Arcuate neuropeptide Y inhibits sympathetic nerve activity via multiple neuropathways.
ABSTRACT: Obesity increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) via activation of proopiomelanocortin neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ArcN), and this action requires simultaneous withdrawal of tonic neuropeptide Y (NPY) sympathoinhibition. However, the sites and neurocircuitry by which NPY decreases SNA are unclear. Here, using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) to selectively activate or inhibit ArcN NPY neurons expressing agouti-related peptide (AgRP) in mice, we have demonstrated that this neuronal population tonically suppresses splanchnic SNA (SSNA), arterial pressure, and heart rate via projections to the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH). First, we found that ArcN NPY/AgRP fibers closely appose PVN and DMH presympathetic neurons. Second, nanoinjections of NPY or an NPY receptor Y1 (NPY1R) antagonist into PVN or DMH decreased or increased SSNA, respectively. Third, blockade of DMH NPY1R reversed the sympathoinhibition elicited by selective, DREADD-mediated activation of ArcN NPY/AgRP neurons. Finally, stimulation of ArcN NPY/AgRP terminal fields in the PVN and DMH decreased SSNA. Considering that chronic obesity decreases ArcN NPY content, we propose that the ArcN NPY neuropathway to the PVN and DMH is pivotal in obesity-induced elevations in SNA.
Project description:Selectively bred diet-induced obese (DIO) rats become obese on a high-fat diet and are leptin resistant before becoming obese. Compared with diet-resistant (DR) neonates, DIO neonates have impaired leptin-dependent arcuate (ARC) neuropeptide Y/agouti-related peptide (NPY/AgRP) and ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH; from proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons) axon outgrowth to the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Using phosphorylation of STAT3 (pSTAT3) as a surrogate, we show that reduced DIO ARC leptin signaling develops by postnatal day 7 (P7) and is reduced within POMC but not NPY/AgRP neurons. Since amylin increases leptin signaling in adult rats, we treated DIO neonates with amylin during postnatal hypothalamic development and assessed leptin signaling, leptin-dependent ARC-PVN pathway development, and metabolic changes. DIO neonates treated with amylin from P0-6 and from P0-16 increased ARC leptin signaling and both AgRP and ?-MSH ARC-PVN pathway development, but increased only POMC neuron number. Despite ARC-PVN pathway correction, P0-16 amylin-induced reductions in body weight did not persist beyond treatment cessation. Since amylin enhances adult DIO ARC signaling via an IL-6-dependent mechanism, we assessed ARC-PVN pathway competency in IL-6 knockout mice and found that the AgRP, but not the ?-MSH, ARC-PVN pathway was reduced. These results suggest that both leptin and amylin are important neurotrophic factors for the postnatal development of the ARC-PVN pathway. Amylin might act as a direct neurotrophic factor in DIO rats to enhance both the number of POMC neurons and their ?-MSH ARC-PVN pathway development. This suggests important and selective roles for amylin during ARC hypothalamic development.
Project description:Angiopoietin-like protein 8 (Angptl8), a recently identified member of the angiopoietin-like protein family (ANGPTLs), is a 22-kDa peptide synthesized in the liver. It participates in lipid metabolism by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, consequently increasing the triglyceride levels. Despite evidence that Angptl8 is involved in feeding control, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Central and peripheral injections of Angptl8 significantly decreased food intake. Angptl8 was widely expressed in appetite-related nuclei, including the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), the ventromedial hypothalamus, and the arcuate nucleus (ARC) in the hypothalamus. Peripheral Angptl8 administration decreased c-Fos-positive neurons in the DMH. Central Angptl8 administration decreased c-Fos-positive neurons in the DMH and PVN but increased these neurons in the ARC. Angptl8 inhibited appetite via neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons in the DMH. Furthermore, the chronic administration of Angptl8 decreased body weight gain and altered adipose tissue deposits. Nevertheless, neither peripheral nor central Angptl8 influenced the brown adipose tissue (BAT) morphology or uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp-1) expression in BAT. Taken together, these data suggested that Angptl8 modulates appetite and energy homeostasis.
Project description:Fasting-induced suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis is an adaptive response to decrease energy expenditure during food deprivation. Previous studies demonstrate that leptin communicates nutritional status to the HPT axis through thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. Leptin targets TRH neurons either directly or indirectly via the arcuate nucleus through pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and agouti-related peptide/neuropeptide Y (AgRP/NPY) neurons. To evaluate the role of these pathways in vivo, we developed double knockout mice that lack both the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) and NPY. We show that NPY is required for fasting-induced suppression of Trh expression in the PVN. However, both MC4R and NPY are required for activation of hepatic pathways that metabolize T(4) during the fasting response. Thus, these signaling pathways play a key role in the communication of fasting signals to reduce thyroid hormone levels both centrally and through a peripheral hepatic circuit.
