Analyses of Genomic tRNA Reveal Presence of Novel tRNAs in Oryza sativa.
ABSTRACT: Transfer rRNAs are important molecules responsible for the translation event during protein synthesis. tRNAs are widespread found in unicellular to multi-cellular organisms. Analysis of tRNA gene family members in Oryza sativa revealed the presence of 750 tRNA genes distributed unevenly in different chromosomes. The length of O. sativa tRNAs genes were ranged from 66 to 91 nucleotides encoding 52 isoacceptor in total. tRNASer found in chromosome 8 of O. sativa encoded only 66 nucleotides which is the smallest tRNA of O. sativa and to our knowledge, this is the smallest gene of eukaryotic lineage reported so far. Analyses revealed the presence of several novel/pseudo tRNA genes in O. sativa which are reported for the first time. Multiple sequence alignment of tRNAs revealed the presence of family specific conserved consensus sequences. Functional study of these novel tRNA and family specific conserved consensus sequences will be crucial to decipher their importance in biological events. The rate of transition of O. sativa tRNA was found to be higher than the rate of transversion. Evolutionary study revealed, O. sativa tRNAs were evolved from the lineages of multiple common ancestors. Duplication and loss study of tRNAs genes revealed, majority of the O. sativa tRNA were duplicated and 17 of them were found to be undergone loss during the evolution. Orthology and paralogy study showed, the majority of O. sativa tRNA were paralogous and only a few of tRNASer were found to contain orthologous tRNAs.
Project description:Nuclear modifier genes have been proposed to modify the phenotypic expression of mitochondrial DNA mutations. Using a targeted exome-sequencing approach, here we found that the p.191Gly>Val mutation in mitochondrial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase 2 (YARS2) interacts with the tRNA<sup>Ser(UCN)</sup> 7511A>G mutation in causing deafness. Strikingly, members of a Chinese family bearing both the YARS2 p.191Gly>Val and m.7511A>G mutations displayed much higher penetrance of deafness than those pedigrees carrying only the m.7511A>G mutation. The m.7511A>G mutation changed the A4:U69 base-pairing to G4:U69 pairing at the aminoacyl acceptor stem of tRNA<sup>Ser(UCN)</sup> and perturbed tRNA<sup>Ser(UCN)</sup> structure and function, including an increased melting temperature, altered conformation, instability, and aberrant aminoacylation of mutant tRNA. Using lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from symptomatic and asymptomatic members of these Chinese families and control subjects, we show that cell lines harboring only the m.7511A>G or p.191Gly>Val mutation revealed relatively mild defects in tRNA<sup>Ser(UCN)</sup> or tRNA<sup>Tyr</sup> metabolism, respectively. However, cell lines harboring both m.7511A>G and p.191Gly>Val mutations displayed more severe defective aminoacylations and lower tRNA<sup>Ser(UCN)</sup> and tRNA<sup>Tyr</sup> levels, aberrant aminoacylation, and lower levels of other tRNAs, including tRNA<sup>Thr</sup>, tRNA<sup>Lys</sup>, tRNA<sup>Leu(UUR)</sup>, and tRNA<sup>Ser(AGY)</sup>, than those in the cell lines carrying only the m.7511A>G or p.191Gly>Val mutation. Furthermore, mutant cell lines harboring both m.7511A>G and p.191Gly>Val mutations exhibited greater decreases in the levels of mitochondrial translation, respiration, and mitochondrial ATP and membrane potentials, along with increased production of reactive oxygen species. Our findings provide molecular-level insights into the pathophysiology of maternally transmitted deafness arising from the synergy between tRNA<sup>Ser(UCN)</sup> and mitochondrial YARS mutations.
