P53 and TAp63 participate in the recombination-dependent pachytene arrest in mouse spermatocytes.
ABSTRACT: To protect germ cells from genomic instability, surveillance mechanisms ensure meiosis occurs properly. In mammals, spermatocytes that display recombination defects experience a so-called recombination-dependent arrest at the pachytene stage, which relies on the MRE11 complex-ATM-CHK2 pathway responding to unrepaired DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Here, we asked if p53 family members-targets of ATM and CHK2-participate in this arrest. We bred double-mutant mice combining a mutation of a member of the p53 family (p53, TAp63, or p73) with a Trip13 mutation. Trip13 deficiency triggers a recombination-dependent response that arrests spermatocytes in pachynema before they have incorporated the testis-specific histone variant H1t into their chromatin. We find that deficiency for either p53 or TAp63, but not p73, allowed spermatocytes to progress further into meiotic prophase despite the presence of numerous unrepaired DSBs. Even so, the double mutant spermatocytes apoptosed at late pachynema because of sex body deficiency; thus p53 and TAp63 are dispensable for arrest caused by sex body defects. These data affirm that recombination-dependent and sex body-deficient arrests occur via genetically separable mechanisms.
Project description:Most mutations that compromise meiotic recombination or synapsis in mouse spermatocytes result in arrest and apoptosis at the pachytene stage of the first meiotic prophase. Two main mechanisms are thought to trigger arrest: one independent of the double-strand breaks (DSBs) that initiate meiotic recombination, and another activated by persistent recombination intermediates. Mechanisms underlying the recombination-dependent arrest response are not well understood, so we sought to identify factors involved by examining mutants deficient for TRIP13, a conserved AAA+ ATPase required for the completion of meiotic DSB repair. We find that spermatocytes with a hypomorphic Trip13 mutation (Trip13mod/mod) arrest with features characteristic of early pachynema in wild type, namely, fully synapsed chromosomes without incorporation of the histone variant H1t into chromatin. These cells then undergo apoptosis, possibly in response to the arrest or in response to a defect in sex body formation. However, TRIP13-deficient cells that additionally lack the DSB-responsive kinase ATM progress further, reaching an H1t-positive stage (i.e., similar to mid/late pachynema in wild type) despite the presence of unrepaired DSBs. TRIP13-deficient spermatocytes also progress to an H1t-positive stage if ATM activity is attenuated by hypomorphic mutations in Mre11 or Nbs1 or by elimination of the ATM-effector kinase CHK2. These mutant backgrounds nonetheless experience an apoptotic block to further spermatogenic progression, most likely caused by failure to form a sex body. DSB numbers are elevated in Mre11 and Nbs1 hypomorphs but not Chk2 mutants, thus delineating genetic requirements for the ATM-dependent negative feedback loop that regulates DSB numbers. The findings demonstrate for the first time that ATM-dependent signaling enforces the normal pachytene response to persistent recombination intermediates. Our work supports the conclusion that recombination defects trigger spermatocyte arrest via pathways than are genetically distinct from sex body failure-promoted apoptosis and confirm that the latter can function even when recombination-dependent arrest is inoperative. Implications of these findings for understanding the complex relationships between spermatocyte arrest and apoptosis are discussed.
Project description:In mammalian meiosis, homologous chromosome synapsis is coupled with recombination. As in most eukaryotes, mammalian meiocytes have checkpoints that monitor the fidelity of these processes. We report that the mouse ortholog (Trip13) of pachytene checkpoint 2 (PCH2), an essential component of the synapsis checkpoint in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Caenorhabditis elegans, is required for completion of meiosis in both sexes. TRIP13-deficient mice exhibit spermatocyte death in pachynema and loss of oocytes around birth. The chromosomes of mutant spermatocytes synapse fully, yet retain several markers of recombination intermediates, including RAD51, BLM, and RPA. These chromosomes also exhibited the chiasmata markers MLH1 and MLH3, and okadaic acid treatment of mutant spermatocytes caused progression to metaphase I with bivalent chromosomes. Double mutant analysis demonstrated that the recombination and synapsis genes Spo11, Mei1, Rec8, and Dmc1 are all epistatic to Trip13, suggesting that TRIP13 does not have meiotic checkpoint function in mice. Our data indicate that TRIP13 is required after strand invasion for completing a subset of recombination events, but possibly not those destined to be crossovers. To our knowledge, this is the first model to separate recombination defects from asynapsis in mammalian meiosis, and provides the first evidence that unrepaired DNA damage alone can trigger the pachytene checkpoint response in mice.
