Magnetic Lateral Flow Strip for the Detection of Cocaine in Urine by Naked Eyes and Smart Phone Camera.
ABSTRACT: Magnetic lateral flow strip (MLFS) based on magnetic bead (MB) and smart phone camera has been developed for quantitative detection of cocaine (CC) in urine samples. CC and CC-bovine serum albumin (CC-BSA) could competitively react with MB-antibody (MB-Ab) of CC on the surface of test line of MLFS. The color of MB-Ab conjugate on the test line relates to the concentration of target in the competition immunoassay format, which can be used as a visual signal. Furthermore, the color density of the MB-Ab conjugate can be transferred into digital signal (gray value) by a smart phone, which can be used as a quantitative signal. The linear detection range for CC is 5-500 ng/mL and the relative standard deviations are under 10%. The visual limit of detection was 5 ng/mL and the whole analysis time was within 10 min. The MLFS has been successfully employed for the detection of CC in urine samples without sample pre-treatment and the result is also agreed to that of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). With the popularization of smart phone cameras, the MLFS has large potential in the detection of drug residues in virtue of its stability, speediness, and low-cost.
Project description:Detection of environmental contamination such as trace-level toxic heavy metal ions mostly relies on bulky and costly analytical instruments. However, a considerable global need exists for portable, rapid, specific, sensitive, and cost-effective detection techniques that can be used in resource-limited and field settings. Here we introduce a smart-phone-based hand-held platform that allows the quantification of mercury(II) ions in water samples with parts per billion (ppb) level of sensitivity. For this task, we created an integrated opto-mechanical attachment to the built-in camera module of a smart-phone to digitally quantify mercury concentration using a plasmonic gold nanoparticle (Au NP) and aptamer based colorimetric transmission assay that is implemented in disposable test tubes. With this smart-phone attachment that weighs <40 g, we quantified mercury(II) ion concentration in water samples by using a two-color ratiometric method employing light-emitting diodes (LEDs) at 523 and 625 nm, where a custom-developed smart application was utilized to process each acquired transmission image on the same phone to achieve a limit of detection of ? 3.5 ppb. Using this smart-phone-based detection platform, we generated a mercury contamination map by measuring water samples at over 50 locations in California (USA), taken from city tap water sources, rivers, lakes, and beaches. With its cost-effective design, field-portability, and wireless data connectivity, this sensitive and specific heavy metal detection platform running on cellphones could be rather useful for distributed sensing, tracking, and sharing of water contamination information as a function of both space and time.
Project description:PURPOSE:To investigate the potential of targeted MR signal amplification strategy for imaging of EGF receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) overexpression associated with the infiltrating margin of aggressive orthotopic brain tumors. PROCEDURES:F(ab')2 fragments of humanized anti-EGFRvIII monoclonal antibody (EMD72000) were linked to deglycosylated horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and glucose oxidase (GOX). Detection of the F(ab')2 conjugate pair colocalization in vivo was enabled by a subsequent IV injection of a low molecular weight paramagnetic substrate of HRP, diTyr-GdDTPA. RESULTS:The delivery of the targeted fragments to the tumor was validated using SPECT/CT imaging of radiolabeled anti-EGFRvIII F(ab')2 conjugates. Further, by using 3 T MRI, we observed time-dependent differences in tumor signal intensity and signal retention at the endpoint depending on whether or not the animals were pre-injected with the anti-EGFRvIII F(ab')2 conjugates. CONCLUSIONS:Imaging of EGFRvIII expression in vivo was enabled by consecutive administration of targeted F(ab')2 conjugates and a paramagnetic substrate resulting in a tumor-specific receptor detection with high specificity and resolution.
Project description:Optical imaging of nanoscale objects, whether it is based on scattering or fluorescence, is a challenging task due to reduced detection signal-to-noise ratio and contrast at subwavelength dimensions. Here, we report a field-portable fluorescence microscopy platform installed on a smart phone for imaging of individual nanoparticles as well as viruses using a lightweight and compact opto-mechanical attachment to the existing camera module of the cell phone. This hand-held fluorescent imaging device utilizes (i) a compact 450 nm laser diode that creates oblique excitation on the sample plane with an incidence angle of ~75°, (ii) a long-pass thin-film interference filter to reject the scattered excitation light, (iii) an external lens creating 2× optical magnification, and (iv) a translation stage for focus adjustment. We tested the imaging performance of this smart-phone-enabled microscopy platform by detecting isolated 100 nm fluorescent particles as well as individual human cytomegaloviruses that are fluorescently labeled. The size of each detected nano-object on the cell phone platform was validated using scanning electron microscopy images of the same samples. This field-portable fluorescence microscopy attachment to the cell phone, weighing only ~186 g, could be used for specific and sensitive imaging of subwavelength objects including various bacteria and viruses and, therefore, could provide a valuable platform for the practice of nanotechnology in field settings and for conducting viral load measurements and other biomedical tests even in remote and resource-limited environments.
