Long chain fatty acids alter the interactive binding of ligands to the two principal drug binding sites of human serum albumin.
ABSTRACT: A wide variety of drugs bind to human serum albumin (HSA) at its two principal sites, namely site I and site II. A number of reports indicate that drug binding to these two binding sites are not completely independent, and that interactions between ligands of these two discrete sites can play a role. In this study, the effect of the binding of long-chain fatty acids on the interactive binding between dansyl-L-asparagine (DNSA; site I ligand) and ibuprofen (site II ligand) at pH6.5 was examined. Binding experiments showed that the binding of sodium oleate (Ole) to HSA induces conformational changes in the molecule, which, in turn, changes the individual binding of DNSA and ibuprofen, as well as the mode of interaction between these two ligands from a 'competitive-like' allosteric interaction in the case of the defatted HSA conformer to a 'nearly independent' binding in the case of non-defatted HSA conformer. Circular dichroism measurements indicated that ibuprofen and Ole are likely to modify the spatial orientation of DNSA at its binding site. Docking simulations suggest that the long-distance electric repulsion between DNSA and ibuprofen on defatted HSA contributes to a 'competitive-like' allosteric interaction, whereas extending the distance between ligands and/or increasing the flexibility or size of the DNSA binding site in fatted HSA evokes a change in the interaction mode to 'nearly independent' binding. The present findings provide further insights into the structural dynamics of HSA upon the binding of fatty acids, and its effects on drug binding and drug-drug interactions that occur on HSA.
Project description:It is well known that various physiological factors such as pH, endogenous substances or post-translational modifications can affect the conformational state of human serum albumin (HSA). In a previous study, we reported that both pH- and long chain fatty acid-induced conformational changes can alter the interactive binding of ligands to the two principal binding sites of HSA, namely, site I and site II. In the present study, the effect of metal-catalyzed oxidation (MCO) caused by ascorbate/oxygen/trace metals on HSA structure and the interactive binding between dansyl-L-asparagine (DNSA; a site I ligand) and ibuprofen (a site II ligand) at pH 6.5 was investigated. MCO was accompanied by a time-dependent increase in carbonyl content in HSA, suggesting that the HSA was being oxidized. In addition, The MCO of HSA was accompanied by a change in net charge to a more negative charge and a decrease in thermal stability. SDS-PAGE patterns and ?-helical contents of the oxidized HSAs were similar to those of native HSA, indicating that the HSA had not been extensively structurally modified by MCO. MCO also caused a selective decrease in ibuprofen binding. In spite of the changes in the HSA structure and ligand that bind to site II, no change in the interactive binding between DNSA and ibuprofen was observed. These data indicated that amino acid residues in site II are preferentially oxidized by MCO, whereas the spatial relationship between sites I and II (e.g. the distance between sites), the flexibility or space of each binding site are not altered. The present findings provide insights into the structural characteristics of oxidized HSA, and drug binding and drug-drug interactions on oxidized HSA.
Project description:Since binding of a drug molecule to human serum albumin (HSA) significantly affects the pharmacokinetics of the drug, it is highly desirable to predict the binding affinity of the drug. Profen drugs are a widely used class of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and it has been reported that several members of the profen class specifically bind to one of the main binding sites named site II. The actual binding mode of only ibuprofen has been directly confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Therefore, it is of interest whether other profen drugs are site II binders. Docking simulations using multiple template structures of HSA from three crystal structures of complexes between drugs and HSA have demonstrated that most of the currently available profen drugs should be site II binders.
Project description:Human serum albumin (HSA) plays a fundamental role in the human body. It takes part in the transport of exogenic and endogenic substances, especially drugs. Ibuprofen (IBU) is one of the most commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, used for pain relief, fever relief, and for anti-inflammatory purposes. The binding of ligands with HSA is a significant factor which determines the toxicity and the therapeutic dosages of these substances. The aim of this study was to compare the degree of ibuprofen binding with human serum albumin at various temperatures and protein solution pH values. In order to evaluate conformational changes in HSA caused by interaction with ibuprofen, spectrophotometric (first and second derivatives of the UV-VIS spectrum), and spectrofluorometric analyses were performed concerning the mutual interactions of IBU-HSA. The use of fluorescent spectroscopy allowed for recording fluorescent emissive spectra of HSA (5 × 10-6 mol/dm3) without and with the presence of ibuprofen (1 × 10-5-1 × 10-4 mol/dm3) at temperatures of 308, 310, 312, and 314 K at pH values of 6.5, 6.8, 7.4, 7.8, and 8.1. System fluorescence was excited by radiation of wavelengths of ?ex = 275 nm and ?ex = 295 nm. Based on this, original and modified Stern-Volmer, Scatchard, Klotz and Hill curves were determined. The data that were obtained showed a significant effect of temperature and pH of the human serum albumin solution on the strength and type of interaction of ibuprofen with HSA.