Project description:A single-strand-specific nuclease from rye germ (Rn nuclease I) was used for secondary and tertiary structure investigations of tRNAs with large variable arms (class II tRNAs). We have studied the structure in solution of two recently sequenced tRNA(Leu): yeast tRNA(Leu)(ncm5UmAA) and bovine tRNA(Leu)(XmAA) as well as yeast tRNA(Leu)(UAG), tRNA(Leu)(m5CAA) and tRNA(Ser)(IGA). The latter is the only tRNA with a long variable arm for which the secondary and tertiary structure has already been studied by use of chemical probes and computer modelling. The data obtained in this work showed that the general model of class II tRNAs proposed by others for tRNA(Ser) can be extended to tRNAs(Leu) as well. However interesting differences in the structure of tRNAs(Leu) versus tRNA(Ser)(IGA) were also noticed. The main difference was observed in the accessibility of the variable loops to nucleolytic attack of Rn nuclease I: variable loops of all studied tRNA(Leu) species were cut by Rn nuclease I, while that of yeast tRNA(Ser)(IGA) was not. This could be due to differences in stability of the variable arms and the lengths of their loops which are 3 and 4 nucleotides in tRNA(Ser)(IGA) and tRNAs(Leu) respectively.
Project description:Post-transcriptional modifications of anticodon loop (ACL) nucleotides impact tRNA structure, affinity for the ribosome, and decoding activity, and these activities can be fine-tuned by interactions between nucleobases on either side of the anticodon. A recently discovered ACL modification circuit involving positions 32, 34, and 37 is disrupted by a human disease-associated mutation to the gene encoding a tRNA modification enzyme. We used tRNA-HydroSeq (-HySeq) to examine (3)methyl-cytidine-32 (m(3)C32), which is found in yeast only in the ACLs of tRNAs(Ser) and tRNAs(Thr) In contrast to that reported for Saccharomyces cerevisiae in which all m(3)C32 depends on a single gene, TRM140, the m(3)C32 of tRNAs(Ser) and tRNAs(Thr) of the fission yeast S. pombe, are each dependent on one of two related genes, trm140(+) and trm141(+), homologs of which are found in higher eukaryotes. Interestingly, mammals and other vertebrates contain a third homolog and also contain m(3)C at new sites, positions 32 on tRNAs(Arg) and C47:3 in the variable arm of tRNAs(Ser) More significantly, by examining S. pombe mutants deficient for other modifications, we found that m(3)C32 on the three tRNAs(Ser) that contain anticodon base A36, requires N(6)-isopentenyl modification of A37 (i(6)A37). This new C32-A37 ACL circuitry indicates that i(6)A37 is a pre- or corequisite for m(3)C32 on these tRNAs. Examination of the tRNA database suggests that such circuitry may be more expansive than observed here. The results emphasize two contemporary themes, that tRNA modifications are interconnected, and that some specific modifications on tRNAs of the same anticodon identity are species-specific.
Project description:In the predicted secondary structures of 20 of the 22 tRNAs encoded in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecules of the nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Ascaris suum, the T psi C arm and variable loop are replaced with a loop of 6 to 12 nucleotides: the TV-replacement loop. From considerations of patterns of nucleotide correlations in the central regions of these tRNAs, it seems highly likely that tertiary interactions occur within five sets of binary and ternary combinations of nucleotides that correspond in location to nucleotides known to be involved in tertiary interactions in yeast tRNA(Phe) and other standard tRNAs. These observations are consistent with the nematode TV-replacement loop-containing mt-tRNAs being folded into a similar L-shaped functional form to that demonstrated for standard tRNAs, and for the bovine DHU (dihydrouridine) arm replacement-loop-containing mt-tRNA(Ser(AGY)). However, the apparent occurrence in nematode mt-tRNAs of tertiary bonds common to standard tRNAs contrasts with the situation in bovine mt-tRNA(Ser(AGY)) where the functional form is dependent on an almost unique set of tertiary interactions. Because three of the proposed conserved tertiary interactions in the nematode mt-tRNAs involve nucleotides that occur in the variable loop in standard tRNAs, it seems more likely that in nematode mt-tRNAs it is the T psi C arm rather than the variable loop that has undergone the greatest proportional decrease in nucleotide number.
