Project description:Notch signaling plays a critical role in maintaining bone homeostasis partially by controlling the formation of osteoblasts from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We reported that TNF activates Notch signaling in MSCs which inhibits osteoblast differentiation in TNF transgenic (TNF-Tg) mice, a mouse model of chronic inflammatory arthritis. In the current study, we used Hes1-GFP and Hes1-GFP/TNF-Tg mice to study the distribution and dynamic change of Notch active cells in normal and inflammatory bone loss and mechanisms mediating their enhanced proliferation. We found that Hes1-GFP+ cells are composed of cells expressing mesenchymal, hematopoietic and endothelial surface markers. CD45-/Hes1-GFP+ cells express high levels of mesenchymal markers and form CFU-F and CFU-ALP colonies. Expansion of CFU-F colonies is associated with a rapid increase in Hes1-GFP+ cell numbers and their GFP intensity. The GFP signal is lost when a CFU-F colony differentiates into an ALP+ osteoblast colony. TNF increases the numbers of CD45-/Hes1-GFP+ cells, which are stained negatively for osteoblast marker osteocalcin and localized adjacent to endosteal and trabecular bone surfaces. CD45-/Hes1-GFP+ cells in Hes1-GFP/TNF-Tg mice have increased BrdU incorporation and PDGFR? levels. TNF increases the number of proliferating Hes1-GFP+ cells, which is prevented by a specific PDGFR? inhibitor. Notch inhibition blocks TNF-mediated PDGFR? expression and cell proliferation. Thus, TNF-induced MSC proliferation is mediated by PDGFR? signal, which works at downstream of Notch. Hes1-GFP mice can be used to assess the activation status of Notch in bone cells.
Project description:NOTCH-dependent signaling pathways are critical for normal bone remodeling; however, it is unclear if dysfunctional NOTCH activation contributes to inflammation-mediated bone loss, as observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. We performed RNA sequencing and pathway analyses in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from transgenic TNF-expressing mice, a model of RA, to identify pathways responsible for decreased osteoblast differentiation. 53 pathways were dysregulated in MSCs from RA mice, among which expression of genes encoding NOTCH pathway members and members of the noncanonical NF-?B pathway were markedly elevated. Administration of NOTCH inhibitors to RA mice prevented bone loss and osteoblast inhibition, and CFU-fibroblasts from RA mice treated with NOTCH inhibitors formed more new bone in recipient mice with tibial defects. Overexpression of the noncanonical NF-?B subunit p52 and RELB in a murine pluripotent stem cell line increased NOTCH intracellular domain-dependent (NICD-dependent) activation of an RBPj? reporter and levels of the transcription factor HES1. TNF promoted p52/RELB binding to NICD, which enhanced binding at the RBPj? site within the Hes1 promoter. Furthermore, MSC-enriched cells from RA patients exhibited elevated levels of HES1, p52, and RELB. Together, these data indicate that persistent NOTCH activation in MSCs contributes to decreased osteoblast differentiation associated with RA and suggest that NOTCH inhibitors could prevent inflammation-mediated bone loss.
Project description:Bone marrow (BM) fibrosis is a feature of severe hyperparathyroidism. Consistent with this observation, mice expressing constitutively active parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide receptors (PPR) in osteoblasts (PPR*Tg) display BM fibrosis. To obtain insight into the nature of BM fibrosis in such a model, a double-mutant mouse expressing constitutively active PPR and green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the type I collagen promoter (PPR*Tg/GFP) was generated. Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry revealed the presence of a cell population expressing GFP (GFP(+)) that was also positive for the hematopoietic marker CD45 in the BM of both PPR*Tg/GFP and control animals. This cell population was expanded in PPR*Tg/GFP. The existence of cells expressing both type I collagen and CD45 in the adult BM was confirmed by IHC and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. An analysis of total RNA extracted from sorted GFP(+)CD45(+) cells showed that these cells produced type I collagen and PTH/PTH-related peptide receptor and receptor activator for NF-?B mRNAs, further supporting their features of being both mesenchymal and hematopoietic lineages. Similar cells, known as fibrocytes, are also present in pathological fibroses. Our findings, thus, indicate that the BM is a permissive microenvironment for the differentiation of fibrocyte-like cells and raise the possibility that these cells could contribute to the pathogenesis of BM fibrosis.
