Frequency of adult type-associated lactase persistence LCT-13910C/T genotypes in the Czech/Slav and Czech Roma/Gypsy populations.
ABSTRACT: Lactase non-persistence (leading to primary lactose intolerance) is a genetically dependent inability to digest lactose in adulthood. As part of the human adaptation to dairying, the human lactase LCT-13910C/T mutation (which propagates adult expression of lactase) developed, spread and participated in the adaptation to dairying. This variant is associated with lactase activity persistence, and its carriers are able to digest lactose. We compared the frequencies of lactase 13910C/T (rs4988235) genotypes in Czechs/Slavs (N = 288) and Czech Gypsies/Roma (N = 300), two ethnically different groups where this polymorphism has not yet been analysed. Allelic frequencies significantly differed between the populations (p < 0.0001). In Czechs/Slavs, the lactase persistence T allele was present in 76% of the individuals, which is in agreement with frequencies among geographically neighbouring populations. In the Czech Gypsy/Roma population, only 27% of the adults were carriers of at least one lactase persistence allele, similar to the Indian population. In agreement with this result, dairy product consumption was reported by 70.5% of Czechs/Slavs and 39.0% of the Czech Gypsy/Roma population. Both in the Czech Gypsy/Roma and in the Czech/Slavs populations, the presence of carriers of the lactase persistence allele was similar in subjects self-reporting the consumption of unfermented/fresh milk, in comparison to the others.
Project description:In adulthood, the ability to digest lactose, the main sugar present in milk of mammals, is a phenotype (lactase persistence) observed in historically herder populations, mainly Northern Europeans, Eastern Africans, and Middle Eastern nomads. As the <i>-13910<sup>∗</sup>T</i> allele in the <i>MCM6</i> gene is the most well-characterized allele responsible for the lactase persistence phenotype, the <i>-13910C</i> > <i>T</i> (rs4988235) polymorphism is commonly evaluated in lactase persistence studies. Lactase non-persistent adults may develop symptoms of lactose intolerance when consuming dairy products. In the Americas, there is no evidence of the consumption of these products until the arrival of Europeans. However, several American countries' dietary guidelines recommend consuming dairy for adequate human nutrition and health promotion. Considering the extensive use of dairy and the complex ancestry of Pan-American admixed populations, we studied the distribution of <i>-13910C</i> > <i>T</i> lactase persistence genotypes and its flanking haplotypes of European origin in 7,428 individuals from several Pan-American admixed populations. We found that the <i>-13910<sup>∗</sup>T</i> allele frequency in Pan-American admixed populations is directly correlated with allele frequency of the European sources. Moreover, we did not observe any overrepresentation of European haplotypes in the <i>-13910C</i> > <i>T</i> flanking region, suggesting no selective pressure after admixture in the Americas. Finally, considering the dominant effect of the <i>-13910<sup>∗</sup>T</i> allele, our results indicate that Pan-American admixed populations are likely to have higher frequency of lactose intolerance, suggesting that general dietary guidelines deserve further evaluation across the continent.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Milk is an important source of nutrients. The consumption of milk, however, may cause abdominal complaints in lactose intolerant individuals. The frequency of -13910C/C genotype is known to be high among Northern Russians, exceeding the prevalence in northern Europe. In our study we tested two hypotheses: 1) subjects with lactase non-persistent genotype (-13910C/C) have more gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms associated with milk 2) subjects with lactase non-persistence avoid using milk. METHODS:In total, 518 students aged 17 to 26 years were randomly selected from different departments in the Northern State Medical University (NSMU) for genotyping the lactase activity-defining -13910C/T variant. All subjects filled in a questionnaire covering their personal data, self-reported GI symptoms and milk consumption habits. RESULTS:Northern Russians consume very small amounts of milk daily. Among carriers of the lactase non-persistent (LNP) genotype there were 10 percentage units of milk-consumers fewer than among lactase-persistent (LP) subjects (p = 0.03). Complaints of GI disorders caused by milk were different between the genotypes (p = 0.02). Among all types of food analyzed only milk was associated with increased GI symptoms among subjects with the LNP genotype (OR = 1.95, CI 1.03-3.69) CONCLUSIONS:Subjects with -13910C/C have more GI symptoms from milk. Subjects with lactase non-persistent genotype avoid using milk. In the case of increasing milk consumption symptoms may increase the need for medical consultation. It is thus important either for people themselves or for health care staff to be aware of lactase persistence/non-persistence.
Project description:The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is defined as a pattern of metabolic disturbances, which include central obesity, insulin resistance and hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Milk has been promoted as a healthy beverage that can improve the management of MetS. Most human adults, however, down-regulate the production of intestinal lactase after weaning. Lactase encoded by the LCT gene is necessary for lactose digestion. The -13910C > T SNP (rs4988235) is responsible for the lactase persistence phenotype in European populations. We herein investigated whether the lactase persistence genotype is also associated with the MetS in subjects from a Brazilian population of European descent. This study consisted of 334 individuals (average age of 41 years) genotyped by PCR-based methods for the -13910C > T SNP. Clinical data were assessed and the genotypes were tested for their independent contribution to the MetS using chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analysis. Univariate analyses showed that hypertension and MetS prevalence were higher in individuals with the lactase non-persistence genotype than in lactase persistence subjects. Furthermore, lactase persistence was associated with a lower risk for MetS (OR = 0.467; 95% CI 0.264-0.824; p = 0.009). These results suggest that LCT genotypes can be a valuable tool for the management of MetS treatment.