Project description:Genetic errors in meiosis can lead to birth defects and spontaneous abortions. Checkpoint mechanisms of hitherto unknown nature eliminate oocytes with unrepaired DNA damage, causing recombination-defective mutant mice to be sterile. Here, we report that checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2 or Chek2), is essential for culling mouse oocytes bearing unrepaired meiotic or induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Female infertility caused by a meiotic recombination mutation or irradiation was reversed by mutation of Chk2. Both meiotically programmed and induced DSBs trigger CHK2-dependent activation of TRP53 (p53) and TRP63 (p63), effecting oocyte elimination. These data establish CHK2 as essential for DNA damage surveillance in female meiosis and indicate that the oocyte DSB damage response primarily involves a pathway hierarchy in which ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) signals to CHK2, which then activates p53 and p63.
Project description:Pairing and synapsis of homologous chromosomes during meiosis is crucial for producing genetically normal gametes and is dependent upon repair of SPO11-induced double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination. To prevent transmission of genetic defects, diverse organisms have evolved mechanisms to eliminate meiocytes containing unrepaired DSBs or unsynapsed chromosomes. Here we show that the CHK2 (CHEK2)-dependent DNA damage checkpoint culls not only recombination-defective mouse oocytes but also SPO11-deficient oocytes that are severely defective in homolog synapsis. The checkpoint is triggered in oocytes that accumulate a threshold level of spontaneous DSBs (?10) in late prophase I, the repair of which is inhibited by the presence of HORMAD1/2 on unsynapsed chromosome axes. Furthermore, Hormad2 deletion rescued the fertility of oocytes containing a synapsis-proficient, DSB repair-defective mutation in a gene (Trip13) required for removal of HORMADs from synapsed chromosomes, suggesting that many meiotic DSBs are normally repaired by intersister recombination in mice.
Project description:p53, with its family members p63 and p73, have been shown to promote myoblast differentiation by regulation of the function of the retinoblastoma protein and by direct activation of p21Cip/Waf1 and p57Kip2, promoting cell cycle exit. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that the TAp63? isoform is the only member of the p53 family that accumulates during in vitro myoblasts differentiation, and that its silencing led to delay in myotube fusion. To better dissect the role of TAp63? in myoblast physiology, we have generated both sh-p63 and Tet-On inducible TAp63? clones. Gene array analysis of sh-p63 C2C7 clones showed a significant modulation of genes involved in proliferation and cellular metabolism. Indeed, we found that sh-p63 C2C7 myoblasts present a higher proliferation rate and that, conversely, TAp63? ectopic expression decreases myoblasts proliferation, indicating that TAp63? specifically contributes to myoblasts proliferation, independently of p53 and p73. In addition, sh-p63 cells have a defect in mitochondria respiration highlighted by a reduction in spare respiratory capacity and a decrease in complex I, IV protein levels. These results demonstrated that, beside contributing to cell cycle exit, TAp63? participates to myoblasts metabolism control.
Project description:Faithful meiotic chromosome inheritance and fertility rely on the stimulation of meiotic crossover recombination by potentially genotoxic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). To avoid excessive damage, feedback mechanisms down-regulate DSBs, likely in response to initiation of crossover repair. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this regulation requires the removal of the conserved DSB-promoting protein Hop1/HORMAD during chromosome synapsis. Here, we identify privileged end-adjacent regions (EARs) spanning roughly 100 kb near all telomeres that escape DSB down-regulation. These regions retain Hop1 and continue to break in pachynema despite normal synaptonemal complex deposition. Differential retention of Hop1 requires the disassemblase Pch2/TRIP13, which preferentially removes Hop1 from telomere-distant sequences, and is modulated by the histone deacetylase Sir2 and the nucleoporin Nup2. Importantly, the uniform size of EARs among chromosomes contributes to disproportionately high DSB and repair signals on short chromosomes in pachynema, suggesting that EARs partially underlie the curiously high recombination rate of short chromosomes.
