Overexpression of miR-24 Is Involved in the Formation of Hypocoagulation State after Severe Trauma by Inhibiting the Synthesis of Coagulation Factor X.
ABSTRACT: Dysregulation of microRNAs may contribute to the progression of trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC). We aimed to explore the biological function that miRNA-24-3p (miR-24) might have in coagulation factor deficiency after major trauma and TIC.15 healthy volunteers and 36 severe trauma patients (Injury Severity Score ≥ 16 were enrolled. TIC was determined as the initial international normalized ratio >1.5. The miR-24 expression and concentrations of factor X (FX) and factor XII in plasma were measured. In vitro study was conducted on L02 cell line.The plasma miR-24 expression was significantly elevated by 3.17-fold (P = 0.043) in major trauma patients and reduced after 3 days (P < 0.01). The expression level was significantly higher in TIC than in non-TIC patients (P = 0.040). Multivariate analysis showed that the higher miR-24 expression was associated with TIC. The plasma concentration of FX in TIC patients was significantly lower than in the non-TIC ones (P = 0.030) and controls (P < 0.01). A negative correlation was observed between miR-24 and FX. miR-24 transduction significantly reduced the FX level in the supernatant of L02 cells (P = 0.030).miR-24 was overexpressed in major trauma and TIC patients. The negative correlation of miR-24 with FX suggested the possibility that miR-24 might inhibit the synthesis of FX during TIC.
Project description:Essentials The response of thromboelastometry (ROTEM) parameters to therapy is unknown. We prospectively recruited hemorrhaging trauma patients in six level-1 trauma centres in Europe. Blood products and pro-coagulants prevent further derangement of ROTEM results. ROTEM algorithms can be used to treat and monitor trauma induced coagulopathy. SUMMARY: Background Rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) can detect trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) and is used in transfusion algorithms. The response of ROTEM to transfusion therapy is unknown. Objectives To determine the response of ROTEM profiles to therapy in bleeding trauma patients. Patients/Methods A prospective multicenter study in bleeding trauma patients (receiving ? 4 red blood cell [RBC] units) was performed. Blood was drawn in the emergency department, after administration of 4, 8 and 12 RBC units and 24 h post-injury. The response of ROTEM to plasma, platelets (PLTs), tranexamic acid (TXA) and fibrinogen products was evaluated in the whole cohort as well as in the subgroup of patients with ROTEM values indicative of TIC. Results Three hundred and nine bleeding and shocked patients were included. A mean dose of 3.8 g of fibrinogen increased FIBTEM CA5 by 5.2 mm (IQR: 4.1-6.3 mm). TXA administration decreased lysis by 5.4% (4.3-6.5%). PLT transfusion prevented further derangement of parameters of clot formation. The effect of PLTs on EXTEM ca5 values was more pronounced in patients with a ROTEM value indicative of TIC than in the whole cohort. Plasma transfusion decreased EXTEM clotting time by 3.1 s (- 10 s to 3.9 s) in the whole cohort and by 10.6 s (- 45 s to 24 s) in the subgroup of patients with a ROTEM value indicative of TIC. Conclusion The effects of therapy on ROTEM values were small, but prevented further derangement of test results. In patients with ROTEM values indicative of TIC, the efficacy of PLTs and plasma in correcting deranged ROTEM parameters is possibly more robust.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Both trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) and transfusion strategies influence early outcome in hemorrhagic trauma patients. Their impact on late outcome is less well characterized. This study systematically reviews risk factors for TIC- and transfusion-associated multiple organ failure (MOF) in severely injured trauma patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in PubMed and Embase. Studies published from 1986 to 2013 on adult trauma patients with an injury severity score ?16, investigating TIC or transfusion strategies with MOF as primary or secondary outcome, were eligible for inclusion. Results of the included studies were evaluated with meta-analyses of pooled data. RESULTS: In total, 50 studies were included with a total sample size of 63,586 patients. Due to heterogeneity of the study populations and outcome measures, results from 7 studies allowed for pooling of data. Risk factors for TIC-associated MOF were hypocoagulopathy, hemorrhagic shock, activated protein C, increased histone levels, and increased levels of markers of fibrinolysis on admission. After at least 24?h after admission, the occurrence of thromboembolic events was associated with MOF. Risk factors for transfusion-associated MOF were the administration of fluids and red blood cell units within 24?h post-injury, the age of red blood cells (>14?days) and a ratio of FFP:RBC???1:1 (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.04-1.19). CONCLUSION: Risk factors for TIC-associated MOF in severely injured trauma patients are early hypocoagulopathy and hemorrhagic shock, while a hypercoagulable state with the occurrence of thromboembolic events later in the course of trauma predisposes to MOF. Risk factors for transfusion-associated MOF include administration of crystalloids and red blood cells and a prolonged storage time of red blood cells. Future prospective studies investigating TIC- and transfusion-associated risk factors on late outcome are required.