Project description:Alisertib (MLN8237) is an orally administered inhibitor of Aurora A kinase. This small-molecule inhibitor is under clinical or pre-clinical phase for the treatment of advanced malignancies. The present study provides a detailed characterization of the interaction of MLN8237 with a drug transport protein called human serum albumin (HSA). STD and WaterLOGSY nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-binding studies were conducted first to confirm the binding of MLN8237 to HSA. In the ligand orientation assay, the binding sites of MLN8237 were validated through two site-specific spy molecules (warfarin sodium and ibuprofen, which are two known site-selective probes) by using STD and WaterLOGSY NMR competition techniques. These competition experiments demonstrate that both spy molecules do not compete with MLN8237 for the specific binding site. The AutoDock-based blind docking study recognizes the hydrophobic subdomain IB of the protein as the probable binding site for MLN8237. Thermodynamic investigations by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) reveal that the non-covalent interaction between MLN8237 and HSA (binding constant was approximately 105?M-1) is driven mainly by favorable entropy and unfavorable enthalpy. In addition, synchronous fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), and 3D fluorescence spectroscopy suggest that MLN8237 may induce conformational changes in HSA.
Project description:Human serum albumin (HSA) participates in heme scavenging; in turn, heme endows HSA with myoglobin-like reactivity and spectroscopic properties. Here, the allosteric effect of ibuprofen on peroxynitrite isomerization to NO(3)(-) catalyzed by ferric human serum heme-albumin (HSA-heme-Fe(III)) is reported. Data were obtained at 22.0 degrees C. HSA-heme-Fe(III) catalyzes peroxynitrite isomerization in the absence and presence of CO(2); the values of the second order catalytic rate constant (k(on)) are 4.1 x 10(5) and 4.5 x 10(5) m(-1) s(-1), respectively. Moreover, HSA-heme-Fe(III) prevents peroxynitrite-mediated nitration of free added l-tyrosine. The pH dependence of k(on) (pK(a) = 6.9) suggests that peroxynitrous acid reacts preferentially with the heme-Fe(III) atom, in the absence and presence of CO(2). The HSA-heme-Fe(III)-catalyzed isomerization of peroxynitrite has been ascribed to the reactive pentacoordinated heme-Fe(III) atom. In the absence and presence of CO(2), ibuprofen impairs dose-dependently peroxynitrite isomerization by HSA-heme-Fe(III) and facilitates the nitration of free added l-tyrosine; the value of the dissociation equilibrium constant for ibuprofen binding to HSA-heme-Fe(III) (L) ranges between 7.7 x 10(-4) and 9.7 x 10(-4) m. Under conditions where [ibuprofen] is >>L, the kinetics of HSA-heme-Fe(III)-catalyzed isomerization of peroxynitrite is superimposable to that obtained in the absence of HSA-heme-Fe(III) or in the presence of non-catalytic HSA-heme-Fe(III)-cyanide complex and HSA. Ibuprofen binding impairs allosterically peroxynitrite isomerization by HSA-heme-Fe(III), inducing the hexacoordination of the heme-Fe(III) atom. These results represent the first evidence for peroxynitrite isomerization by HSA-heme-Fe(III), highlighting the allosteric modulation of HSA-heme-Fe(III) reactivity by heterotropic interaction(s), and outlining the role of drugs in modulating HSA functions. The present results could be relevant for the drug-dependent protective role of HSA-heme-Fe(III) in vivo.
Project description:For the first time, the possible binding site of nanoparticles on protein was revealed by cross-linking chemistry coupled with mass spectrometry. The peptides located very close to the poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)-coated Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles (NPs) during interaction with human serum albumin (HSA) were cross-linked to the surface of NPs. Following protease digestion, the attached peptides were cleaved off the particle surface and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The peptides were found to be part of the so-called drug binding site 2 of HSA; and the competitive binding to HSA between the corresponding drug, ibuprofen, and the NPs was observed. Our results demonstrated that cross-linking chemistry coupled with MS was a quick and simple method for locating the possible binding sites of NPs on protein. Information on NP-protein binding interface will benefit the study of how the interactions are governed by the physicochemical properties of NPs, for guiding the design of functional bionano constructs. It can also help to predict the biological consequence of protein adsorption on NPs, for obtaining more knowledge on nanotoxicity.
