatory functions, and this T cell subset could be developed to suppress inflammation in clinics.
Project description:NK1.1-CD4+NKG2D+ cells exert their immune-regulatory function in tumor as an unconventional regulatory T cell subset through the production of TGF-?1; however, the molecular mechanisms involving with the activation of nuclear factors for TGF-?1 transcription remain unclear. Here we determined that the PI3K-p85? subunit was specifically activated in NK1.1-CD4+NKG2D+ cells following an 8-hour stimulation by sRAE-1 or ?-CD3/sRAE-1, subsequently leading to the activation of PI3K-p110, Akt, and JNK. On the contrary, ?-CD3/?-CD28 stimulation did not induce the activation of PI3K-p85 and JNK. Consequently, activation of the nuclear transcription factor AP-1 as a consequence of JNK activation regulated TGF-?1 expression in NK1.1-CD4+NKG2D+ cells. Furthermore, activation of NF-?B in NK1.1-CD4+NKG2D+ cells resulted from both protein kinase C activation downstream of TCR/CD3 signaling and PI3K activation induced by NKG2D engagement. The STAT3-Y705 phosphorylation, as activated by PI3K, under stimulations of the sRAE-1 or ?-CD3/sRAE-1 also contributed to the TGF-?1 expression in NK1.1-CD4+NKG2D+ cells. Moreover, ChIP assay confirmed that STAT3 was capable of binding with the promoter regions of TGF-?1. In conclusion, our data showed that the TGF-?1 transcription in NK1.1-CD4+NKG2D+ cells induced by sRAE-1 or ?-CD3/sRAE-1 was involved with the AP-1, NF-?B, and STAT3 signaling pathways; therefore, regulation of AP-1, NF-?B, and STAT3 activation may play important roles in the development and function of NK1.1-CD4+NKG2D+ cells.
Project description:Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) in humans are characterized in part by aberrant CD4-positive (CD4+) T-cell responses. Currently, identification of foci of inflammation within the gut requires invasive procedures such as colonoscopy and biopsy. Molecular imaging with antibody fragment probes could be used to noninvasively monitor cell subsets causing intestinal inflammation. Here, GK1.5 cys-diabody (cDb), an antimouse CD4 antibody fragment derived from the GK1.5 hybridoma, was used as a PET probe for CD4+ T cells in the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) mouse model of IBD. Methods: The DSS mouse model of IBD was validated by assessing changes in CD4+ T cells in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) using flow cytometry. Furthermore, CD4+ T cell infiltration in the colons of colitic mice was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. 89Zr-labeled GK1.5 cDb was used to image distribution of CD4+ T cells in the abdominal region and lymphoid organs of mice with DSS-induced colitis. Region-of-interest analysis was performed on specific regions of the gut to quantify probe uptake. Colons, ceca, and MLNs were removed and imaged ex vivo by PET. Imaging results were confirmed by ex vivo biodistribution analysis. Results: An increased number of CD4+ T cells in the colons of colitic mice was confirmed by anti-CD4 immunohistochemistry. Increased uptake of 89Zr-maleimide-deferoxamine (malDFO)-GK1.5 cDb in the distal colon of colitic mice was visible in vivo in PET scans, and region-of-interest analysis of the distal colon confirmed increased activity in DSS mice. MLNs from colitic mice were enlarged and visible in PET images. Ex vivo scans and biodistribution confirmed higher uptake in DSS-treated colons (DSS, 1.8 ± 0.40; control, 0.45 ± 0.12 percentage injected dose [%ID] per organ, respectively), ceca (DSS, 1.1 ± 0.38; control, 0.35 ± 0.09 %ID per organ), and MLNs (DSS, 1.1 ± 0.58; control, 0.37 ± 0.25 %ID per organ). Conclusion:89Zr-malDFO-GK1.5 cDb detected CD4+ T cells in the colons, ceca, and MLNs of colitic mice and may prove useful for further investigations of CD4+ T cells in preclinical models of IBD, with potential to guide development of antibody-based imaging in human IBD.
