Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived vascular endothelial growth factor attenuates cardiac apoptosis via regulation of cardiac miRNA-23a and miRNA-92a in a rat model of myocardial infarction.
ABSTRACT: Bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cell (BM-MSC) therapy improves the recovery of cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI); however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not completely understood. Recent studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) modulate the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the effects of BM-MSC-derived paracrine factors and cardiac miRNAs on myocardial regeneration after MI. In our study, MI was induced by permanent ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. BM-MSCs transplanted in infarcted rats significantly downregulated the expression of miRNA-23a and miRNA-92a and inhibited apoptosis in the myocardium. An in vitro experiment showed that supernatant from BM-MSCs cultured under hypoxia contained higher levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) than that from BM-MSCs under normoxia. In addition, inhibition of miRNA-23a and miRNA-92a reduced cardiac apoptosis. Moreover, the VEGF-containing BM-MSC supernatant inhibited miRNA-23a and miRNA-92a expression and reduced apoptotic signaling in cardiomyocytes under hypoxia. These effects were inhibited when the supernatant was treated with neutralizing antibodies against VEGF. Our results indicate that the paracrine factor, VEGF, derived from transplanted BM-MSCs, regulated the expression of miRNAs such as miRNA-23a and miRNA-92a and exerted anti-apoptotic effects in cardiomyocytes after MI.
Project description:The use of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell- (MSC) transplantation therapy for cardiac diseases is limited due to poor survival of implanted cells. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to be involved in regulating almost all cellular processes, including apoptosis. In this study, we found that the miRNA profile was altered during apoptosis induced by hypoxia and serum deprivation (hypoxia/SD). We further revealed that over-expression of miR-21, miR-23a and miR-210 could promote the survival of MSCs exposed to hypoxia/SD. In contrast, down-regulation of miR-21, miR-23a and miR-503 aggravated apoptosis of MSCs. It was indicated that these miRNAs may play important roles during MSC apoptosis induced by hypoxia/SD.
Project description:We hypothesized that miRNAs in the bone maroow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC)-derived exosomes contributed to the phenotype change of breast cancer cells through exosome transfer. We analyzed the miRNA expression signature in BM-MSC-derived exosomes. We compared the miRNA expression levels in exosomes between BM-MSCs and adult fibroblasts (as a control). In this study, miRNA expression including in bone-marrow mesenchymal cell (BM-MSC)-derived exosomes was examined, and compared with that of exosomes derived from adult fibroblast cells or the BM-MSC cells. In addition, miRNA expression of BM-MSC exosomes was also compared with that of breast cancer cells with or without cancer stem cell marker.
Project description:Exosomes (Exo) secreted from hypoxia-conditioned bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) were found to be protective for ischemic disease. However, the role of exosomal miRNA in the protective effect of hypoxia-conditioned BM-MSCs-derived Exo (Hypo-Exo) remains largely uncharacterized and the poor specificity of tissue targeting of Exo limits their clinical applications. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the effect of miRNA in Hypo-Exo on the repair of ischemic myocardium and its underlying mechanisms. We further developed modified Hypo-Exo with high specificity to the myocardium and evaluate its therapeutic effects. <b>Methods:</b> Murine BM-MSCs were subjected to hypoxia or normoxia culture and Exo were subsequently collected. Hypo-Exo or normoxia-conditioned BM-MSC-derived Exo (Nor-Exo) were administered to mice with permanent condition of myocardial infarction (MI). After 28 days, to evaluate the therapeutic effects of Hypo-Exo, infarction area and cardio output in Hypo-Exo and Nor-Exo treated MI mice were compared through Masson's trichrome staining and echocardiography respectively. We utilized the miRNA array to identify the significantly differentially expressed miRNAs between Nor-Exo and Hypo-Exo. One of the most enriched miRNA in Hypo-Exo was knockdown by applying antimiR in Hypoxia-conditioned BM-MSCs. Then we performed intramyocardial injection of candidate miRNA-knockdown-Hypo-Exo in a murine MI model, changes in the candidate miRNA's targets expression of cardiomyocytes and the cardiac function were characterized. We conjugated Hypo-Exo with an ischemic myocardium-targeted (IMT) peptide by bio-orthogonal chemistry, and tested its targeting specificity and therapeutic efficiency via systemic administration in the MI mice. <b>Results:</b> The miRNA array revealed significant enrichment of miR-125b-5p in Hypo-Exo compared