Associations between cerebral amyloid and changes in cognitive function and falls risk in subcortical ischemic vascular cognitive impairment.
ABSTRACT: To determine the association between amyloid-beta (A?) plaque deposition and changes in global cognition, executive functions, information processing speed, and falls risk over a 12-month period in older adults with a primary clinical diagnosis of subcortical ischemic vascular cognitive impairment (SIVCI).This is a secondary analysis of data acquired from a subset of participants (N = 22) who were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of aerobic exercise (NCT01027858). The subset of individuals completed an 11C Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) scan. Cognitive function and falls risk were assessed at baseline, 6-months, and 12-months. Global cognition, executive functions, and information processing speed were measured using: 1) ADAS-Cog; 2) Trail Making Test; 3) Digit Span Test; 4) Stroop Test, and 5) Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Falls risk was measured using the Physiological Profile Assessment. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses determined the unique contribution of A? on changes in cognitive function and falls risk at 12-months after controlling for experimental group (i.e. aerobic exercise training or usual care control) and baseline performance. To correct for multiple comparisons, we applied the Benjamini-Hochberg procedure to obtain a false discovery rate corrected threshold using alpha = 0.05.Higher PIB retention was significantly associated with greater decrements in set shifting (Trail Making Test, adjusted R2 = 35.3%, p = 0.002), attention and conflict resolution (Stroop Test, adjusted R2 = 33.4%, p = 0.01), and information processing speed (Digit Symbol Substitution Test, adjusted R2 = 24.4%, p = 0.001) over a 12-month period. Additionally, higher PIB retention was significantly associated with increased falls risk (Physiological Profile Assessment, adjusted R2 = 49.1%, p = 0.04). PIB retention was not significantly associated with change in ADAS-Cog and Verbal Digit Span Test (p > 0.05).Symptoms associated with SIVCI may be amplified by secondary A? pathology.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01027858 , December 7, 2009.
Project description:Mixed pathology, particularly Alzheimer's disease with cerebrovascular lesions, is reported as the second most common cause of dementia. Research on mixed dementia typically includes people with a primary AD diagnosis and hence, little is known about the effects of co-existing amyloid pathology in people with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). The purpose of this study was to understand whether individual differences in amyloid pathology might explain variations in cognitive impairment among individuals with clinical subcortical VCI (SVCI).Twenty-two participants with SVCI completed an (11)C Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) position emission tomography (PET) scan to quantify global amyloid deposition. Cognitive function was measured using: 1) MOCA; 2) ADAS-Cog; 3) EXIT-25; and 4) specific executive processes including a) Digits Forward and Backwards Test, b) Stroop-Colour Word Test, and c) Trail Making Test. To assess the effect of amyloid deposition on cognitive function we conducted Pearson bivariate correlations to determine which cognitive measures to include in our regression models. Cognitive variables that were significantly correlated with PIB retention values were entered in a hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis to determine the unique effect of amyloid on cognitive function. We controlled for age, education, and ApoE ε4 status.Bivariate correlation results showed that PIB binding was significantly correlated with ADAS-Cog (p < 0.01) and MOCA (p < 0.01); increased PIB binding was associated with worse cognitive function on both cognitive measures. PIB binding was not significantly correlated with the EXIT-25 or with specific executive processes (p > 0.05). Regression analyses controlling for age, education, and ApoE ε4 status indicated an independent association between PIB retention and the ADAS-Cog (adjusted R-square change of 15.0%, Sig F Change = 0.03). PIB retention was also independently associated with MOCA scores (adjusted R-Square Change of 27.0%, Sig F Change = 0.02).We found that increased global amyloid deposition was significantly associated with greater memory and executive dysfunctions as measured by the ADAS-Cog and MOCA. Our findings point to the important role of co-existing amyloid deposition for cognitive function in those with a primary SVCI diagnosis. As such, therapeutic approaches targeting SVCI must consider the potential role of amyloid for the optimal care of those with mixed dementia.NCT01027858.