Project description:The Barbodes hexagonolepis, as an important commercial species, had the limited resources on biology and genetics. We reported the complete mitogenome of this species, and got a whole length of 16?587?bp (containing two rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, 13 mRNAs and one D-loop region). The two rRNAs located between tRNA<sup>phe</sup> and tRNA<sup>leu</sup> and were separated by tRNA<sup>val</sup>. The 22 tRNAs was ranged from 66?bp (tRNA<sup>cys</sup>) to 76?bp (tRNA<sup>leu</sup> and tRNA<sup>lys</sup>) in length. The 13 mRNAs had four overlap regions, three types of start codons and four types of termination codons. The D-loop region was found between tRNA<sup>Pro</sup> and tRNA<sup>Phe</sup>. To further explore the phylogenetic relationship of the B. hexagonolepis, we constructed the phylogenetic tree and verified that the B. hexagonolepi was a part of the Barbinae and independent from other genus of the Barbinae. This result provided the valuable evidence on phylogenetic relationship of the B. hexagonolepi at the molecular level and essential resource for further research on this species.
Project description:Eukaryotic selenocysteine (Sec) protein insertion machinery was thought to be restricted to animals, but the occurrence of both Sec-containing proteins and the Sec insertion system was recently found in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a member of the plant kingdom. Herein, we used RT-PCR to determine the sequence of C. reinhardtii Sec tRNA[Ser]Sec, the first non-animal eukaryotic Sec tRNA[Ser]Sec sequence. Like its animal counterpart, it is 90 nucleotides in length, is aminoacylated with serine by seryl-tRNA synthetase, and decodes specifically UGA. Evolutionary analyses of known Sec tRNAs identify the C. reinhardtii form as the most diverged eukaryotic Sec tRNA[Ser]Sec and reveal a common origin for this tRNA in bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes.
Project description:Bovine mitochondrial tRNA(Ser) (UCN) has been thought to have two U-U mismatches at the top of the acceptor stem, as inferred from its gene sequence. However, this unusual structure has not been confirmed at the RNA level. In the course of investigating the structure and function of mitochondrial tRNAs, we have isolated the bovine liver mitochondrial tRNA(Ser) (UCN) and determined its complete sequence including the modified nucleotides. Analysis of the 5'-terminal nucleotide and enzymatic determination of the whole sequence of tRNA(Ser) (UCN) revealed that the tRNA started from the third nucleotide of the putative tRNA(Ser) (UCN) gene, which had formerly been supposed. Enzymatic probing of tRNA(Ser) (UCN) suggests that the tRNA possesses an unusual cloverleaf structure with the following characteristics. (1) There exists only one nucleotide between the acceptor stem with 7 base pairs and the D stem with 4 base pairs. (2) The anticodon stem seems to consist of 6 base pairs. Since the same type of cloverleaf structure as above could be constructed only for mitochondrial tRNA(Ser) (UCN) genes of mammals such as human, rat and mouse, but not for those of non-mammals such as chicken and frog, this unusual secondary structure seems to be conserved only in mammalian mitochondria.
Project description:RNAs contain post-transcriptional modifications, which fulfill a variety of functions in translation, secondary structure stabilization and cellular stress survival. Here, 2-methylthiocytidine (ms<sup>2</sup>C) is identified in tRNA of E. coli and P. aeruginosa using NAIL-MS (nucleic acid isotope labeling coupled mass spectrometry) in combination with genetic screening experiments. ms<sup>2</sup>C is only found in 2-thiocytidine (s<sup>2</sup>C) containing tRNAs, namely tRNA<sup>Arg</sup><sub>CCG</sub>, tRNA<sup>Arg</sup><sub>ICG</sub>, tRNA<sup>Arg</sup><sub>UCU</sub> and tRNA<sup>Ser</sup><sub>GCU</sub> at low abundances. ms<sup>2</sup>C is not formed by commonly known tRNA methyltransferases. Instead, we observe its formation in vitro and in vivo during exposure to methylating agents. More than half of the s<sup>2</sup>C containing tRNA can be methylated to carry ms<sup>2</sup>C. With a pulse-chase NAIL-MS experiment, the repair mechanism by AlkB dependent sulfur demethylation is demonstrated in vivo. Overall, we describe ms<sup>2</sup>C as a bacterial tRNA modification and damage product. Its repair by AlkB and other pathways is demonstrated in vivo by our powerful NAIL-MS approach.
