Project description:Recently, the treatment landscape for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has changed dramatically due to the development of drugs targeting proteins in the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) pathway. Acalabrutinib, a second-generation Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor, was recently FDA approved for treatment of treatment naïve and relapsed refractory CLL. Acalabrutinib was designed as a more selective BTK inhibitor as compared to ibrutinib in an attempt to mitigate some of the treatment limiting toxicities seen with ibrutinib such as atrial fibrillation and bleeding. In preclinical studies, acalabrutinib was demonstrated to have efficacy in CLL in both patient blood samples and murine models. A multinational phase 1/2 study demonstrated the efficacy and safety of acalabrutinib monotherapy in treatment naïve, relapsed refractory and ibrutinib-intolerant CLL patients. Subsequent phase 3 studies, ASCEND and ELEVATE-TN, compared acalabrutinib monotherapy or combination acalabrutinib and obinutuzumab to standard of care treatments and demonstrated acalabrutinib's improved efficacy and tolerability. Currently, a phase 3 study is ongoing to compare acalabrutinib to ibrutinib monotherapy (NCT02477696). In the setting of recent FDA approval, real-world evidence will help to elucidate the optimal use of acalabrutinib in the treatment of CLL.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Irreversible inhibition of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) by ibrutinib represents an important therapeutic advance for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, ibrutinib also irreversibly inhibits alternative kinase targets, which potentially compromises its therapeutic index. Acalabrutinib (ACP-196) is a more selective, irreversible BTK inhibitor that is specifically designed to improve on the safety and efficacy of first-generation BTK inhibitors. METHODS:In this uncontrolled, phase 1-2, multicenter study, we administered oral acalabrutinib to 61 patients who had relapsed CLL to assess the safety, efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of acalabrutinib. Patients were treated with acalabrutinib at a dose of 100 to 400 mg once daily in the dose-escalation (phase 1) portion of the study and 100 mg twice daily in the expansion (phase 2) portion. RESULTS:The median age of the patients was 62 years, and patients had received a median of three previous therapies for CLL; 31% had chromosome 17p13.1 deletion, and 75% had unmutated immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable genes. No dose-limiting toxic effects occurred during the dose-escalation portion of the study. The most common adverse events observed were headache (in 43% of the patients), diarrhea (in 39%), and increased weight (in 26%). Most adverse events were of grade 1 or 2. At a median follow-up of 14.3 months, the overall response rate was 95%, including 85% with a partial response and 10% with a partial response with lymphocytosis; the remaining 5% of patients had stable disease. Among patients with chromosome 17p13.1 deletion, the overall response rate was 100%. No cases of Richter's transformation (CLL that has evolved into large-cell lymphoma) and only one case of CLL progression have occurred. CONCLUSIONS:In this study, the selective BTK inhibitor acalabrutinib had promising safety and efficacy profiles in patients with relapsed CLL, including those with chromosome 17p13.1 deletion. (Funded by the Acerta Pharma and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02029443.).
Project description:Acalabrutinib, a highly selective Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is associated with high overall response rates and durable remission in previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); however, complete remissions were limited. To elucidate on-target and pharmacodynamic effects of acalabrutinib, we evaluated several laboratory endpoints, including proteomic changes, chemokine modulation and impact on cell migration. Pharmacological profiling of samples from acalabrutinib-treated CLL patients was used to identify strategies for achieving deeper responses, and to identify additive/synergistic combination regimens. Peripheral blood samples from 21 patients with relapsed/refractory CLL in acalabrutinib phase I (100-400?mg/day) and II (100?mg BID) clinical trials were collected prior to and on days 8 and 28 after treatment initiation and evaluated for plasma chemokines, reverse phase protein array, immunoblotting and pseudoemperipolesis. The on-target pharmacodynamic profile of acalabrutinib in CLL lymphocytes was comparable to ibrutinib in measures of acalabrutinib-mediated changes in CCL3/CCL4 chemokine production, migration assays and changes in B-cell receptor signaling pathway proteins and other downstream survival proteins. Among several CLL-targeted agents, venetoclax, when combined with acalabrutinib, showed optimal complementary activity in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo in TCL-1 adoptive transfer mouse model system of CLL. These findings support selective targeting and combinatorial potential of acalabrutinib.
Project description:Older patients account for the majority of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and so strategies for managing CLL in this population is of upmost importance. Inhibition of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) has been a successful therapeutic strategy in CLL, and the first-generation BTK inhibitor ibrutinib has been shown to be superior to standard chemoimmunotherapy in multiple studies specifically targeting older patients. A second-generation BTK inhibitor, acalabrutinib, has also been studied in CLL, and has recently been granted breakthrough designation by the United States Food and Drug Administration. One ongoing question is whether the addition of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies improve response or response durability with BTK inhibitors. In this review, we will discuss clinical trials of ibrutinib and acalabrutinib in older patients with CLL, and the possible contributions of anti-CD20 antibodies to these therapies.