Project description:The myeloid translocation genes (MTGs) are transcriptional corepressors with both Mtg8(-/-) and Mtgr1(-/-) mice showing developmental and/or differentiation defects in the intestine. We sought to determine the role of MTG16 in intestinal integrity.Baseline and stress induced colonic phenotypes were examined in Mtg16(-/-) mice. To unmask phenotypes, we treated Mtg16(-/-) mice with dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) or infected them with Citrobacter rodentium and the colons were examined for ulceration and for changes in proliferation, apoptosis and inflammation.Mtg16(-/-) mice have altered immune subsets, suggesting priming towards Th1 responses. Mtg16(-/-) mice developed increased weight loss, diarrhoea, mortality and histological colitis and there were increased innate (Gr1(+), F4/80(+), CD11c(+) and MHCII(+); CD11c(+)) and Th1 adaptive (CD4) immune cells in Mtg16(-/-) colons after DSS treatment. Additionally, there was increased apoptosis and a compensatory increased proliferation in Mtg16(-/-) colons. Compared with wild-type mice, Mtg16(-/-) mice exhibited increased colonic CD4;IFN-? cells in vehicle-treated and DSS-treated mice. Adoptive transfer of wild-type marrow into Mtg16(-/-) recipients did not rescue the Mtg16(-/-) injury phenotype. Isolated colonic epithelial cells from DSS-treated Mtg16(-/-) mice exhibited increased KC (Cxcl1) mRNA expression when compared with wild-type mice. Mtg16(-/-) mice infected with C rodentium had more severe colitis and greater bacterial colonisation. Last, MTG16 mRNA levels were reduced in human ulcerative colitis versus normal colon tissues.These observations indicate that MTG16 is critical for colonocyte survival and regeneration in response to intestinal injury and provide evidence that this transcriptional corepressor regulates inflammatory recruitment in response to injury.
Project description:Wogonin exerts anti-tumour activities via multiple mechanisms. We have identified that high-dose wogonin (50 or 100 mg/kg) could inhibit the growth of transplanted tumours by directly inducing tumour apoptosis and promoting DC, T and NK cell recruitment into tumour tissues to enhance immune surveillance. However, wogonin (20-50 ?M) ex vivo prevents inflammation by inhibiting NF-?B and Erk signalling of macrophages and epithelial cells. It is elusive whether high-dose wogonin promotes or prevents inflammation. To investigate the effects of high-dose wogonin on murine colitis induced by dextran sodium sulphate (DSS), mice were co-treated with DSS and various doses of wogonin. Intraperitoneal administration of wogonin (100 mg/kg) exacerbated DSS-induced murine colitis. More CD4+ CD44+ and CD8+ CD44+ cells were located in the inflamed colons in the wogonin (100 mg/kg) treatment group than in the other groups. Frequencies of CD4+ CD25+ CD127- and CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ cells in the colons and spleen respectively, were reduced by wogonin treatment. Ex vivo stimulations with high-dose wogonin (50-100 ?g/ml equivalent to 176-352 ?M) could synergize with IL-2 to promote the functions of CD4+ and CD8+ cells. However, regulatory T cell induction was inhibited. Wogonin stimulated the activation of NF-?B and Erk but down-regulated STAT3 phosphorylation in the CD4+ T cells. Wogonin down-regulated Erk and STAT3-Y705 phosphorylation in the regulatory T cells but promoted NF-?B and STAT3-S727 activation. Our study demonstrated that high-dose wogonin treatments would enhance immune activity by stimulating the effector T cells and by down-regulating regulatory T cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) knockout mice have increased susceptibility to dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) induced colitis. AIM: To substantiate the findings that TGF-alpha is a key mediator of colonic mucosal protection and/or repair mechanisms by evaluating the susceptibility of mice overexpressing TGF-alpha to DSS induced colitis. METHODS: TGF-alpha overexpression was induced in transgenic mice by ZnSO4 administration in drinking water (TG+). Three groups were used as controls: one transgenic group without ZnSO4 administration (TG-), and two non-transgenic littermate groups receiving ZnSO4 (Non-TG+) or only water (Non-TG-). Acute colitis was induced in all groups by administration of DSS (5%, w/v) in drinking water for six days and libitum. RESULTS: About 35-39% of the entire colonic mucosa was destroyed in Non-TG-, Non-TG+, and TG- animals compared with 9% in TG+ mice. the crypt damage score was 18.7 (0.9), 18.2 (1.0), 18.9 (0.8), and 6.8 (1.5) (means (SEM)) in Non-TG-, Non-TG+, TG-, and TG+ mice respectively. Mucin and bromodeoxyuridine staining were markedly enhanced in colons of TG+ mice compared with controls, indicating increased mucosal protection and regeneration. CONCLUSIONS: The significantly reduced susceptibility of mice overexpressing TGF-alpha to DSS further substantiates that endogenous TGF-alpha is a pivotal mediator of protection and/or healing mechanisms in the colon.