Project description:We report on the fabrication of a syringe-based platform for automation of a colorimetric malaria-Ab assay. We assembled this platform from inexpensive disposable plastic syringes, plastic tubing, easily-obtainable servomotors, and an Arduino microcontroller chip, which allowed for system automation. The automated system can also be fabricated using stereolithography (SLA) to print elastomeric reservoirs (used instead of syringes), while platform framework, including rack and gears, can be printed with fused deposition modeling (FDM). We report on the optimization of FDM and SLA print parameters, as well as post-production processes. A malaria-Ab colorimetric test was successfully run on the automated platform, with most of the assay reagents dispensed from syringes. Wash solution was dispensed from an SLA-printed elastomeric reservoir to demonstrate the feasibility of both syringe and elastomeric reservoir-based approaches. We tested the platform using a commercially available malaria-Ab colorimetric assay originally designed for spectroscopic plate readers. Unaided visual inspection of the assay solution color change was sufficient for qualitative detection of positive and negative samples. A smart phone application can also be used for quantitative measurement of the assay color change.
Project description:Our aim was to develop an echocardiographic molecular imaging approach for detecting recent myocardial ischemia by using recombinant P-selectin glycoprotein ligand (PSGL)-1 as a targeting ligand, which is a feasible approach for human use.Ischemic memory imaging using human PSGL-1 as a targeting moiety may extend the time window for postischemic detection by targeting the early (P-selectin) and late (E-selectin) endothelial ischemic response.Lipid microbubbles bearing recombinant human PSGL-1 (MB(YSPSL)) or P-selectin antibody (MB(Ab)) were prepared. Targeted attachment was evaluated by using flow chamber and intravital microscopy. In vivo ultrasound molecular imaging was first performed in the hindlimb in wild-type and P-selectin-deficient (P(-/-)) mice 45 to 360 min after brief ischemia-reperfusion injury. Myocardial contrast echocardiography molecular imaging was performed 1.5, 3, 6, and 18 h after brief left anterior descending coronary artery ischemia-reperfusion.Microbubble attachment to P-selectin-immunoglobulin G fusion protein in flow chamber experiments (shear stress 0.5 to 8.0 dyne/cm(2)) and to activated venular endothelium on intravital microscopy were similar for MB(Ab) and MB(YSPSL). Intense enhancement was seen for MB(Ab) and MB(YSPSL) in postischemic muscle and was more stable over time for MB(YSPSL). On myocardial contrast echocardiography, both MB(YSPSL) and MB(Ab) produced similar signal enhancement at 90 min and 3 h after ischemia, which spatially correlated with the postischemic risk area. Signal significantly decreased but was still present at 6 to 18 h.Echocardiographic molecular imaging with a human multi-selectin-targeted contrast agent bearing recombinant human PSGL-1 can detect myocardial ischemia hours after resolution. This approach may potentially be used for rapid bedside evaluation of patients with recent chest pain.
Project description:Serum myoglobin is one of the earliest markers for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. It is, therefore, critical to develop a point-of-care testing technology for myoglobin detection. In this work, we reported a sensitive plasmonic immunoassay-based on enzyme-mediated localized surface plasmon resonance change of gold nanorods for the point-of-care testing detection of myoglobin. In addition, we developed a novel plasmonic immunoassay reader using the ambient light sensor of smart phone to increase the accessibility and utility of the plasmonic immunoassay. The linear detection range of gold nanorods-based plasmonic immunoassay for myoglobin detection was 0.1-1000 ng mL-1 and the limit of detection was 0.057 ng mL-1. Myoglobin in serum samples was also analyzed by the plasmonic immunoassay. The results were significantly correlated with those of conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The plasmonic immunoassay, coupled with smart phone-based reader, could be widely used for point-of-care testing application of acute myocardial infarction, especially in the regions with limited technological resources.