Project description:Ibrutinib, a first-in-class covalent inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), is approved in many countries for the treatment of relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and for previously untreated disease with a 17p deletion and, most recently, as a frontline therapy for CLL. In controlled trials in CLL, ibrutinib produced high response rates and improved survival in both the frontline and relapsed settings. While ibrutinib controls CLL with impressive efficacy, it only infrequently induces complete remissions, particularly of relapsed CLL, and does not eradicate minimal residual disease. Finally, ibrutinib is extremely expensive, has off-target toxicities, and requires indefinite therapy. Areas covered: In this article, we provide an overview of the CLL therapeutic landscape and discuss the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of ibrutinib. Major clinical trials of ibrutinib in CLL are summarized, and its safety profile explored. Expert opinion: Ibrutinib represents a transformative advance in CLL management and has validated BTK as a therapeutic target in this disease, but has some limitations, leading to the emergence of other BTK inhibitors and mechanism-based combination strategies. Given complete BTK occupancy at lower doses of ibrutinib and declining levels of BTK on ibrutinib therapy, lower doses of ibrutinib in CLL are being explored.
Project description:Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an incurable intermediate-grade lymphoma representing 5-6% of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas diagnosed in the United States. The introduction of inhibitors of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) into targeted therapy for MCL has significantly improved outcomes in patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) disease. Since the initial approval of the first-generation inhibitor, ibrutinib, several second-generation inhibitors have been explored. Acalabrutinib, a second-generation BTK inhibitor, has demonstrated impressive efficacy in clinical trials along with a safety profile that thus far appears improved compared to ibrutinib. The results of a Phase II trial in patients with R/R MCL led to the approval of acalabrutinib in this patient population while fueling further exploration of acalabrutinib in several ongoing clinical trials.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ibrutinib has been shown to have immunomodulatory effects by inhibiting Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) and IL-2-inducible T cell kinase (ITK). The relative importance of inhibiting these 2 kinases has not been examined despite its relevance to immune-based therapies. METHODS:Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients on clinical trials of ibrutinib (BTK/ITK inhibitor; n = 19) or acalabrutinib (selective BTK inhibitor; n = 13) were collected serially. T cell phenotype, immune function, and CLL cell immunosuppressive capacity were evaluated. RESULTS:Ibrutinib markedly increased CD4+ and CD8+ T cell numbers in CLL patients. This effect was more prominent in effector/effector memory subsets and was not observed with acalabrutinib. Ex vivo studies demonstrated that this may be due to diminished activation-induced cell death through ITK inhibition. PD-1 and CTLA-4 expression was significantly markedly reduced in T cells by both agents. While the number of Treg cells remained unchanged, the ratio of these to conventional CD4+ T cells was reduced with ibrutinib, but not acalabrutinib. Both agents reduced expression of the immunosuppressive molecules CD200 and BTLA as well as IL-10 production by CLL cells. CONCLUSIONS:Ibrutinib treatment increased the in vivo persistence of activated T cells, decreased the Treg/CD4+ T cell ratio, and diminished the immune-suppressive properties of CLL cells through BTK-dependent and -independent mechanisms. These features provide a strong rationale for combination immunotherapy approaches with ibrutinib in CLL and other cancers. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01589302 and NCT02029443. Samples described here were collected per OSU-0025. FUNDING:The National Cancer Institute.
Project description:Mantle cell lymphoma (mcl) is a rare subtype of aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma that remains incurable with standard therapy. Patients typically require multiple lines of therapy, and those with relapsed or refractory (r/r) disease have a very poor prognosis. The Bruton tyrosine kinase (btk) inhibitor ibrutinib has proven to be an effective agent for patients with r/r mcl. Although usually well tolerated, ibrutinib can be associated with unique toxicities, requiring discontinuation in some patients. Effective and well-tolerated alternatives to ibrutinib for patients with r/r mcl are therefore needed. Novel btk inhibitors such as acalabrutinib, zanubrutinib, and tirabrutinib are designed to improve on the safety and efficacy of first-generation btk inhibitors such as ibrutinib. Data from single-arm clinical trials suggest that, compared with ibrutinib, second-generation btk inhibitors have comparable efficacy and might have a more favourable toxicity profile. Those newer btk inhibitors might therefore provide a viable treatment option for patients with r/r mcl.
Project description:Irreversible Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors, ibrutinib and acalabrutinib have demonstrated remarkable clinical responses in multiple B-cell malignancies. Acquired resistance has been identified in a sub-population of patients in which mutations affecting BTK predominantly substitute cysteine 481 in the kinase domain for catalytically active serine, thereby ablating covalent binding of inhibitors. Activating substitutions in the BTK substrate phospholipase C?2 (PLC?2) instead confers resistance independent of BTK. Herein, we generated all six possible amino acid substitutions due to single nucleotide alterations for the cysteine 481 codon, in addition to threonine, requiring two nucleotide substitutions, and performed functional analysis. Replacement by arginine, phenylalanine, tryptophan or tyrosine completely inactivated the catalytic activity, whereas substitution with glycine caused severe impairment. BTK with threonine replacement was catalytically active, similar to substitution with serine. We identify three potential ibrutinib resistance scenarios for cysteine 481 replacement: (1) Serine, being catalytically active and therefore predominating among patients. (2) Threonine, also being catalytically active, but predicted to be scarce, because two nucleotide changes are needed. (3) As BTK variants replaced with other residues are catalytically inactive, they presumably need compensatory mutations, therefore being very scarce. Glycine and tryptophan variants were not yet reported but likely also provide resistance.