Project description:To investigate whether the transfer of the IL-37b gene, a newly identified inhibitor of both innate and adaptive immunity, could improve the therapeutic efficacy of mesenchumal stromal cells (MSCs) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).The expression of IL-37 in biopsied specimens of the patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC) was detected using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Mice were treated with 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 8 days to induce colitis. Before DSS treatment, the mice were injected with MSCs, MSC-eGFP or MSC-IL37b. Their body weight was measured each day, and the colons and spleens were harvested on d 10 for pathological and biochemical analyses.In biopsied specimens of the patients with active UC, the expression of IL-37 was dramatically elevated in inflamed mucosa, mainly in epithelial cells and infiltrating immune cells. Compared to MSC-eGFP or MSCs, MSC-IL37b administration significantly attenuated the body weight and colon length reduction, and decreased the histological score in DSS-induced colitis mice. Furthermore, MSC-IL37b administration increased the percentage of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) among total splenic mononuclear cells as well as the percentage of regulatory T cells (Tregs) among splenic CD4+ T cells in the mice. Moreover, MSC-IL37b administration increased the IL-2+ cells and decreased the IFN-?+ cells among splenic CD4+ T cells.IL-37 is involved in the pathophysiology of UC. IL-37b gene transfer enhances the therapeutic efficacy of MSCs in DSS-induced colitis mice by inducing Tregs and MDSCs and regulating cytokine production.
Project description:Smad7, a negative regulator of TGF-? signaling, has been implicated in the pathogenesis and treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Here, we found that Smad7 mediates intestinal inflammation by limiting the PDL2/1-PD1 axis in dendritic cells (DCs) and CD4+T cells. Smad7 deficiency in DCs promotes TGF-? responsiveness and the co-inhibitory molecules PDL2/1 on DCs, and it further imprints T cell-PD1 signaling to promote Treg differentiation. DC-specific Smad7 deletion mitigates DSS-induced colitis by inducing CD103+PDL2/1+DCs and Tregs. In addition, Smad7 deficiency in CD4+T cells promotes PD1 and PD1-induced Tregs in vitro. The transfer of Smad7-deficient CD4+T cells enhances Tregs in vivo and protects against T cell-mediated colitis. Furthermore, Smad7 antisense ameliorates DSS-induced UC, increasing TGF-? and PDL2/1-PD1 signaling. Enhancing PD1 signaling directly via Fc-fused PDL2/1 is also beneficial. Our results identify how Smad7 mediates intestinal inflammation and leverages these pathways therapeutically, providing additional strategies for IBD intervention.