Project description:The majority of human pancreatic cancers have activating mutations in the KRAS proto-oncogene. These mutations result in increased activity of the NF-?B pathway and the subsequent constitutive production of proinflammatory cytokines. Here, we show that inhibitor of ?B kinase 2 (Ikk2), a component of the canonical NF-?B signaling pathway, synergizes with basal Notch signaling to upregulate transcription of primary Notch target genes, resulting in suppression of antiinflammatory protein expression and promotion of pancreatic carcinogenesis in mice. We found that in the Kras(G12D)Pdx1-cre mouse model of pancreatic cancer, genetic deletion of Ikk2 in initiated pre-malignant epithelial cells substantially delayed pancreatic oncogenesis and resulted in downregulation of the classical Notch target genes Hes1 and Hey1. Tnf-? stimulated canonical NF-?B signaling and, in collaboration with basal Notch signals, induced optimal expression of Notch targets. Mechanistically, Tnf-? stimulation resulted in phosphorylation of histone H3 at the Hes1 promoter, and this signal was lost with Ikk2 deletion. Hes1 suppresses expression of Pparg, which encodes the antiinflammatory nuclear receptor Ppar?. Thus, crosstalk between Tnf-?/Ikk2 and Notch sustains the intrinsic inflammatory profile of transformed cells. These findings reveal what we believe to be a novel interaction between oncogenic inflammation and a major cell fate pathway and show how these pathways can cooperate to promote cancer progression.
Project description:The function of B cells in osteoblast (OB) dysfunction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has not been well-studied. Here we show that B cells are enriched in the subchondral and endosteal bone marrow (BM) areas adjacent to osteocalcin+ OBs in two murine RA models: collagen-induced arthritis and the TNF-transgenic mice. Subchondral BM B cells in RA mice express high levels of OB inhibitors, CCL3 and TNF, and inhibit OB differentiation by activating ERK and NF-κB signaling pathways. The inhibitory effect of RA B cells on OB differentiation is blocked by CCL3 and TNF neutralization, and deletion of CCL3 and TNF in RA B cells completely rescues OB function in vivo, while B cell depletion attenuates bone erosion and OB inhibition in RA mice. Lastly, B cells from RA patients express CCL3 and TNF and inhibit OB differentiation, with these effects ameliorated by CCL3 and TNF neutralization. Thus, B cells inhibit bone formation in RA by producing multiple OB inhibitors.
Project description:Macrophages are crucially involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Macrophages of the M1 phenotype act as pro-inflammatory mediators in synovium, whereas those of the M2 phenotype suppress inflammation and promote tissue repair. SIRT1 is a class 3 histone deacetylase with anti-inflammatory characteristics. However, the role played by SIRT1 in macrophage polarization has not been defined in RA. We investigated whether SIRT1 exerts anti-inflammatory effects by modulating M1/M2 polarization in macrophages from RA patients. In this study, SIRT1 activation promoted the phosphorylation of an adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) ?/acetyl-CoA carboxylase in macrophages exposed to interleukin (IL)-4, and that this resulted in the expressions of M2 genes, including MDC, Fc?RII, MrC1, and IL-10, at high levels. Furthermore, these expressions were inhibited by sirtinol (an inhibitor of SIRT1) and compound C (an inhibitor of AMPK). Moreover, SIRT1 activation downregulated LPS/interferon ?-mediated NF-?B activity by inhibiting p65 acetylation and the expression of M1 genes, such as CCL2, iNOS, IL-12 p35, and IL-12 p40. Macrophages from SIRT1 transgenic (Tg)-mice exhibited enhanced polarization of M2 phenotype macrophages and reduced polarization of M1 phenotype macrophages. In line with these observations, SIRT1-Tg mice showed less histological signs of arthritis, that is, lower TNF? and IL-1? expressions and less severe arthritis in the knee joints, compared to wild-type mice. Taken together, the study shows activation of SIRT1/AMPK? signaling exerts anti-inflammatory activities by regulating M1/M2 polarization, and thereby reduces inflammatory responses in RA. Furthermore, it suggests that SIRT1 signaling be viewed as a therapeutic target in RA.
Project description:AIMS:Redox active ultrafine particles (UFP, d < 0.2 μm) promote vascular oxidative stress and atherosclerosis. Notch signaling is intimately involved in vascular homeostasis, in which forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) acts as a co-activator of the Notch activation complex. We elucidated the importance of FOXO1/Notch transcriptional activation complex to restore vascular regeneration after UFP exposure. RESULTS:In a zebrafish model of tail injury and repair, transgenic Tg(fli1:GFP) embryos developed vascular regeneration at 3 days post amputation (dpa), whereas UFP exposure impaired regeneration (p < 0.05, n = 20 for control, n = 28 for UFP). UFP dose dependently reduced Notch reporter activity and Notch signaling-related genes (Dll4, JAG1, JAG2, Notch1b, Hey2, Hes1; p < 0.05, n = 3). In the transgenic Tg(tp1:GFP; flk1:mCherry) embryos, UFP attenuated endothelial Notch activity at the amputation site (p < 0.05 vs. wild type [WT], n = 20). A disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10 (ADAM10) inhibitor or dominant negative (DN)-Notch1b messenger RNA (mRNA) disrupted the vascular network, whereas notch intracellular cytoplasmic domain (NICD) mRNA restored the vascular network (p < 0.05 vs. WT, n = 20). UFP reduced FOXO1 expression, but not Master-mind like 1 (MAML1) or NICD (p < 0.05, n = 3). Immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence demonstrated that UFP attenuated FOXO1-mediated NICD pull-down and FOXO1/NICD co-localization, respectively (p < 0.05, n = 3). Although FOXO1 morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) attenuated Notch activity, FOXO1 mRNA reversed UFP-mediated reduction in Notch activity to restore vascular regeneration and blood flow (p < 0.05 vs. WT, n = 5). Innovation and Conclusion: Our findings indicate the importance of the FOXO1/Notch activation complex to restore vascular regeneration after exposure to the redox active UFP. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 1209-1223.
