Machine learning and microsimulation techniques on the prognosis of dementia: A systematic literature review.
ABSTRACT: Dementia is a complex disorder characterized by poor outcomes for the patients and high costs of care. After decades of research little is known about its mechanisms. Having prognostic estimates about dementia can help researchers, patients and public entities in dealing with this disorder. Thus, health data, machine learning and microsimulation techniques could be employed in developing prognostic estimates for dementia.The goal of this paper is to present evidence on the state of the art of studies investigating and the prognosis of dementia using machine learning and microsimulation techniques.To achieve our goal we carried out a systematic literature review, in which three large databases-Pubmed, Socups and Web of Science were searched to select studies that employed machine learning or microsimulation techniques for the prognosis of dementia. A single backward snowballing was done to identify further studies. A quality checklist was also employed to assess the quality of the evidence presented by the selected studies, and low quality studies were removed. Finally, data from the final set of studies were extracted in summary tables.In total 37 papers were included. The data summary results showed that the current research is focused on the investigation of the patients with mild cognitive impairment that will evolve to Alzheimer's disease, using machine learning techniques. Microsimulation studies were concerned with cost estimation and had a populational focus. Neuroimaging was the most commonly used variable.Prediction of conversion from MCI to AD is the dominant theme in the selected studies. Most studies used ML techniques on Neuroimaging data. Only a few data sources have been recruited by most studies and the ADNI database is the one most commonly used. Only two studies have investigated the prediction of epidemiological aspects of Dementia using either ML or MS techniques. Finally, care should be taken when interpreting the reported accuracy of ML techniques, given studies' different contexts.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Advanced machine learning methods might help to identify dementia risk from neuroimaging, but their accuracy to date is unclear.<h4>Methods</h4>We systematically reviewed the literature, 2006 to late 2016, for machine learning studies differentiating healthy aging from dementia of various types, assessing study quality, and comparing accuracy at different disease boundaries.<h4>Results</h4>Of 111 relevant studies, most assessed Alzheimer's disease versus healthy controls, using AD Neuroimaging Initiative data, support vector machines, and only T1-weighted sequences. Accuracy was highest for differentiating Alzheimer's disease from healthy controls and poor for differentiating healthy controls versus mild cognitive impairment versus Alzheimer's disease or mild cognitive impairment converters versus nonconverters. Accuracy increased using combined data types, but not by data source, sample size, or machine learning method.<h4>Discussion</h4>Machine learning does not differentiate clinically relevant disease categories yet. More diverse data sets, combinations of different types of data, and close clinical integration of machine learning would help to advance the field.
Project description:The effects of acupuncture facilitating neural plasticity for treating diseases have been identified by clinical and experimental studies. In the last two decades, the application of neuroimaging techniques in acupuncture research provided visualized evidence for acupuncture promoting neuroplasticity. Recently, the integration of machine learning (ML) and neuroimaging techniques becomes a focus in neuroscience and brings a new and promising approach to understand the facilitation of acupuncture on neuroplasticity at the individual level. This review is aimed at providing an overview of this rapidly growing field by introducing the commonly used ML algorithms in neuroimaging studies briefly and analyzing the characteristics of the acupuncture studies based on ML and neuroimaging, so as to provide references for future research.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder commonly associated with deficits of cognition and changes in behavior. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is the prodromal stage of AD that is defined by slight cognitive decline. Not all with MCI progress to AD dementia. Thus, the accurate prediction of progression to Alzheimer's, particularly in the stage of MCI could potentially offer developing treatments to delay or prevent the transition process. The objective of the present study is to investigate the most recent neuroimaging procedures in the domain of prediction of transition from MCI to AD dementia for clinical applications and to systematically discuss the machine learning techniques used for the prediction of MCI conversion. METHODS:Electronic databases including PubMed, SCOPUS, and Web of Science will be searched from January 1, 2017, to the date of search commencement to provide a rapid review of the most recent studies that have investigated the prediction of conversion from MCI to Alzheimer's using neuroimaging modalities in randomized trial or observational studies. Two reviewers will screen full texts of included papers using predefined eligibility criteria. Studies will be included if addressed research on AD dementia and MCI, explained the results in a way that would be able to report the performance measures such as the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. Only studies addressed Alzheimer's type of dementia and its early-stage MCI using neuroimaging modalities will be included. We will exclude other forms of dementia such as vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and Parkinson's disease. The risk of bias in individual studies will be appraised using an appropriate tool. If feasible, we will conduct a random effects meta-analysis. Sensitivity analyses will be conducted to explore the potential sources of heterogeneity. DISCUSSION:The information gathered in our study will establish the extent of the evidence underlying the prediction of conversion to AD dementia from its early stage and will provide a rigorous and updated synthesis of neuroimaging modalities allied with the data analysis techniques used to measure the brain changes during the conversion process. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION:PROSPERO,CRD42019133402.