Project description:Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) has been implicated in the control of differentiation and proliferation of multiple cell types. However, a role for TGF-β in the control of immune homeostasis is not fully understood because of its pleiotropic action. Here we report that complete ablation of the TGF-β signaling in T cells engendered aggressive early-onset, multiorgan, autoimmune-associated lesions with 100% mortality. Peripheral CD4+ and CD8+ T cells with TGF-β-receptor II (TGF-βRII) deficiency activated cytolytic and T helper 1 (Th1) differentiation program in a cell-intrinsic T cell receptor (TCR)-specific fashion. Furthermore, TGF-βRII deficiency blocked the development of canonical CD1d-restricted NKT cells. Instead, it facilitated generation of a highly pathogenic T cell subset exhibiting multiple hallmarks of NK cells and sharply elevated amounts of FasL, perforin, granzymes, and interferon-γ. Thus, TGF-β signaling in peripheral T cells is crucial in restraining TCR activation-dependent Th1, cytotoxic, and NK cell-like differentiation program which, when left unchecked, leads to rapidly progressing fatal autoimmunity. Experiment Overall Design: To better understand the basis for pathogenicity of TGF-βRII-deficient NK1.1+ T cells, we performed gene expression profiling of NK1.1+ and NK1.1− T cell subsets from Tgfbr2fl/fl x CD4-Cre mice. We limited our analysis to CD8+ T cell subsets because NK1.1+ CD8 T cells made up 70% of total NK1.1+ T cells in Tgfbr2fl/fl x CD4-Cre mice, and this T cell subset showed the greatest numerical increase compared to littermate control mice. Thus, in these experiments we used FACS-sorted NK1.1+ and NK1.1− CD8+ T cells from 15- to 17-day-old mutant mice and total CD8+ T cells from Tgfbr2fl/wt x CD4-Cre littermate controls. Experiment Overall Design: mRNA expression profiles of NK1.1+ and NK1.1− CD8+ T cells from Tgfbr2fl/fl x CD4-Cre (KO) mice were compared to NK1.1− T cells from littermate control Tgfbr2fl/WT x CD4-Cre (Control) mice.
Project description:T cells producing IFN? play a pathogenic role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To investigate the functions of CD1d-dependent invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells in experimental colitis induced in Yeti mice with dysregulated expression of IFN?, we generated iNKT cell-deficient Yeti/CD1d KO mice and compared colitis among WT, CD1d KO, Yeti, and Yeti/CD1d KO mice following DSS treatment. We found that deficiency of iNKT cells exacerbated colitis and disease pathogenesis was mainly mediated by NK1.1+CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, the protective effects of iNKT cells correlated with up-regulation of regulatory T cells. Taken together, our results have demonstrated that CD1d-dependent iNKT cells and CD1d-independent NK1.1+CD8+ T cells reciprocally regulate the development of intestinal inflammatory responses mediated by IFN?-dysregulation. These findings also identify NK1.1+CD8+ T cells as novel target cells for the development of therapeutics for human IBD.
Project description:The role of intestinal lamina propria (LP) NKG2D+ NK cells is unclear in regulating Th1/Th2 balance in ulcerative colitis (UC). In this study, we investigated the frequency of LP NKG2D+ NK cells in DSS-induced colitis model and intestinal mucosal samples of UC patients, as well as the secretion of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines in NK cell lines after MICA stimulation. The role of Th1 cytokines in UC was validated by bioinformatics analysis. We found that DSS-induced colitis in mice was characterized by a Th2-mediated process. In acute phrase, the frequency of LP NKG2D+ lymphocytes increased significantly and decreased in remission, while the frequency of LP NKG2D+ NK cells decreased significantly in acute phase and increased in remission. No obvious change was found in the frequency of total LP NK cells. Similarly, severe UC patients had a higher expression of mucosal NKG2D and a lower number of NKG2D+ NK cells than mild to moderate UC. In NK cell lines, the MICA stimulation could induce a predominant secretion of Th1 cytokines (TNF, IFN-?). Furthermore, in bioinformatics analysis, mucosal Th1 cytokine of TNF, showed a double-edged role in UC when compared to the Th1-mediated disease of Crohn's colitis. In conclusion, LP NKG2D+ NK cells partially played a regulatory role in UC through secreting Th1 cytokines to regulate the Th2-predominant Th1/Th2 imbalance, despite of the concomitant pro-inflammatory effects of Th1 cytokines.