Project description:Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) constitute a major component of inflammatory cells in the glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumor microenvironment. TAMs have been implicated in GBM angiogenesis, invasion, local tumor recurrence, and immunosuppression. Coagulation factor X (FX) is a vitamin K-dependent plasma protein that plays a role in the regulation of blood coagulation. In this study, we first found that FX was highly expressed and positively correlated with TAM density in human GBM. FX exhibited a potent chemotactic capacity to recruit macrophages and promoted macrophages toward M2 subtype polarization, accelerating GBM growth. FX bound to extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)1/2 and inhibited p-ERK1/2 in GBM cells. FX was secreted in the tumor microenvironment and increased the phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/2 and AKT in macrophages, which may have been responsible for the M2 subtype macrophage polarization. Moreover, although the lncRNA CASC2c has been verified to function as a miR-101 competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) to promote miR-101 target genes in GBM cells, we first confirmed that CASC2c did not function as a miR-338-3p ceRNA to promote FX expression, and that FX was a target gene of miR-338-3p. CASC2c interacted with and reciprocally repressed miR-338-3p. Both CASC2c and miR-388-3p bound to FX and commonly inhibited its expression and secretion. CASC2c repressed M2 subtype macrophage polarization. Taken together, our findings revealed a novel mechanism highlighting CASC2c and FX as potential therapeutic targets to improve GBM patients by altering the GBM microenvironment.
Project description:To evaluate the association of pretrauma center (PTC) red blood cell (RBC) transfusion with outcomes in severely injured patients.Hemorrhage remains a major driver of mortality. Little evidence exists supporting PTC interventions to mitigate this.Blunt injured patients in shock arriving at a trauma center within 2 hours of injury were included from the Glue Grant database. Subjects were dichotomized by PTC RBC transfusion. Outcomes included 24-hour mortality, 30-day mortality, and trauma-induced coagulopathy [(TIC), admission international normalized ratio >1.5]. Cox regression and logistic regression determined the association of PTC RBC transfusion with outcomes. To address baseline differences, propensity score matching was used.Of 1415 subjects, 50 received PTC RBC transfusion. Demographics and injury severity score were similar. The PTC RBC group received 1.3 units of RBCs (median), and 52% were scene transports. PTC RBC transfusion was associated with a 95% reduction in odds of 24-hour mortality [odds ratio (OR) = 0.05; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.01-0.48; P < 0.01], 64% reduction in the risk of 30-day mortality [hazard ratio = 0.36; 95% CI, 0.15-0.83; P = 0.02], and 88% reduction in odds of TIC (OR = 0.12; 95% CI, 0.02-0.79; P = 0.03). The matched cohort included 113 subjects (31% PTC RBC group). Baseline characteristics were similar. PTC RBC transfusion was associated with a 98% reduction in odds of 24-hour mortality (OR = 0.02; 95% CI, 0.01-0.69; P = 0.04), 88% reduction in the risk of 30-day mortality (hazard ratio = 0.12; 95% CI, 0.03-0.61; P = 0.01), and 99% reduction in odds of TIC (OR = 0.01; 95% CI, 0.01-0.95; P = 0.05).PTC RBC administration was associated with a lower risk of 24-hour mortality, 30-day mortality, and TIC in severely injured patients with blunt trauma, warranting further prospective study.