Project description:Machine learning is increasingly being applied to neuroimaging data. However, most machine learning algorithms have not been designed to accommodate neuroimaging data, which typically has many more data points than subjects, in addition to multicollinearity and low signal-to-noise. Consequently, the relative efficacy of different machine learning regression algorithms for different types of neuroimaging data are not known. Here, we sought to quantify the performance of a variety of machine learning algorithms for use with neuroimaging data with various sample sizes, feature set sizes, and predictor effect sizes. The contribution of additional machine learning techniques - embedded feature selection and bootstrap aggregation (bagging) - to model performance was also quantified. Five machine learning regression methods - Gaussian Process Regression, Multiple Kernel Learning, Kernel Ridge Regression, the Elastic Net and Random Forest, were examined with both real and simulated MRI data, and in comparison to standard multiple regression. The different machine learning regression algorithms produced varying results, which depended on sample size, feature set size, and predictor effect size. When the effect size was large, the Elastic Net, Kernel Ridge Regression and Gaussian Process Regression performed well at most sample sizes and feature set sizes. However, when the effect size was small, only the Elastic Net made accurate predictions, but this was limited to analyses with sample sizes greater than 400. Random Forest also produced a moderate performance for small effect sizes, but could do so across all sample sizes. Machine learning techniques also improved prediction accuracy for multiple regression. These data provide empirical evidence for the differential performance of various machines on neuroimaging data, which are dependent on number of sample size, features and effect size.
Project description:Machine learning techniques are widely used nowadays in the healthcare domain for the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of diseases. These techniques have applications in the field of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), which is a potentially curative therapy for hematological malignancies. Herein, a systematic review of the application of machine learning (ML) techniques in the HCT setting was conducted. We examined the type of data streams included, specific ML techniques used, and type of clinical outcomes measured. A systematic review of English articles using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and IEEE Xplore databases was performed. Search terms included "hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT)," "autologous HCT," "allogeneic HCT," "machine learning," and "artificial intelligence." Only full-text studies reported between January 2015 and July 2020 were included. Data were extracted by two authors using predefined data fields. Following PRISMA guidelines, a total of 242 studies were identified, of which 27 studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies were sub-categorized into three broad topics and the type of ML techniques used included ensemble learning (63%), regression (44%), Bayesian learning (30%), and support vector machine (30%). The majority of studies examined models to predict HCT outcomes (e.g., survival, relapse, graft-versus-host disease). Clinical and genetic data were the most commonly used predictors in the modeling process. Overall, this review provided a systematic review of ML techniques applied in the context of HCT. The evidence is not sufficiently robust to determine the optimal ML technique to use in the HCT setting and/or what minimal data variables are required.
Project description:Deep learning, a state-of-the-art machine learning approach, has shown outstanding performance over traditional machine learning in identifying intricate structures in complex high-dimensional data, especially in the domain of computer vision. The application of deep learning to early detection and automated classification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has recently gained considerable attention, as rapid progress in neuroimaging techniques has generated large-scale multimodal neuroimaging data. A systematic review of publications using deep learning approaches and neuroimaging data for diagnostic classification of AD was performed. A PubMed and Google Scholar search was used to identify deep learning papers on AD published between January 2013 and July 2018. These papers were reviewed, evaluated, and classified by algorithm and neuroimaging type, and the findings were summarized. Of 16 studies meeting full inclusion criteria, 4 used a combination of deep learning and traditional machine learning approaches, and 12 used only deep learning approaches. The combination of traditional machine learning for classification and stacked auto-encoder (SAE) for feature selection produced accuracies of up to 98.8% for AD classification and 83.7% for prediction of conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a prodromal stage of AD, to AD. Deep learning approaches, such as convolutional neural network (CNN) or recurrent neural network (RNN), that use neuroimaging data without pre-processing for feature selection have yielded accuracies of up to 96.0% for AD classification and 84.2% for MCI conversion prediction. The best classification performance was obtained when multimodal neuroimaging and fluid biomarkers were combined. Deep learning approaches continue to improve in performance and appear to hold promise for diagnostic classification of AD using multimodal neuroimaging data. AD research that uses deep learning is still evolving, improving performance by incorporating additional hybrid data types, such as-omics data, increasing transparency with explainable approaches that add knowledge of specific disease-related features and mechanisms.
Project description:Data collected from clinical trials and cohort studies, such as dementia studies, are often high-dimensional, censored, heterogeneous and contain missing information, presenting challenges to traditional statistical analysis. There is an urgent need for methods that can overcome these challenges to model this complex data. At present there is no cure for dementia and no treatment that can successfully change the course of the disease. Machine learning models that can predict the time until a patient develops dementia are important tools in helping understand dementia risks and can give more accurate results than traditional statistical methods when modelling high-dimensional, heterogeneous, clinical data. This work compares the performance and stability of ten machine learning algorithms, combined with eight feature selection methods, capable of performing survival analysis of high-dimensional, heterogeneous, clinical data. We developed models that predict survival to dementia using baseline data from two different studies. The Sydney Memory and Ageing Study (MAS) is a longitudinal cohort study of 1037 participants, aged 70-90 years, that aims to determine the effects of ageing on cognition. The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is a longitudinal study aimed at identifying biomarkers for the early detection and tracking of Alzheimer's disease. Using the concordance index as a measure of performance, our models achieve maximum performance values of 0.82 for MAS and 0.93 For ADNI.