Project description:Human serum albumin (HSA) is involved physiologically in heme scavenging; in turn, heme-albumin (HSA-heme-Fe) displays globin-like properties. Here, the allosteric effect of ibuprofen and warfarin on the local atomic structure around the ferric heme-Fe (heme-Fe(III)) atom of HSA-heme-Fe (HSA-heme-Fe(III)) has been probed by Fe-K edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The quantitative analysis of the Fe-K edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) signals and modeling of the near edge (XANES) spectral features demonstrated that warfarin and ibuprofen binding modify the local structure of the heme-Fe(III). Combined XAS data analysis and targeted molecular dynamics (MD) simulations provided atomic resolution insights of protein structural rearrangements required to accommodate the heme-Fe(III) upon ibuprofen and warfarin binding. In the absence of drugs, the heme-Fe(III) atom is penta-coordinated having distorted 4+1 configuration made by the nitrogen atoms of the porphyrin ring and the oxygen phenoxy atom of the Tyr161 residue. MD simulations show that ibuprofen and warfarin association to the secondary fatty acid (FA) binding site 2 (FA2) induces a reorientation of domain I of HSA-heme-Fe(III), this leads to the redirection of the His146 residue providing an additional bond to the heme-Fe(III) atom, providing the 5+1 configuration. The comparison of Fe-K edge XANES spectra calculated using MD structures with those obtained experimentally confirms the reliability of the proposed structural model. As a whole, combining XAS and MD simulations it has been possible to provide a reliable model of the heme-Fe(III) atom coordination state and to understand the complex allosteric transition occurring in HSA-heme-Fe(III) upon ibuprofen and warfarin binding.
Project description:Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant carrier protein in the human body. Competition for the same binding site between different ligands can lead to an increased active concentration or a faster elimination of one or both ligands. Indomethacin and quercetin both bind to the binding site located in the IIA subdomain. To determine the nature of the HSA-indomethacin-quercetin interactions, spectrofluorometric, docking, molecular dynamics studies, and quantum chemical calculations were performed. The results show that the indomethacin and quercetin binding sites do not overlap. Moreover, the presence of quercetin does not influence the binding constant and position of indomethacin in the pocket. However, binding of quercetin is much more favorable in the presence of indomethacin, with its position and interactions with HSA significantly changed. These results provide a new insight into drug-drug interactions, which can be important in situations when displacement from HSA or other proteins is undesirable or even desirable. This principle could also be used to deliberately prolong or shorten the xenobiotics' half-life in the body, depending on the desired outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Human serum albumin (HSA) is an abundant plasma protein that binds a wide variety of hydrophobic ligands including fatty acids, bilirubin, thyroxine and hemin. Although HSA-heme complexes do not bind oxygen reversibly, it may be possible to develop modified HSA proteins or heme groups that will confer this ability on the complex. RESULTS: We present here the crystal structure of a ternary HSA-hemin-myristate complex, formed at a 1:1:4 molar ratio, that contains a single hemin group bound to subdomain IB and myristate bound at six sites. The complex displays a conformation that is intermediate between defatted HSA and HSA-fatty acid complexes; this is likely to be due to low myristate occupancy in the fatty acid binding sites that drive the conformational change. The hemin group is bound within a narrow D-shaped hydrophobic cavity which usually accommodates fatty acid; the hemin propionate groups are coordinated by a triad of basic residues at the pocket entrance. The iron atom in the centre of the hemin is coordinated by Tyr161. CONCLUSION: The structure of the HSA-hemin-myristate complex (PDB ID 1o9x) reveals the key polar and hydrophobic interactions that determine the hemin-binding specificity of HSA. The details of the hemin-binding environment of HSA provide a structural foundation for efforts to modify the protein and/or the heme molecule in order to engineer complexes that have favourable oxygen-binding properties.
Project description:Human serum albumin (HSA), one of the most copious plasma proteins is responsible for binding and transportation of many exogenous and endogenous ligands including drugs. In this study, we intended to explore the extent and types of binding interaction present between HSA and the antihypertensive drug, telmisartan (TLM). The conformational changes in HSA due to this binding were also studied using different spectroscopic and molecular docking techniques. The spectral shifting and intensity variations upon interaction with TLM were studied using FT-IR spectroscopy. Binding constant and the change in absorption of HSA at its ?max was analyzed using absorption spectroscopy. Eventually, the types and extent of binding interactions were confirmed using molecular docking technique. Results have shown that TLM significantly interacts with the binding site-1 of HSA utilizing strong hydrogen bonding with Glu292, and Lys195 residues. The UV-absorption intensities were found to be decreased serially as the drug concentration increased with a binding constant of 1.01 × 103 M-1. The secondary structure analysis using FT-IR spectroscopy also revealed a marked reduction in the ?-helix (56%) component of HSA on interaction. This study gives critical insights into the interaction of TLM with HSA protein which eventually affects the concentration of TLM reaching the site of action and ultimately its therapeutic profile.