Project description:The Dorsomedial Nucleus of the Hypothalamus (DMH) is known to play important roles in ingestive behavior and body weight homeostasis. The DMH contains neurons expressing Neuropeptide Y (NPY) during specific physiological conditions of hyperphagia and obesity, however, the role of DMH-NPY neurons has yet to be characterized. In contrast to the DMH-NPY neurons, NPY expressing neurons have been best characterized in the Arcuate Nucleus of the Hypothalamus (ARH). The purpose of this study is to characterize the chemical phenotype of DMH-NPY neurons by comparing the gene expression profiles of NPY neurons in the DMH and ARH isolated from postnatal NPY-hrGFP mice by microarray analysis. Twenty genes were differentially expressed in the DMH-NPY neurons compared to the ARH. Among them, there were several transcriptional factors that play important roles in the regulation of energy balance. DMH-NPY neurons expressed Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase (GAD) 65 and 67, suggesting that they may be GABAergic, similar to ARH-NPY neurons. While ARH-NPY neurons expressed leptin receptor (ObRb) and displayed the activation of STAT3 in response to leptin administration, DMH-NPY neurons showed neither. These findings strongly suggest that DMH-NPY neurons could play a distinct role in the control of energy homeostasis and are differentially regulated from ARH-NPY neurons through afferent inputs and transcriptional regulators.
Project description:Negative energy balance during lactation is reflected by low levels of insulin and leptin and is associated with chronic hyperphagia and suppressed GnRH/LH activity. We studied whether restoration of insulin and/or leptin to physiological levels would reverse the lactation-associated hyperphagia, changes in hypothalamic neuropeptide expression [increased neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AGRP) and decreased proopiomelanocortin (POMC), kisspeptin (Kiss1), and neurokinin B (NKB)] and suppression of LH. Ovariectomized lactating rats (eight pups) were treated for 48 h with sc minipumps containing saline, human insulin, or rat leptin. The arcuate nucleus (ARH) was analyzed for NPY, AGRP, POMC, Kiss1, and NKB mRNA expression; the dorsal medial hypothalamus (DMH) was analyzed for NPY mRNA. Insulin replacement reversed the increase in ARH NPY/AGRP mRNAs, partially recovered POMC, but had no effect on recovering Kiss1/NKB. Leptin replacement only affected POMC, which was fully recovered. Insulin/leptin dual replacement had similar effects as insulin replacement alone but with a slight increase in Kiss1/NKB. The lactation-induced increase in DMH NPY was unchanged after treatments. Restoration of insulin and/or leptin had no effect on food intake, body weight, serum glucose or serum LH. These results suggest that the negative energy balance of lactation is not required for the hyperphagic drive, although it is involved in the orexigenic changes in the ARH. The chronic hyperphagia of lactation is most likely sustained by the induction of NPY in the DMH. The negative energy balance also does not appear to be a necessary prerequisite for the suppression of GnRH/LH activity.
Project description:Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a potent regulator of neuronal development, and the Bdnf gene produces two populations of transcripts with either a short or long 3' untranslated region (3' UTR). Deficiencies in BDNF signaling have been shown to cause severe obesity in humans; however, it remains unknown how BDNF signaling impacts the organization of neuronal circuits that control energy balance.We examined the role of BDNF on survival, axonal projections, and synaptic inputs of neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARH), a structure critical for the control of energy balance, using Bdnf (klox/klox) mice, which lack long 3' UTR Bdnf mRNA and develop severe hyperphagic obesity.We found that a small fraction of neurons that express the receptor for BDNF, TrkB, also expressed proopiomelanocortin (POMC) or neuropeptide Y (NPY)/agouti-related protein (AgRP) in the ARH. Bdnf(klox/klox) mice had normal numbers of POMC, NPY, and TrkB neurons in the ARH; however, retrograde labeling revealed a drastic reduction in the number of ARH axons that project to the paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) in these mice. In addition, fewer POMC and AgRP axons were found in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH) and the lateral part of PVH, respectively, in Bdnf (klox/klox) mice. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined the impact of BDNF deficiency on inputs to ARH neurons. We found that excitatory inputs onto POMC and NPY neurons were increased and decreased, respectively, in Bdnf (klox/klox) mice, likely due to a compensatory response to marked hyperphagia displayed by the mutant mice.This study shows that the majority of TrkB neurons in the ARH are distinct from known neuronal populations and that BDNF plays a critical role in directing projections from these neurons to the DMH and PVH. We propose that hyperphagic obesity due to BDNF deficiency is in part attributable to impaired axonal growth of TrkB-expressing ARH neurons.