Project description:A growing body of evidence now suggests that precision psychiatry, an interdisciplinary field of psychiatry, precision medicine, and pharmacogenomics, serves as an indispensable foundation of medical practices by offering the accurate medication with the accurate dose at the accurate time to patients with psychiatric disorders. In light of the latest advancements in artificial intelligence and machine learning techniques, numerous biomarkers and genetic loci associated with psychiatric diseases and relevant treatments are being discovered in precision psychiatry research by employing neuroimaging and multi-omics. In this review, we focus on the latest developments for precision psychiatry research using artificial intelligence and machine learning approaches, such as deep learning and neural network algorithms, together with multi-omics and neuroimaging data. Firstly, we review precision psychiatry and pharmacogenomics studies that leverage various artificial intelligence and machine learning techniques to assess treatment prediction, prognosis prediction, diagnosis prediction, and the detection of potential biomarkers. In addition, we describe potential biomarkers and genetic loci that have been discovered to be associated with psychiatric diseases and relevant treatments. Moreover, we outline the limitations in regard to the previous precision psychiatry and pharmacogenomics studies. Finally, we present a discussion of directions and challenges for future research.
Project description:Purpose:Variability in patient treatment responses can be a barrier to effective care. Utilization of available patient databases may improve the prediction of treatment responses. We evaluated machine learning methods to predict novel, individual patient responses to pregabalin for painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy, utilizing an agent-based modeling and simulation platform that integrates real-world observational study (OS) data and randomized clinical trial (RCT) data. Patients and methods:The best supervised machine learning methods were selected (through literature review) and combined in a novel way for aligning patients with relevant subgroups that best enable prediction of pregabalin responses. Data were derived from a German OS of pregabalin (N=2642) and nine international RCTs (N=1320). Coarsened exact matching of OS and RCT patients was used and a hierarchical cluster analysis was implemented. We tested which machine learning methods would best align candidate patients with specific clusters that predict their pain scores over time. Cluster alignments would trigger assignments of cluster-specific time-series regressions with lagged variables as inputs in order to simulate "virtual" patients and generate 1000 trajectory variations for given novel patients. Results:Instance-based machine learning methods (k-nearest neighbor, supervised fuzzy c-means) were selected for quantitative analyses. Each method alone correctly classified 56.7% and 39.1% of patients, respectively. An "ensemble method" (combining both methods) correctly classified 98.4% and 95.9% of patients in the training and testing datasets, respectively. Conclusion:An ensemble combination of two instance-based machine learning techniques best accommodated different data types (dichotomous, categorical, continuous) and performed better than either technique alone in assigning novel patients to subgroups for predicting treatment outcomes using microsimulation. Assignment of novel patients to a cluster of similar patients has the potential to improve prediction of patient outcomes for chronic conditions in which initial treatment response can be incorporated using microsimulation. Clinical trial registries:www.clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00156078, NCT00159679, NCT00143156, NCT00553475.
Project description:BACKGROUND:There are limited data on the use of artificial intelligence methods for the diagnosis of dementia in epidemiological studies in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings. A culture and education fair battery of cognitive tests was developed and validated for population based studies in low- and middle-income countries including India by the 10/66 Dementia Research Group. AIMS:We explored the machine learning methods based on the 10/66 battery of cognitive tests for the diagnosis of dementia based in a birth cohort study in South India. METHODS:The data sets for 466 men and women for this study were obtained from the on-going Mysore Studies of Natal effect of Health and Ageing (MYNAH), in south India. The data sets included: demographics, performance on the 10/66 cognitive function tests, the 10/66 diagnosis of mental disorders and population based normative data for the 10/66 battery of cognitive function tests. Diagnosis of dementia from the rule based approach was compared against the 10/66 diagnosis of dementia. We have applied machine learning techniques to identify minimal number of the 10/66 cognitive function tests required for diagnosing dementia and derived an algorithm to improve the accuracy of dementia diagnosis. RESULTS:Of 466 subjects, 27 had 10/66 diagnosis of dementia, 19 of whom were correctly identified as having dementia by Jrip classification with 100% accuracy. CONCLUSIONS:This pilot exploratory study indicates that machine learning methods can help identify community dwelling older adults with 10/66 criterion diagnosis of dementia with good accuracy in a LMIC setting such as India. This should reduce the duration of the diagnostic assessment and make the process easier and quicker for clinicians, patients and will be useful for 'case' ascertainment in population based epidemiological studies.