Project description:Whether long-term blood pressure (BP) variability throughout young adulthood is associated with cognitive function in midlife remains uncertain. Using data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA), which recruited healthy young adults aged 18 to 30 years (mean age, 25 years) at baseline (Y(0)), we assessed BP variability by SD and average real variability (ARV) for 25 years (8 visits). Cognitive function was assessed with the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (psychomotor speed test), the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (verbal memory test), and the modified Stroop test (executive function test) at follow-up (Y(25)). At the Y(25) examination, participants (n=2326) had a mean age of 50.4 years, 43% were men, and 40% were black. In multivariable-adjusted linear regression models, higher ARV(SBP), ARV(DBP), and SD(DBP) were significantly associated with lower scores of Digit Symbol Substitution Test (? [SE]: -0.025 [0.006], -0.029 [0.007], and -0.029 [0.007], respectively; all P<0.001) and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (? [SE]: -0.016 [0.006], -0.021 [0.007], and -0.019 [0.007], respectively; all P<0.05) after adjustment for demographic and clinical characteristics and with cumulative exposure to BP through Y(0) to Y(25). Neither SDBP nor ARV(BP) was associated with the Stroop score. The associations between ARV(BP) or SD(BP) and each cognitive function test were similar between blacks and whites except for 1 significant interaction between race and SDS(BP) on the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (P<0.05). Long-term BP variability for 25 years beginning in young adulthood was associated with worse psychomotor speed and verbal memory tests in midlife, independent of cumulative exposure to BP during follow-up.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The classic view of blood pressure (BP) reactivity to psychological stress in relation to cardiovascular risks assumes that excess reactivity is worse and lower reactivity is better. Evidence addressing how stress-induced BP reactivity in young adults is associated with midlife cognitive function is sparse.<h4>Methods and results</h4>We assessed BP reactivity during a star tracing task and a video game in adults aged 20 to 32 years. Twenty-three years later, cognitive function was assessed with use of the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (a psychomotor speed test), the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (a verbal memory test), and the modified Stroop test (an executive function test). At the time of follow-up, participants (n=3021) had a mean age of 50.2 years; 56% were women, and 44% were black. In linear regression models adjusted for demographic and clinical characteristics including baseline and follow-up resting BP, lower systolic BP (SBP) reactivity during the star tracing and video game was associated with worse Digit Symbol Substitution Test scores (? [SE]: 0.11 [0.02] and 0.05 [0.02], respectively) and worse performance on the Stroop test (? [SE]: -0.06 [0.02] and -0.05 [0.02]; all P<0.01). SBP reactivity was more consistently associated than diastolic BP reactivity with cognitive function scores. The associations between SBP reactivity and cognitive function were mostly similar between blacks and whites.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Lower psychological stress-induced SBP reactivity in younger adults was associated with lower cognitive function in midlife. BP reactivity to psychological stressors may have different associations with target organs in hypertension.