Project description:Neuropeptide Y (NPY) signaling via limbic NPY1 and 2 receptors (NPY1R and NPY2R, respectively) is known to modulate binge-like ethanol consumption in rodents. However, the role of NPY signaling in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which provides top-down modulation of the limbic system, is unknown. Here, we used "drinking-in-the-dark" (DID) procedures in C57BL/6J mice to address this gap in the literature. First, the impact of DID on NPY immunoreactivity (IR) was assessed in the mPFC. Next, the role of NPY1R and NPY2R signaling in the mPFC on ethanol consumption was evaluated through site-directed pharmacology. Chemogenetic inhibition of NPY1R+ neurons in the mPFC was performed to further evaluate the role of this population. To determine the potential role of NPY1R+ neurons projecting from the mPFC to the basolateral amygdala (BLA) this efferent population was selectively silenced. Three, 4-day cycles of DID reduced NPY IR in the mPFC. Intra-mPFC activation of NPY1R and antagonism of NPY2R resulted in decreased binge-like ethanol intake. Silencing of mPFC NPY1R+ neurons overall, and specifically NPY1R+ neurons projecting to the BLA, significantly reduced binge-like ethanol intake. We provide novel evidence that (1) binge-like ethanol intake reduces NPY levels in the mPFC; (2) activation of NPY1R or blockade of NPY2R reduces binge-like ethanol intake; and (3) chemogenetic inhibition of NPY1R+ neurons in the mPFC and NPY1R+ mPFC neurons projecting to the BLA blunts binge-like drinking. These observations provide the first direct evidence that NPY signaling in the mPFC modulates binge-like ethanol consumption.
Project description:Prolyl carboxypeptidase (PRCP) plays a role in the regulation of energy metabolism by inactivating hypothalamic ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone (?-MSH) levels. Although detected in the arcuate nucleus, limited PRCP expression has been observed in the arcuate POMC neurons, and its site of action in regulating metabolism is still ill-defined.We performed immunostaining to assess the localization of PRCP in arcuate Neuropeptide Y/Agouti-related Peptide (NPY/AgRP) neurons. Hypothalamic explants were then used to assess the intracellular localization of PRCP and its release at the synaptic levels. Finally, we generated a mouse model to assess the role of PRCP in NPY/AgRP neurons of the arcuate nucleus in the regulation of metabolism.Here we show that PRCP is expressed in NPY/AgRP-expressing neurons of the arcuate nucleus. In hypothalamic explants, stimulation by ghrelin increased PRCP concentration in the medium and decreased PRCP content in synaptic extract, suggesting that PRCP is released at the synaptic level. In support of this, hypothalamic explants from mice with selective deletion of PRCP in AgRP neurons (PrcpAgRPKO) showed reduced ghrelin-induced PRCP concentration in the medium compared to controls mice. Furthermore, male PrcpAgRPKO mice had decreased body weight and fat mass compared to controls. However, this phenotype was sex-specific as female PrcpAgRPKO mice show metabolic differences only when challenged by high fat diet feeding. The improved metabolism of PrcpAgRPKO mice was associated with reduced food intake and increased energy expenditure, locomotor activity, and hypothalamic ?-MSH levels. Administration of SHU9119, a potent melanocortin receptor antagonist, selectively in the PVN of PrcpAgRPKO male mice increased food intake to a level similar to that of control mice.Altogether, our data indicate that PRCP is released at the synaptic levels and that PRCP in AgRP neurons contributes to the modulation of ?-MSH degradation and related metabolic control in mice.
Project description:Activation of Agouti-Related Peptide (AgRP)-expressing neurons promotes feeding and insulin resistance. Here, we examine the contribution of neuropeptide Y (NPY)-dependent signaling to the diverse physiological consequences of activating AgRP neurons. NPY-deficient mice fail to rapidly increase food intake during the first hour of either chemo- or optogenetic activation of AgRP neurons, while the delayed increase in feeding is comparable between control and NPY-deficient mice. Acutely stimulating AgRP neurons fails to induce systemic insulin resistance in NPY-deficient mice, while increased locomotor activity upon AgRP neuron stimulation in the absence of food remains unaffected in these animals. Selective re-expression of NPY in AgRP neurons attenuates the reduced feeding response and reverses the protection from insulin resistance upon optogenetic activation of AgRP neurons in NPY-deficient mice. Collectively, these experiments reveal a pivotal role of NPY-dependent signaling in mediating the rapid feeding inducing effect and the acute glucose regulatory function governed by AgRP neurons.
Project description:Neurons that co-express agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) are indispensable for normal feeding behavior. Firing activities of AgRP/NPY neurons are dynamically regulated by energy status and coordinate appropriate feeding behavior to meet nutritional demands. However, intrinsic mechanisms that regulate AgRP/NPY neural activities during the fed-to-fasted transition are not fully understood. We found that AgRP/NPY neurons in satiated mice express high levels of the small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel 3 (SK3) and are inhibited by SK3-mediated potassium currents; on the other hand, food deprivation suppresses SK3 expression in AgRP/NPY neurons, and the decreased SK3-mediated currents contribute to fasting-induced activation of these neurons. Genetic mutation of SK3 specifically in AgRP/NPY neurons leads to increased sensitivity to diet-induced obesity, associated with chronic hyperphagia and decreased energy expenditure. Our results identify SK3 as a key intrinsic mediator that coordinates nutritional status with AgRP/NPY neural activities and animals' feeding behavior and energy metabolism.