Project description:During tRNA maturation in yeast, aberrant pre-tRNAs are targeted for 3'-5' degradation by the nuclear surveillance pathway, and aberrant mature tRNAs are targeted for 5'-3' degradation by the rapid tRNA decay (RTD) pathway. RTD is catalyzed by the 5'-3' exonucleases Xrn1 and Rat1, which act on tRNAs with an exposed 5' end due to the lack of certain body modifications or the presence of destabilizing mutations in the acceptor stem, T-stem, or tRNA fold. RTD is inhibited by mutation of <i>MET22</i>, likely due to accumulation of the Met22 substrate adenosine 3',5' bis-phosphate, which inhibits 5'-3' exonucleases. Here we provide evidence for a new tRNA quality control pathway in which intron-containing pre-tRNAs with destabilizing mutations in the anticodon stem are targeted for Met22-dependent pre-tRNA decay (MPD). Multiple <i>SUP4<sub>?c</sub></i> anticodon stem variants that are subject to MPD each perturb the bulge-helix-bulge structure formed by the anticodon stem-loop and intron, which is important for splicing, resulting in substantial accumulation of end-matured unspliced pre-tRNA as well as pre-tRNA decay. Mutations that restore exon-intron structure commensurately reduce pre-tRNA accumulation and MPD. The MPD pathway can contribute substantially to decay of anticodon stem variants, since pre-tRNA decay is largely suppressed by removal of the intron or by restoration of exon-intron structure, each also resulting in increased tRNA levels. The MPD pathway is general as it extends to variants of tRNA<sup>Tyr(GUA)</sup> and tRNA<sup>Ser(CGA)</sup> These results demonstrate that the integrity of the anticodon stem-loop and the efficiency of tRNA splicing are monitored by a quality control pathway.
Project description:Human TRIT1 is a tRNA isopentenyltransferase (IPTase) homologue of Escherichia coli MiaA, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mod5, Schizosaccharomyces pombe Tit1, and Caenorhabditis elegans GRO-1 that adds isopentenyl groups to adenosine 37 (i6A37) of substrate tRNAs. Prior studies indicate that i6A37 increases translation fidelity and efficiency in codon-specific ways. TRIT1 is a tumor suppressor whose mutant alleles are associated with cancer progression. We report the systematic identification of i6A37-containing tRNAs in a higher eukaryote, performed using small interfering RNA knockdown and other methods to examine TRIT1 activity in HeLa cells. Although several potential substrates contained the IPTase recognition sequence A36A37A38 in the anticodon loop, only tRNA(Ser)AGA, tRNA(Ser)CGA, tRNA(Ser)UGA, and selenocysteine tRNA with UCA (tRNA([Ser]Sec)UCA) contained i6A37. This subset is a significantly more restricted than that for two distant yeasts (S. cerevisiae and S. pombe), the only other organisms comprehensively examined. Unlike the fully i6A37-modified tRNAs for Ser, tRNA([Ser]Sec)UCA is partially (?40%) modified. Exogenous selenium and other treatments that decreased the i6A37 content of tRNA([Ser]Sec)UCA led to increased levels of the tRNA([Ser]Sec)UCA. Of the human mitochondrion (mt)-encoded tRNAs with A36A37A38, only mt tRNAs tRNA(Ser)UGA and tRNA(Trp)UCA contained detectable i6A37. Moreover, while tRNA(Ser) levels were unaffected by TRIT1 knockdown, the tRNA([Ser]Sec)UCA level was increased and the mt tRNA(Ser)UGA level was decreased, suggesting that TRIT1 may control the levels of some tRNAs as well as their specific activity.