Project description:There are studies showing that gene polymorphisms within the transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) signaling constitute schizophrenia risk variants. However, the association between TGFB1 gene polymorphisms (+869T/C and +915G/C), TGF-? level with schizophrenia course, and its symptomatology together with cognitive functioning has not been investigated so far. We included 151 patients with schizophrenia and 279 healthy controls. Cognitive functioning was assessed using Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Trail Making Test (TMT)-A and TMT-B, Verbal Fluency task, Stroop test, as well as selected subtests from the Wechsler Adults Intelligence Scale - Revised, Polish adaptation (WAIS-R-Pl): Digit Symbol Coding, Digit Span Forward and Backward, and Similarities. Additionally, serum TGF-? levels were measured in 88 schizophrenia patients and 88 healthy controls. Serum TGF-? level was significantly higher among patients with schizophrenia in comparison with healthy controls; however, the studied polymorphisms were not associated with TGF-? level in schizophrenia patients. Subjects carrying the +869T allele performed significantly worse in comparison with +869CC homozygotes on Stroop task, Verbal Fluency task and Digit Symbol Coding task. There was a significant difference in age of psychosis onset in female schizophrenia patients with respect to the TGFB1 +869T/C polymorphism. Additionally, adjustment for possible confounders revealed that there was a significant difference in cognitive performance on Digit Symbol Coding task with respect to the TGFB1 +869T/C polymorphism among female schizophrenia patients. Our results suggest that TGF-? signaling might be a valid link contributing to observed differences in age of onset and the level of cognitive decline between male and female schizophrenia patients.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To explore cognitive performance in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) examining two cohorts. To establish findings associated with CFS and those related to co-morbid depression or autonomic dysfunction. METHODS:Identification and recruitment of participants was identical in both phases, all CFS patients fulfilled Fukuda criteria. In Phase 1 (n = 48) we explored cognitive function in a heterogeneous cohort of CFS patients, investigating links with depressive symptoms (HADS). In phase 2 (n = 51 CFS & n = 20 controls) participants with co-morbid major depression were excluded (SCID). Furthermore, we investigated relationships between cognitive performance and heart rate variability (HRV). RESULTS:Cognitive performance in unselected CFS patients is in average range on most measures. However, 0-23% of the CFS sample fell below the 5th percentile. Negative correlations occurred between depressive symptoms (HAD-S) with Digit-Symbol-Coding (r = -.507, p = .006) and TMT-A (r = -.382, p = .049). In CFS without depression, impairments of cognitive performance remained with significant differences in indices of psychomotor speed (TMT-A: p = 0.027; digit-symbol substitution: p = 0.004; digit-symbol copy: p = 0.007; scanning: p = .034) Stroop test suggested differences due to processing speed rather than inhibition. Both cohorts confirmed relationships between cognitive performance and HRV (digit-symbol copy (r = .330, p = .018), digit-symbol substitution (r = .313, p = .025), colour-naming trials Stroop task (r = .279, p = .050). CONCLUSION:Cognitive difficulties in CFS may not be as broad as suggested and may be restricted to slowing in basic processing speed. While depressive symptoms can be associated with impairments, co-morbidity with major depression is not itself responsible for reductions in cognitive performance. Impaired autonomic control of heart-rate associates with reductions in basic processing speed.
Project description:To determine the relationship between proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) metabolites and ?-amyloid (A?) load and the effects of A? load on the association between (1)H MRS metabolites and cognitive function in cognitively normal older adults.We studied 311 cognitively normal older adults who participated in the population-based Mayo Clinic Study of Aging from January 2009 through September 2010. Participants underwent (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) PET, (1)H MRS from the posterior cingulate gyri, and neuropsychometric testing to assess memory, attention/executive, language, and visual-spatial domain functions within 6 months. Partial Spearman rank order correlations were adjusted for age, sex, and education.Higher PiB retention was associated with abnormal elevations in myoinositol (mI)/creatine (Cr) (partial r(s) = 0.17; p = 0.003) and choline (Cho)/Cr (partial r(s) = 0.13; p = 0.022) ratios. Higher Cho/Cr was associated with worse performance on Auditory Verbal Learning Test Delayed Recall (partial r(s) = -0.12; p = 0.04), Trail Making Test Part B (partial r(s) = 0.12; p = 0.04), Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) Digit Symbol (partial r(s) = -0.18; p < 0.01), and WAIS-R Block Design (partial r(s) = -0.12; p = 0.03). Associations between (1)H MRS metabolites and cognitive function were not different among participants with high vs low PiB retention.In cognitively normal older adults, the (1)H MRS metabolite ratios mI/Cr and Cho/Cr are associated with the preclinical pathologic processes in the Alzheimer disease cascade. Higher Cho/Cr is associated with worse performance on domain-specific cognitive tests independent of A? load, suggesting that Cho/Cr elevation may also be dependent on other preclinical dementia pathologies characterized by Cho/Cr elevation such as Lewy body or ischemic vascular disease in addition to A? load.