with Nor-Exo. Administration of miR-125b knockdown Hypo-Exo significantly increased the infarction area and suppressed cardiomyocyte survival post-MI. Mechanistically, miR-125b knockdown Hypo-Exo lost the capability to suppress the expression of the proapoptotic genes <i>p53</i> and <i>BAK1</i> in cardiomyocytes. Intravenous administration of IMT-conjugated Hypo-Exo (IMT-Exo) showed specific targeting to the ischemic lesions in the injured heart and exerted a marked cardioprotective function post-MI. <b>Conclusion:</b> Our results illustrate a new mechanism by which Hypo-Exo-derived miR125b-5p facilitates ischemic cardiac repair by ameliorating cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Furthermore, our IMT- Exo may serve as a novel drug carrier that enhances the specificity of drug delivery for ischemic disease.
Project description:The prevalence of renal fibrosis is higher in older than in younger individuals. Through paracrine activity, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived microvesicles (BM-MSC-MVs) influence the process of renal fibrosis. Differences in microRNA (miRNA) expression of BM-MSC-MVs that correlate with the age of the subjects and the correlation between miRNA expression and the process of renal fibrosis have not been established. The present study aimed to analyze differences in miRNA expression of BM-MSC-MVs between young or older rats and its influence on tumor growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-?1)-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of HK2 cells to explore the causes of renal fibrosis in aged tissues.miRCURY LNA Array (version 18.0) was used to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in BM-MSC-MVs of 3- and 24-month-old Fisher344 rats. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to verify miRNA levels in BM-MSC-MVs and in the serum of rats. A TGF-?1-mediated EMT model was used to study the effects of BM-MSC-MVs and differentially expressed miRNAs on EMT.BM-MSCs from older rats showed more severe aging phenotypes compared with those of young rats. In addition, the growth rate and cell migration of BM-MSCs derived from older rats were significantly reduced. In secreted BM-MSC-MVs, the expression of miR-344a, miR-133b-3p, miR-294, miR-423-3p, and miR-872-3p was significantly downregulated in older rats than in younger rats (P?<?0.05), and the serum level of these miRNAs exhibited the same patterns. Intervention using BM-MSC-MVs resulted in the weakening of TGF-?1-mediated EMT in the aged rats. MiR-344a, miR-133b-3p, and miR-294 affected TGF-?1-mediated EMT in HK2 cells. Among these, miR-133b-3p and miR-294 significantly inhibited TGF-?1-mediated EMT in HK2 cells (P?<?0.05).In older rats, the inhibitory effect of BM-MSC-MVs on TGF-?1-mediated HK2 cell EMT was weaker than that observed in younger rats. In addition, miR-133b-3p and miR-294, which were downregulated in BM-MSC-MVs of older rats, remarkably inhibited TGF-?1-mediated EMT in HK2 cells, suggesting that these may play a role in the fibrosis of aging renal tissues.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Elevated midkine (MK) expression may contribute to ventricular remodeling and ameliorate cardiac dysfunction after myocardial infarction (MI). Ex vivo modification of signaling mechanisms in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with MK overexpression may improve the efficacy of cell-based therapy. This study sought to assess the safety and efficacy of MSCs with MK overexpression transplantation in a rat model of MI. METHODS: A pLenO-DCE vector lentivirus encoding MK was constructed and infected in MSCs. MSC migration activity and cytoprotection was examined in hypoxia-induced H9C2 cells using transwell insert in vitro. Rats were randomized into five groups: sham, MI plus injection of phosphate buffered saline (PBS), MSCs, MSCs-green fluorescent protein (MSCs-GFP) and MSCs-MK, respectively. Survival rates were compared among groups using log-rank test and left ventricular function was measured by echocardiography at baseline, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. RESULTS: Overexpression of MK partially prevented hypoxia-induced MSC apoptosis and exerted MSC cytoprotection to anoxia induced H9C2 cells. The underlying mechanisms may be associated with the increased mRNA and protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transformation growth factor-? (TGF-?), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1a) in MSCs-MK compared with isolated MSCs and MSCs-GFP. Consistent with the qPCR results, the culture supernatant of MSCs-MK had more SDF-1a (9.23 ng/ml), VEGF (8.34 ng/ml) and TGF-?1 (17.88 ng/ml) expression. In vivo, a greater proportion of cell survival was observed in the MSCs-MK group than in the MSCs-GFP group. Moreover, MSCs-MK administration was related to a significant improvement of cardiac function compared with other control groups at 12 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Therapies employing MSCs with MK overexpression may represent an effective treatment for improving cardiac dysfunction and survival rate after MI.