Project description:The p53 family members, which consist of 3 transcription factors-p53, p63, and p73-are conserved during evolution. The p53 family proteins are involved in many important cellular functions, including tumor suppression (p53 and p73), the development of epithelial cell layers (p63), and the development of central nervous system and immune system (p73). Studies on p53-like proteins in low organisms have demonstrated that their primordial functions are to maintain the genomic integrity of germ cells and ensure faithful development and reproduction. In vertebrates, the p53 family proteins retain these functions in reproduction and at the same time have developed additional important functions in reproduction, such as the regulation of embryonic implantation (p53). p53 regulates embryonic implantation through transcriptional regulation of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). p63, in particular TAp63, is a main regulator to protect the fidelity of female germ cells during meiotic arrest. p73, in particular TAp73, regulates the ovary function and the quality of oocytes. Loss of p53, p63, or p73 genes in female mice leads to a significant decrease in fertility. These functions of the p53 family proteins in reproduction provide a plausible explanation for positive evolutionary selection observed in a group of single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes in the p53 family genes. A better understanding of the functions of the p53 family proteins in reproduction may lead to new strategies for fertility treatment.
Project description:Chk2/hcds1, the human homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD53/SPK1 and Schizosaccharomyces pombe cds1 DNA damage checkpoint genes, encodes a protein kinase that is post-translationally modified after DNA damage. Like its yeast homologs, the Chk2/hCds1 protein phosphorylates Cdc25C in vitro, suggesting that it arrests cells in G(2) in response to DNA damage. We expressed Chk2/hCds1 in human cells and analyzed their cell cycle profile. Wild-type, but not catalytically inactive, Chk2/hCds1 led to G(1) arrest after DNA damage. The arrest was inhibited by cotransfection of a dominant-negative p53 mutant, indicating that Chk2/hCds1 acted upstream of p53. In vitro, Chk2/hCds1 phosphorylated p53 on Ser-20 and dissociated preformed complexes of p53 with Mdm2, a protein that targets p53 for degradation. In vivo, ectopic expression of wild-type Chk2/hCds1 led to increased p53 stabilization after DNA damage, whereas expression of a dominant-negative Chk2/hCds1 mutant abrogated both phosphorylation of p53 on Ser-20 and p53 stabilization. Thus, in response to DNA damage, Chk2/hCds1 stabilizes the p53 tumor suppressor protein leading to cell cycle arrest in G(1).
Project description:The high percentage of p53 missense mutations found in cancer has been attributed to mutant acquired oncogenic gain of functions. Different aspects of these tumour-promoting functions are caused by repression of the transcriptional activity of p53 family members p63 and p73. A subset of frequently occurring p53 mutations results in thermodynamic destabilisation of the DNA-binding domain (DBD) rendering this domain highly unstable. These conformational mutants (such as p53R175H) have been suggested to directly bind to p63 and p73 via a co-aggregation mechanism mediated by their DBDs. Although the DBDs of p63 and p73 are in fact not sufficient for the interaction as shown previously, we demonstrate here that the transactivation inhibitory (TI) domains within the ?-isoform-specific C termini of p63 and p73 are essential for binding to p53R175H. Hence, the closed dimeric conformation of inactive TAp63? that renders the TI domain inaccessible prevents efficient interaction. We further show that binding to p53R175H correlates with an intrinsic aggregation propensity of the tetrameric ?-isoforms conferred by an openly accessible TI domain again supporting interaction via a co-aggregation mechanism.
Project description:Death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) expression induced by diverse death stimuli mediates apoptotic activity in various cancers, including ovarian cancer. In addition, mutual interaction between the tumor suppressor p53 and DAPK1 influences survival and death in several cancer cell lines. However, the exact role and connection of DAPK1 and p53 family proteins (p53, p63, and p73) in drug-resistant ovarian cancer cells have not been studied previously. In this study, we investigated whether DAPK1 induction by gliotoxin derived from marine fungus regulates the level of transcriptionally active p63 (TAp63) to promote apoptosis in an autophagy-dependent manner. Pre-exposure of paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancer cells to gliotoxin inhibited the expression of multidrug resistant-associated proteins (MDR1 and MRP1-3), disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential, and induced caspase-dependent apoptosis through autophagy induction after subsequent treatment with paclitaxel. Gene silencing of DAPK1 prevented TAp63-mediated downregulation of MDR1 and MRP1-3 and autophagic cell death after sequential treatment with gliotoxin and then paclitaxel. However, pretreatment with 3-methyladenine (3-MA), an autophagy inhibitor, had no effect on the levels of DAPK1 and TAp63 or on the inhibition of MDR1 and MRP1-3. These results suggest that DAPK1-mediated TAp63 upregulation is one of the critical pathways that induce apoptosis in chemoresistant cancer cells.