Project description:This study was designed to evaluate whether subjects with amyloid beta (A?) pathology, detected using florbetapir positron emission tomorgraphy (PET), demonstrated greater cognitive decline than subjects without A? pathology. Sixty-nine cognitively normal (CN) controls, 52 with recently diagnosed mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 31 with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia were included in the study. PET images obtained in these subjects were visually rated as positive (A?+) or negative (A?-), blind to diagnosis. Fourteen percent (10/69) of CN, 37% (19/52) of MCI and 68% (21/31) of AD were A?+. The primary outcome was change in ADAS-Cog score in MCI subjects after 36 months; however, additional outcomes included change on measures of cognition, function and diagnostic status. A?+ MCI subjects demonstrated greater worsening compared with A?- subjects on the ADAS-Cog over 36 months (5.66 ± 1.47 vs -0.71 ± 1.09, P = 0.0014) as well as on the mini-mental state exam (MMSE), digit symbol substitution (DSS) test, and a verbal fluency test (P < 0.05). Similar to MCI subjects, A?+ CN subjects showed greater decline on the ADAS-Cog, digit-symbol-substitution test and verbal fluency (P<0.05), whereas A?+ AD patients showed greater declines in verbal fluency and the MMSE (P < 0.05). A?+ subjects in all diagnostic groups also showed greater decline on the CDR-SB (P<0.04), a global clinical assessment. A?+ subjects did not show significantly greater declines on the ADCS-ADL or Wechsler Memory Scale. Overall, these findings suggest that in CN, MCI and AD subjects, florbetapir PET A?+ subjects show greater cognitive and global deterioration over a 3-year follow-up than A?- subjects do.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Relationships between early kidney disease, neurocognitive function, and brain anatomy are poorly defined in African Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). STUDY DESIGN:Cross-sectional associations were assessed between cerebral anatomy and cognitive performance with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) in African Americans with T2DM. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS:African Americans with cognitive testing and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the African American-Diabetes Heart Study Memory in Diabetes (AA-DHS MIND; n=512; 480 with MRI) and Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) MIND (n=484; 104 with MRI) studies. PREDICTORS:eGFR (CKD-EPI creatinine equation), spot UACR. MEASUREMENTS:MRI-based cerebral white matter volume (WMV), gray matter volume (GMV), and white matter lesion volume; cognitive performance (Mini-Mental State Examination, Digit Symbol Coding, Stroop Test, and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test). Multivariable models adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, scanner, intracranial volume, education, diabetes duration, hemoglobin A1c concentration, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, smoking, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease were used to test for associations between kidney phenotypes and the brain in each study; a meta-analysis was performed. RESULTS:Mean participant age was 60.1±7.9 (SD) years; diabetes duration, 12.1±7.7 years; hemoglobin A1c concentration, 8.3%±1.7%; eGFR, 88.7±21.6mL/min/1.73m2; and UACR, 119.2±336.4mg/g. In the fully adjusted meta-analysis, higher GMV associated with lower UACR (P<0.05), with a trend toward association with higher eGFR. Higher white matter lesion volume was associated with higher UACR (P<0.05) and lower eGFR (P<0.001). WMV was not associated with either kidney parameter. Higher UACR was associated with lower Digit Symbol Coding performance (P<0.001) and a trend toward association with higher Stroop interference; eGFR was not associated with cognitive tests. LIMITATIONS:Cross-sectional; single UACR measurement. CONCLUSIONS:In African Americans with T2DM, mildly high UACR and mildly low eGFR were associated with smaller GMV and increased white matter lesion volume. UACR was associated with poorer processing speed and working memory.