Project description:Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease caused by inflammation of the synovium and characterized by chronic polyarthritis that destroys bone and cartilage. Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) in the synovium of patients with RA can promote cartilage and bone destruction by producing proteins such as matrix metalloproteinases and receptor activator of NF-?B ligand, thereby representing an important therapeutic target for RA. FLSs have several phenotypes depending on which cell surface proteins and adhesion factors are expressed. Identifying the cellular functions associated with different phenotypes and methods of controlling them are considered essential for developing therapeutic strategies for RA. In this study, synovial tissue was collected from patients with RA and control subjects who required surgery due to ligament injury or fracture. Immunohistological analysis was used to investigate the rates of positivity for phosphorylated platelet-derived growth factor receptor-?? (pPDGFR??) and cadherin-11 (CDH11) expression, and apoptosis-related markers were assessed for each cell phenotype. Next, FLSs were isolated in vitro and stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in addition to a combination of PDGF and transforming growth factor (2GF) to investigate pPDGFR?? and CDH11 expression and the effects of the inhibition of TNF and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 on FLSs. Immunohistological analysis showed a large percentage of pPDGFR??+CDH11- cells in the sub-lining layer (SL) of patients with RA. These cells exhibited increased B-cell lymphoma-2 expression, reduced TNF receptor-1 expression, resistance to cell death, and abnormal proliferation, suggesting a tendency to accumulate in the synovium. Further, in vitro 2GF stimulation of FLSs lowered, whereas 2GF + TNF stimulation increased the pPDGFR??/CDH11 ratio. Hypothesizing that FLSs stimulated with 2GF + TNF would accumulate in vivo in RA, we determined the therapeutic effects of TNF and CDK4/6 inhibitors. The TNF inhibitor lowered the pPDGFR??/CDH11 ratio, whereas the CDK4/6 inhibitor suppressed cell proliferation. However, a synergistic effect was not observed by combining both the drugs. We observed an increase in pPDGFR??+CDH11- cells in the SL of the RA synovium and accumulation of these cells in the synovium. We found that the TNF inhibitor suppressed FLS activity and the CDK4/6 inhibitor reduced cell proliferation.
Project description:Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common autoimmune disease that afflicts the synovium of diarthrodial joints. The pathogenic mechanisms inciting this disease are not fully characterized, but may involve the loss of tolerance to posttranslationally modified (citrullinated) antigens. We have demonstrated that this modification leads to a selective increase in antigenic peptide affinity for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules that carry the RA-associated shared epitope, such as HLA-DRB1*0401 (DR4). We describe the induction of arthritis in DR4-IE transgenic (tg) mice with citrullinated fibrinogen, a protein commonly found in inflamed synovial tissue and a frequent target of autoantibodies in RA patients. The disease induced in these mice was characterized by synovial hyperplasia followed by ankylosis, but lacked a conspicuous polymorphonuclear cell infiltrate. Immunological analysis of these mice through T cell epitope scanning and antibody microarray analysis identified a unique profile of citrulline-specific reactivity that was not found in DR4-IE tg mice immunized with unmodified fibrinogen or in wild-type C57BL/6 mice immunized with citrullinated fibrinogen, two conditions where arthritis was not observed. These observations directly implicate citrullinated fibrinogen as arthritogenic in the context of RA-associated MHC class II molecules.
Project description:Angiogenesis is a critical factor for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although anti-TNF biologics work effectively on some RA patients, concerns have been raised about the possible increased development of malignancies alongside such treatments. Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has attracted worldwide attention and has been reported to treat some cancers. However, the effects of As2O3 on angiogenesis in the RA synovium remain unclear. Here, we report a systematic increased expression of TSP-1, TGF-?1, CTGF and VEGF in supernatants of a RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RA-FLS) and human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs) co-culture compared with those from a normal human fibroblast-like synoviocytes (NH-FLS) and HDMECs co-culture. This increased expression may up-regulate endothelial tube formation and transwell migration, as well as microvessel sprouting in ex vivo aortic ring assay. These networked angiogenic factors mainly form a functional module regulating angiogenesis in the RA synovium. We show that As2O3 inhibits angiogenesis in the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) synovium and consequently arthritis severity via significant suppression of TSP-1, TGF-?1, CTGF and VEGF expression in the CIA synovium, plus in the RA-FLS and HDMECs co-culture as well as NH-FLS and HDMECs co-culture system along with the presence or absence of TNF-? treatment. Thus As2O3 has a significant anti-angiogenesis effect on the RA-FLS and CIA synovium via its inhibition of the RA angiogenic functional module of TSP-1, TGF-?1, CTGF and VEGF and may have a potential for treating RA beyond cancer therapy.