Project description:Ten percent of deaths worldwide are due to trauma, and it is the third most common cause of death in the United States. Despite a profound upregulation in procoagulant mechanisms, one-quarter of trauma patients present with laboratory-based evidence of trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC), which is associated with poorer outcomes including increased mortality. The most common causes of death after trauma are hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury (TBI). The management of TIC has significant implications in both because many hemorrhagic deaths could be preventable, and TIC is associated with progression of intracranial injury after TBI. This review covers the most recent evidence and advances in our understanding of TIC, including the role of platelet dysfunction, endothelial activation, and fibrinolysis. Trauma induces a plethora of biochemical and physiologic changes, and despite numerous studies reporting differences in coagulation parameters between trauma patients and uninjured controls, it is unclear whether some of these differences may be "normal" after trauma. Comparisons between trauma patients with differing outcomes and use of animal studies have shed some light on this issue, but much of the data continue to be correlative with causative links lacking. In particular, there are little data linking the laboratory-based abnormalities with true clinically evident coagulopathic bleeding. For these reasons, TIC continues to be a significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.
Project description:Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are frequently precursor RNAs of microRNAs (miRNAs) or act as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) to interact with miRNAs. To better understand the shared impact of lncRNAs and miRNAs in the regulatory post-transcriptional network, we focused here on the relationships between (a) lncRNA H19 and miR-675, (b) NEAT1 and miR-204, and (c) HOTAIR and miR-331 in plasma of early breast cancer (BC) patients. We quantified each RNA in plasma samples of 63 BC patients and 10 healthy women by quantitative real-time PCR. In cell culture experiments, the influence of these noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) on proliferation and apoptosis of BC cell line MCF-7 was examined. Plasma levels of H19 (P = 0.030), NEAT1 (P = 0.030), and miR-331 (P = 0.012) were deregulated in BC patients compared with healthy women. In both cohorts, the concentrations of H19 correlated with those of miR-675 (P = 0.0001). Higher H19 (P = 0.001) along with lower miR-675 (P = 0.007) levels and higher miR-204 (P = 0.017) along with lower NEAT1 (P = 0.030) levels were detected in plasma of HER2-positive patients compared with the other BC subgroups. Whereas the expression of HOTAIR was below the detection level, miR-331 levels correlated with nodal status (P = 0.002) and recurrence (P = 0.012). In cell culture experiments, a competitive impact on cell proliferation and apoptosis by these ncRNAs was also documented. Our findings describe a relationship of the plasma levels of H19/miR-675 and NEAT1/miR-204 in the different BC subtypes; in addition, they reveal an interplay between these lncRNAs and miRNAs in the regulatory network in MCF-7 cells, which should also be considered in the search for new diagnostic and therapeutic markers.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>A large body of evidence links exposure to childhood trauma with negative health outcomes. Training future physicians to recognize and respond to trauma is paramount, and engaging medical students in the preclinical years affords the opportunity to foster the development of a trauma-informed lens that can then be solidified during clinical clerkships.<h4>Methods</h4>We developed and implemented a 4-hour trauma-informed care (TIC) symposium for 179 second-year medical students at the George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences during the Patients, Populations, and Systems course. The symposium included three interactive didactic sessions focusing on the connection between trauma and health and TIC principles. A facilitated small-group discussion allowed students to apply TIC principles to a patient case, followed by reflection and evaluation.<h4>Results</h4>The overall rating of the TIC symposium was 4 out of 5. Strengths included integration of a small-group case with discussion on application of TIC in practice, experience of the lecturers and small-group facilitators, and review of research relating adversity to specific health outcomes. Suggestions for improvement included incorporating role-play and standardized patients. Content analysis of student reflections mapped to the domains of physician competency.<h4>Discussion</h4>A 4-hour symposium can affect student knowledge and understanding of TIC. Teaching TIC presents an opportunity to prepare medical students for a career in medicine through cultivation of required physician competencies. Next steps include enhanced opportunities to practice TIC and follow-up analysis of participants to determine behavior change during clinical years.