Project description:Conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) have been widely used as reporters in colorimetric assays targeting nucleic acids. CPEs provide naked eye detection possibility by their superior optical properties however, as concentration of target analytes decrease, trace amounts of nucleic acid typically yield colorimetric responses that are not readily perceivable by naked eye. Herein, we report a pixelated analysis approach for correlating colorimetric responses of CPE with nucleic acid concentrations down to 1 nM, in plasma samples, utilizing a smart phone with an algorithm that can perform analytical testing and data processing. The detection strategy employed relies on conformational transitions between single stranded nucleic acid-cationic CPE duplexes and double stranded nucleic acid-CPE triplexes that yield distinct colorimetric responses for enabling naked eye detection of nucleic acids. Cationic poly[N,N,N-triethyl-3-((4-methylthiophen-3-yl)oxy)propan-1-aminium bromide] is utilized as the CPE reporter deposited on a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane for nucleic acid assay. A smart phone application is developed to capture and digitize the colorimetric response of the individual pixels of the digital images of CPE on the PVDF membrane, followed by an analysis using the algorithm. The proposed pixelated approach enables precise quantification of nucleic acid assay concentrations, thereby eliminating the margin of error involved in conventional methodologies adopted for interpretation of colorimetric responses, for instance, RGB analysis. The obtained results illustrate that a ubiquitous smart phone could be utilized for point of care colorimetric nucleic acids assays in complex matrices without requiring sophisticated software or instrumentation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia. The asymptomatic nature and paroxysmal frequency of AF lead to suboptimal early detection. A novel technology, photoplethysmography (PPG), has been developed for AF screening. However, there has been limited validation of mobile phone and smart band apps with PPG compared to 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECG). OBJECTIVE:We investigated the feasibility and accuracy of a mobile phone and smart band for AF detection using pulse data measured by PPG. METHODS:A total of 112 consecutive inpatients were recruited from the Chinese PLA General Hospital from March 15 to April 1, 2018. Participants were simultaneously tested with mobile phones (HUAWEI Mate 9, HUAWEI Honor 7X), smart bands (HUAWEI Band 2), and 12-lead ECG for 3 minutes. RESULTS:In all, 108 patients (56 with normal sinus rhythm, 52 with persistent AF) were enrolled in the final analysis after excluding four patients with unclear cardiac rhythms. The corresponding sensitivity and specificity of the smart band PPG were 95.36% (95% CI 92.00%-97.40%) and 99.70% (95% CI 98.08%-99.98%), respectively. The positive predictive value of the smart band PPG was 99.63% (95% CI 97.61%-99.98%), the negative predictive value was 96.24% (95% CI 93.50%-97.90%), and the accuracy was 97.72% (95% CI 96.11%-98.70%). Moreover, the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of mobile phones with PPG for AF detection were over 94%. There was no significant difference after further statistical analysis of the results from the different smart devices compared with the gold-standard ECG (P>.99). CONCLUSIONS:The algorithm based on mobile phones and smart bands with PPG demonstrated good performance in detecting AF and may represent a convenient tool for AF detection in at-risk individuals, allowing widespread screening of AF in the population. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-OOC-17014138; http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=24191 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation/76WXknvE6).
Project description:BACKGROUND: Although good progress has been achieved in expanding immunization of children in China, disparities exist across different provinces. Information gaps both from the service supply and demand sides hinder timely vaccination of children in rural areas. The rapid development of mobile health technology (mHealth) provides unprecedented opportunities for improving health services and reaching underserved populations. However, there is a lack of literature that rigorously evaluates the impact of mHealth interventions on immunization coverage as well as the usability and feasibility of smart phone applications (apps). This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a smart phone-based app (Expanded Program on Immunization app, or EPI app) on improving the coverage of children's immunization. METHODS/DESIGN: This cluster randomized trial will take place in Xuanhan County, Sichuan Province, China. Functionalities of the app include the following: to make appointments automatically, record and update children's immunization information, generate a list of children who missed their vaccination appointments, and send health education information to village doctors. After pairing, 36 villages will be randomly allocated to the intervention arm (n=18) and control arm (n=18). The village doctors in the intervention arm will use the app while the village doctors in the control arm will record and manage immunization in the usual way in their catchment areas. A household survey will be used at baseline and at endline (8 months of implementation). The primary outcome is full-dose coverage and the secondary outcome is immunization coverage of the five vaccines that are included in the national Expanded Program on Immunization program as well as Hib vaccine, Rotavirus vaccine and Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Multidimensional evaluation of the app will also be conducted to assess usability and feasibility. DISCUSSION: This study is the first to evaluate the effectiveness of a smart phone app for child immunization in rural China. This study will contribute to the knowledge about the usability and feasibility of a smart phone app for managing immunization in rural China and to similar populations in different settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trials Registry (ChiCTR): ChiCTR-TRC-13003960.
Project description:Glaucoma, the leading cause of irreversible blindness, affects >70 million people worldwide. Lowering intraocular pressure via topical administration of eye drops is the most common first-line therapy for glaucoma. This treatment paradigm has notoriously high non-adherence rates: ranging from 30% to 80%. The advent of smart phone enabled technologies creates promise for improving eyedrop adherence. However, previous eyedrop electronic monitoring solutions had awkward medication bottle adjuncts and crude software for monitoring the administration of a drop that adversely affected their ability to foster sustainable improvements in adherence. The current work begins to address this unmet need for wireless technology by creating a "smart drop" bottle. This medication bottle is instrumented with sensing electronics that enable detection of each eyedrop administered while maintaining the shape and size of the bottle. This is achieved by a thin electronic force sensor wrapped around the bottle and underneath the label, interfaced with a thin electronic circuit underneath the bottle that allows for detection and wireless transmission to a smart-phone application. We demonstrate 100% success rate of wireless communication over 75 feet with <1% false positive and false negative rates of single drop deliveries, thus providing a viable solution for eyedrop monitoring for glaucoma patients.