Project description:Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are currently used in many cell based therapies. Prior to use in therapy, extensive expansion is required. We used microarray profiling to investigate expansion induced miRNA and mRNA expression changes of bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs) derived from old and young donors. The expression levels of 36 miRNAs were altered in cells derived from the old and respectively 39 miRNAs were altered in cells derived from young donors. Of these, only 12 were differentially expressed in both young and old donor BM-MSCs, and their predicted target mRNAs, were mainly linked to cell proliferation and senescence. Further qPCR verification showed that the expression of miR-1915-3p, miR-1207, miR-3665, and miR-762 correlated with the expansion time at passage 8. Previously described BM-MSC-specific miRNA fingerprints were also detected but these remained unchanged during expansion. Interestingly, members of well-studied miR-17/92 cluster, involved in cell cycle regulation, aging and also development of immune system, were down-regulated specifically in cells from old donors. The role of this cluster in MSC functionality is worth future studies since it links expansion, aging and immune system together.
Project description:Background:Myocardial infarction (MI) is a common cause of mortality in people. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) has been shown to exert therapeutic potential to treat myocardial infarction (MI). However, in patients with diabetes, the diabetic environment affected MSCs activity and could impair the efficacy of treatment. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) has been shown to attenuate MI by suppressing inflammation. In current study, the combination of MSC transplantation with IL-10 was evaluated in a diabetic mice model with MI. Methods:We engineered bone marrow derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) to overexpress IL-10 by using CRISPR activation. We established the diabetic mice model with MI and monitored the IL-10 expression after BM-MSCs transplantation. We also evaluated the effects of BM-MSCs transplantation on inflammatory response, cell apoptosis, cardiac function and angiogenesis. Results:CRISPR activation system enabled overexpression of IL-10 in BM-MSCs. Transplantation of BM-MSCs overexpressing IL-10 resulted in IL-10 expression in heart after transplantation. Transplantation of BM-MSCs overexpressing IL-10 inhibited inflammatory cell infiltration and pro-inflammatory cytokines production, improved cardiac functional recovery, alleviated cardiac injury, decreased apoptosis of cardiac cells and increased angiogenesis. Conclusion:In summary, we have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of IL-10 overexpressed BM-MSCs in the treatment of MI in diabetic mice.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short non-coding RNAs that play a significant role in biological processes in various cell types, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). However, how miRNAs regulate the immunomodulatory functions of adipose-derived MSCs (AD-MSCs) remains unknown. Here, we showed that modulation of miR-301a in AD-MSCs altered macrophage polarization. Bone marrow (BM)-derived macrophages were stimulated with LPS (1??g/ml) and co-cultured with miRNA transfected AD-MSCs for 24?h. The expression of M1 and M2 markers in macrophages was analyzed. Inhibition of miR-301a induced M2 macrophage with arginase-1, CD163, CD206, and IL-10 upregulation. Additionally, toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 mRNA expression in macrophages was downregulated in co-cultures with AD-MSCs transfected with a miR-301a inhibitor. Nitric oxide (NO) in the supernatant of AD-MSC/macrophage co-culture was also suppressed by inhibition of miR-301a in AD-MSCs. We further found that suppression of miR-301a in AD-MSCs increased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentration in the conditioned medium of the co-culture. Taken together, the results of our study indicate that miR-301a can modulate the immunoregulatory functions of AD-MSCs that favor the applicability as a potential immunotherapeutic agent.