Project description:In humans the expression of lactase changes during post-natal development, leading to phenotypes known as lactase persistence and non-persistence. Polymorphisms within the lactase gene (LCT) enhancer, in particular the -13910C?>?T, but also others, are linked to these phenotypes. We were interested in identifying dynamic mediators of LCT regulation, beyond the genotype at -13910C?>?T. To this end, we investigated two levels of lactase regulation in human intestinal samples obtained from New England children and adolescents of mixed European ancestry: differential expression of transcriptional regulators of LCT, and variations in DNA methylation, and their relation to phenotype. Variations in expression of CDX2, POU2F1, GATA4, GATA6, and HNF1? did not correlate with phenotype. However, an epigenome-wide approach using the Illumina Infinium HM450 bead chip identified a differentially methylated position in the LCT promoter where methylation levels are associated with the genotype at -13910C?>?T, the persistence/non-persistence phenotype and lactase enzymatic activity. DNA methylation levels at this promoter site and CpGs in the LCT enhancer are associated with genotype. Indeed, taken together they have a higher power to predict lactase phenotypes than the genotype alone.
Project description:Lactase persistence (LP) is common among people of European ancestry, but with the exception of some African, Middle Eastern and southern Asian groups, is rare or absent elsewhere in the world. Lactase gene haplotype conservation around a polymorphism strongly associated with LP in Europeans (-13,910 C/T) indicates that the derived allele is recent in origin and has been subject to strong positive selection. Furthermore, ancient DNA work has shown that the--13,910*T (derived) allele was very rare or absent in early Neolithic central Europeans. It is unlikely that LP would provide a selective advantage without a supply of fresh milk, and this has lead to a gene-culture coevolutionary model where lactase persistence is only favoured in cultures practicing dairying, and dairying is more favoured in lactase persistent populations. We have developed a flexible demic computer simulation model to explore the spread of lactase persistence, dairying, other subsistence practices and unlinked genetic markers in Europe and western Asia's geographic space. Using data on--13,910*T allele frequency and farming arrival dates across Europe, and approximate Bayesian computation to estimate parameters of interest, we infer that the--13,910*T allele first underwent selection among dairying farmers around 7,500 years ago in a region between the central Balkans and central Europe, possibly in association with the dissemination of the Neolithic Linearbandkeramik culture over Central Europe. Furthermore, our results suggest that natural selection favouring a lactase persistence allele was not higher in northern latitudes through an increased requirement for dietary vitamin D. Our results provide a coherent and spatially explicit picture of the coevolution of lactase persistence and dairying in Europe.
Project description:Ruminant milk and dairy products are important food resources in many European, African, and Middle Eastern societies. These regions are also associated with derived genetic variants for lactase persistence. In mammals, lactase, the enzyme that hydrolyzes the milk sugar lactose, is normally down-regulated after weaning, but at least five human populations around the world have independently evolved mutations regulating the expression of the lactase-phlorizin-hydrolase gene. These mutations result in a dominant lactase persistence phenotype and continued lactase tolerance in adulthood. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at C/T-13910 is responsible for most lactase persistence in European populations, but when and where the T-13910 polymorphism originated and the evolutionary processes by which it rose to high frequency in Europe have been the subject of strong debate. A history of dairying is presumed to be a prerequisite, but archaeological evidence is lacking. In this study, DNA was extracted from the dentine of 36 individuals excavated at a medieval cemetery in Dalheim, Germany. Eighteen individuals were successfully genotyped for the C/T-13910 SNP by molecular cloning and sequencing, of which 13 (72%) exhibited a European lactase persistence genotype: 44% CT, 28% TT. Previous ancient DNA-based studies found that lactase persistence genotypes fall below detection levels in most regions of Neolithic Europe. Our research shows that by AD 1200, lactase persistence frequency had risen to over 70% in this community in western Central Europe. Given that lactase persistence genotype frequency in present-day Germany and Austria is estimated at 71-80%, our results suggest that genetic lactase persistence likely reached modern levels before the historic population declines associated with the Black Death, thus excluding plague-associated evolutionary forces in the rise of lactase persistence in this region. This new evidence sheds light on the dynamic evolutionary history of the European lactase persistence trait and its global cultural implications.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Adult-type hypolactasia, the physiological decline of lactase some time after weaning, was previously associated with the LCT -13910C>T polymorphism worldwide except in Africa. Lactase non-persistence is the most common phenotype in humans, except in northwestern Europe with its long history of pastoralism and milking. We had previously shown association of LCT -13910C>T polymorphism with adult-type hypolactasia in Brazilians; thus, we assessed its frequency among different Brazilian ethnic groups. METHODS: We investigated the ethnicity-related frequency of this polymorphism in 567 Brazilians [mean age, 42.1 +/- 16.8 years; 157 (27.7%) men]; 399 (70.4%) White, 50 (8.8%) Black, 65 (11.5%) Brown, and 53 (9.3%) Japanese-Brazilian. DNA was extracted from leukocytes; LCT -13910C>T polymorphism was analyzed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. RESULTS: Prevalence of the CC genotype associated with hypolactasia was similar (57%) among White and Brown groups; however, prevalence was higher among Blacks (80%) and those of Japanese descent (100%). Only 2 (4%) Blacks had TT genotype, and 8 (16%) had the CT genotype. Assuming an association between CC genotype and hypolactasia, and CT and TT genotypes with lactase persistence, 356 (62.8%) individuals had hypolactasia and 211 (37.2%) had lactase persistence. The White and Brown groups had the same hypolactasia prevalence (approximately 57%); nevertheless, was 80% among Black individuals and 100% among Japanese-Brazilians (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The lactase persistence allele, LCT -13910T, was found in about 43% of both White and Brown and 20% of the Black Brazilians, but was absent among all Japanese Brazilians studied.