Project description:Severe traumatic injury and haemorrhagic shock are frequently associated with disruptions of coagulation function (such as trauma-induced coagulopathy TIC) and activation of inflammatory cascades. These pathologies may be exacerbated by current standard of care resuscitation protocols. Observational studies suggest early administration of plasma to severely-injured haemorrhaging patients may correct TIC, minimise inflammation, and improve survival. The proposed randomised clinical trial will evaluate the clinical effectiveness of pre-hospital plasma administration compared with standard- of-care crystalloid resuscitation in severely-injured patients with major traumatic haemorrhage.This is a prospective, randomized, open-label, non-blinded trial to determine the effect of pre-hospital administration of thawed plasma (TP) on mortality, morbidity, transfusion requirements, coagulation, and inflammatory response in severely-injured bleeding trauma patients. Two hundred and ten eligible adult trauma patients will be randomised to receive either two units of plasma, to be administered in-field, vs standard of care normal saline (NS). Main analyses will compare subjects allocated to TP to those allocated to NS, on an intention-to-treat basis. Primary outcome measure is all-cause 30-day mortality. Secondary outcome measures include coagulation and lipidomic/pro-inflammatory marker responses, volume of resuscitation fluids (crystalloid, colloid) and blood products administered, and major hospital outcomes (e.g. incidence of MSOF, length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay).This study is part of a US Department of Defense (DoD)-funded multi-institutional investigation, conducted independently of, but in parallel with, the University of Pittsburgh and University of Denver. Demonstration of significant reductions in mortality and coagulopathic/inflammatory-related morbidities as a result of pre-hospital plasma administration would be of considerable clinical importance for the management of haemorrhagic shock in both civilian and military populations.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02303964 on 28 November 2014.
Project description:Purpose of review:This review summarizes case reports of patients with tics emerging subsequent to traumatic brain injury (TBI), with respect to demographics, post-TBI symptoms, tic onset latency and topography, clinical history, neuroimaging results and treatment outcome.Recent findings:Patients were 22 adults and 3 youth. Trauma onset appeared to fall mostly in adulthood. Two-thirds of patients were male and head trauma was related to motor vehicle accidents in most cases. Loss of consciousness was reported in just below half (48.0%) of cases. Associated physical and cognitive symptoms (e.g., impaired memory, reduced sensory perception, poor balance, muscle weakness, attention problems, aggression/impulsivity, obsessions and compulsions, depression and anxiety) were commonly reported. The latency between head trauma and tic onset varied, but generally ranged from one day post-trauma to approximately one year post-trauma. Sole presentation of motor tics was common, with rostral to caudal development of motor tics in other cases. Simple and/or complex vocal tics were present in several cases, often emerging after motor tics. Post-trauma obsessive-compulsive symptoms were noted in five cases (20.0%). A personal or family history of tics was reported in four cases. Damage to the basal ganglia, ventricular system, and temporal region was observed across ten patients (40.0%). Pharmacological intervention varied, with tic symptoms deemed to have significantly or somewhat improved in 12 cases (48.0%). A comparison of post-TBI symptoms in youth with head trauma history relative to those with peripheral injury suggests tic symptoms are not a common post-TBI symptom in youth.Summary:Ultimately, there has been limited study on the link between traumatic brain injury and tic expression, and methodological issues preclude the ability to draw definitive conclusions regarding this relationship. Nevertheless, findings do suggest there may be heterogeneity in brain dysfunction associated with tic expression. Future case reports should utilize more systematic and thorough assessment of TBI and tics using validated measures, evaluate medication effects using single-case designs, and perform more longitudinal follow-up of cases with repeated neuroimaging.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Post-trauma bleeding induces an acute deficiency in clotting factors, which promotes bleeding and hemorrhagic shock. However, early plasma administration may reduce the severity of trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC). Unlike fresh frozen plasma, which requires specific hospital logistics, French lyophilized plasma (FLYP) is storable at room temperature and compatible with all blood types, supporting its use in prehospital emergency care. We aim to test the hypothesis that by attenuating TIC, FLYP administered by prehospital emergency physicians would benefit the severely injured civilian patient at risk for hemorrhagic shock. METHODS/DESIGN:This multicenter randomized clinical trial will include adults severely injured and at risk for hemorrhagic shock, with a systolic blood pressure?<?70?mmHg or a Shock Index >?1.1. Two parallel groups of 70 patients will receive either FLYP or normal saline in addition to usual treatment. The primary endpoint is the International Normalized Ratio (INR) at hospital admission. Secondary endpoints are transfusion requirement, length of stay in the intensive care unit, survival rate at day 30, usability and safety related to FLYP use, and other biological coagulation parameters. CONCLUSION:With this trial, we aim to confirm the efficacy of FLYP in TIC and its safety in civilian prehospital care. The study results will contribute to optimizing guidelines for treating hemorrhagic shock in civilian settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02736812. Registered on 13 April 2016. The trial protocol has been approved by the French ethics committee (CPP 3342) and the French Agency for the Safety of Medicines and Health Products (IDRCB 2015-A00866-43).