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The beneficial functions of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) decline with decreased cell survival, limiting their therapeutic efficacy for myocardial infarction (MI). Irisin, a novel myokine which is cleaved from its precursor fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5), is believed to be involved in a cardioprotective effect, but little was known on injured BM-MSCs and MI repair yet. Here, we investigated whether FNDC5 or irisin could improve the low viability of transplanted BM-MSCs and increase their therapeutic efficacy after MI. METHODS:BM-MSCs, isolated from dual-reporter firefly luciferase and enhanced green fluorescent protein positive (Fluc+-eGFP+) transgenic mice, were exposed to normoxic condition and hypoxic stress for 12?h, 24?h, and 48?h, respectively. In addition, BM-MSCs were treated with irisin (20?nmol/L) and overexpression of FNDC5 (FNDC5-OV) in serum deprivation (H/SD) injury. Furthermore, BM-MSCs were engrafted into infarcted hearts with or without FNDC5-OV. RESULTS:Hypoxic stress contributed to increased apoptosis, decreased cell viability, and paracrine effects of BM-MSCs while irisin or FNDC5-OV alleviated these injuries. Longitudinal in vivo bioluminescence imaging and immunofluorescence results illustrated that BM-MSCs with overexpression of FNDC5 treatment (FNDC5-MSCs) improved the survival of transplanted BM-MSCs, which ameliorated the increased apoptosis and decreased angiogenesis of BM-MSCs in vivo. Interestingly, FNDC5-OV elevated the secretion of exosomes in BM-MSCs. Furthermore, FNDC5-MSC therapy significantly reduced fibrosis and alleviated injured heart function. CONCLUSIONS:The present study indicated that irisin or FNDC5 improved BM-MSC engraftment and paracrine effects in infarcted hearts, which might provide a potential therapeutic target for MI.
Project description:Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) exhibit potency for the regeneration of infarcted hearts. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is capable of inducing angiogenesis and can boost stem cell-based therapeutic effects. However, high levels of VEGF can cause abnormal blood vessel growth and hemangiomas. Thus, a controllable system to induce therapeutic levels of VEGF is required for cell therapy. We generated an inducible VEGF-secreting stem cell (VEGF/hUCB-MSC) that controls the expression of VEGF and tested the therapeutic efficacy in rat myocardial infarction (MI) model to apply functional stem cells to MI. To introduce the inducible VEGF gene cassette into a safe harbor site of the hUCB-MSC chromosome, the transcription activator-like effector nucleases system was used. After confirming the integration of the cassette into the locus, VEGF secretion in physiological concentration from VEGF/hUCB-MSCs after doxycycline (Dox) induction was proved in conditioned media. VEGF secretion was detected in mice implanted with VEGF/hUCB-MSCs grown via a cell sheet system. Vessel formation was induced in mice transplanted with Matrigel containing VEGF/hUCB-MSCs treated with Dox. Moreover, seeding of the VEGF/hUCB-MSCs onto the cardiac patch significantly improved the left ventricle ejection fraction and fractional shortening in a rat MI model upon VEGF induction. Induced VEGF/hUCB-MSC patches significantly decreased the MI size and fibrosis and increased muscle thickness, suggesting improved survival of cardiomyocytes and protection from MI damage. These results suggest that our inducible VEGF-secreting stem cell system is an effective therapeutic approach for the treatment of MI. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:1040-1051.