Project description:Importance:It remains uncertain whether people with psychotic disorders experience progressive cognitive decline or normal cognitive aging after first hospitalization. This information is essential for prognostication in clinical settings, deployment of cognitive remediation, and public health policy. Objective:To examine long-term cognitive changes in individuals with psychotic disorders and to compare age-related differences in cognitive performance between people with psychotic disorders and matched control individuals (ie, individuals who had never had psychotic disorders). Design, Setting, and Participants:The Suffolk County Mental Health Project is an inception cohort study of first-admission patients with psychosis. Cognitive functioning was assessed 2 and 20 years later. Patients were recruited from the 12 inpatient facilities of Suffolk County, New York. At year 20, the control group was recruited by random digit dialing and matched to the clinical cohort on zip code and demographics. Data were collected between September 1991 and July 2015. Analysis began January 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures:Change in cognitive functioning in 6 domains: verbal knowledge (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised vocabulary test), verbal declarative memory (Verbal Paired Associates test I and II), visual declarative memory (Visual Reproduction test I and II), attention and processing speed (Symbol Digit Modalities Test-written and oral; Trail Making Test [TMT]-A), abstraction-executive function (Trenerry Stroop Color Word Test; TMT-B), and verbal fluency (Controlled Oral Word Association Test). Results:A total of 705 participants were included in the analyses (mean [SD] age at year 20, 49.4 [10.1] years): 445 individuals (63.1%) had psychotic disorders (211 with schizophrenia spectrum [138 (65%) male]; 164 with affective psychoses [76 (46%) male]; 70 with other psychoses [43 (61%) male]); and 260 individuals (36.9%) in the control group (50.5 [9.0] years; 134 [51.5%] male). Cognition in individuals with a psychotic disorder declined on all but 2 tests (average decline: d?=?0.31; range, 0.17-0.54; all P?<?.001). Cognitive declines were associated with worsening vocational functioning (Visual Reproduction test II: r?=?0.20; Symbol Digit Modalities Test-written: r?=?0.25; Stroop: r?=?0.24; P?<?.009) and worsening negative symptoms (avolition: Symbol Digit Modalities Test-written: r?=?-0.24; TMT-A: r?=?-0.21; Stroop: r?=?-0.21; all P?<?.009; inexpressivity: Stroop: r?=?-0.22; P?<?.009). Compared with control individuals, people with psychotic disrders showed age-dependent deficits in verbal knowledge, fluency, and abstraction-executive function (vocabulary: ??=?-0.32; Controlled Oral Word Association Test: ??=?-0.32; TMT-B: ??=?0.23; all P?<?.05), with the largest gap among participants 50 years or older. Conclusions and Relevance:In individuals with psychotic disorders, most cognitive functions declined over 2 decades after first hospitalization. Observed declines were clinically significant. Some declines were larger than expected due to normal aging, suggesting that cognitive aging in some domains may be accelerated in this population. If confirmed, these findings would highlight cognition as an important target for research and treatment during later phases of psychotic illness.
Project description:Nocturnal blood pressure (BP) is associated with risk for cardiovascular events. However, the relationship between nocturnal BP in young adults and cognitive function in midlife remains unclear.We used data from the ambulatory BP monitoring substudy of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study, including 224 participants (mean age 30 years, 45% men, 63% African Americans). At the 20-year follow-up, the Stroop test (executive function), Digit Symbol Substitution Test (psychomotor speed), and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (verbal memory) were assessed.Baseline mean office, daytime, and nocturnal BP were 109/73, 120/74, and 107/59 mm Hg, respectively. Nocturnal BP dipping, calculated as (nocturnal systolic BP [SBP]--daytime SBP) × 100/daytime SBP, was divided into quartiles (Q1: -39.3% to -16.9%; Q2: -16.8% to -13.2%, Q3 [reference]: -13.1% to -7.8%, and Q4: -7.7% to +56.4%). In multiple regression analyses, the least nocturnal SBP dipping (Q4 vs. reference) and higher nocturnal diastolic BP level were associated with worse Stroop scores, with adjustments for demographic and clinical characteristics, and cumulative exposure to office BP during follow-up (? [standard error]: 0.37 [0.18] and 0.19 [0.07], respectively; all P < 0.05). Digit Symbol Substitution Test and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test were not significantly associated with nocturnal SBP dipping or nocturnal SBP/diastolic BP levels.Among healthy young adults, less nocturnal SBP dipping and higher nocturnal diastolic BP levels were associated with lower executive function in midlife, independent of multiple measures of office BP during long-term follow-up.