Project description:Functional dyspepsia and lactose intolerance (adult-type hypolactasia, ATH) are common conditions that may coexist or even be confounded. Their clinical presentation can be similar, however, lactose intolerance does not form part of the diagnostic investigation of functional dyspepsia. Studies on the association between functional dyspepsia and ATH are scarce. This study aimed to evaluate whether ATH is associated with symptoms of functional dyspepsia. Patients fulfilling the Rome III diagnostic criteria for functional dyspepsia underwent genetic testing for ATH. Dyspeptic symptoms were evaluated and scored according to a validated questionnaire. The diagnostic criteria for ATH was a CC genotype for the -13910C/T polymorphism, located upstream of the lactase gene. The mean scores for dyspeptic symptoms were compared between patients with ATH and those with lactase persistence. A total of 197 functional dyspeptic patients were included in the study. Mean age was 47.7 years and 82.7% patients were women. Eighty-eight patients (44.7%) had a diagnosis of ATH. Abdominal bloating scores were higher in ATH patients compared to the lactase persistent patients (P=0.014). The remaining dyspeptic symptom scores were not significantly different between the two groups. The study results demonstrate an association between ATH and bloating in patients with functional dyspepsia.
Project description:Genetic testing is a good predictor of lactase persistence (LP) in specific populations but its clinical utility in children is less clear. We assessed the role of lactose malabsorption in functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) in children and the correlation between the lactase non-persistence (LNP) genotype and phenotype, based on exhaled hydrogen and gastrointestinal symptoms, during a hydrogen breath test (HBT). We also evaluate dairy consumption in this sample. We conducted a 10-year cross-sectional study in a cohort of 493 children with suspected FGID defined by Roma IV criteria. Distribution of the C/T-13910 genotype was as follows: CC, 46.0%; TT, 14.4% (LP allele frequency, 34.1%). The phenotype frequencies of lactose malabsorption and intolerance were 36.3% and 41.5%, respectively. We observed a strong correlation between genotype and both lactose malabsorption (Cramér's V, 0.28) and intolerance (Cramér's V, 0.54). The frequency of the LNP genotype (p = 0.002) and of malabsorption and intolerance increased with age (p = 0.001 and 0.002, respectively). In 61% of children, evaluated dairy consumption was less than recommended. No association was observed between dairy intake and diagnosis. In conclusion, we found a significant correlation between genotype and phenotype, greater in older children, suggesting that the clinical value of genetic testing increases with age.
Project description:Lactase persistence (LP), the dominant Mendelian trait conferring the ability to digest the milk sugar lactose in adults, has risen to high frequency in central and northern Europeans in the last 20,000 years. This trait is likely to have conferred a selective advantage in individuals who consume appreciable amounts of unfermented milk. Some have argued for the "culture-historical hypothesis," whereby LP alleles were rare until the advent of dairying early in the Neolithic but then rose rapidly in frequency under natural selection. Others favor the "reverse cause hypothesis," whereby dairying was adopted in populations with preadaptive high LP allele frequencies. Analysis based on the conservation of lactase gene haplotypes indicates a recent origin and high selection coefficients for LP, although it has not been possible to say whether early Neolithic European populations were lactase persistent at appreciable frequencies. We developed a stepwise strategy for obtaining reliable nuclear ancient DNA from ancient skeletons, based on (i) the selection of skeletons from archaeological sites that showed excellent biomolecular preservation, (ii) obtaining highly reproducible human mitochondrial DNA sequences, and (iii) reliable short tandem repeat (STR) genotypes from the same specimens. By applying this experimental strategy, we have obtained high-confidence LP-associated genotypes from eight Neolithic and one Mesolithic human remains, using a range of strict criteria for ancient DNA work. We did not observe the allele most commonly associated with LP in Europeans, thus providing evidence for the culture-historical hypothesis, and indicating that LP was rare in early European farmers.