Pediatric haematopoiesis and related malignancies.
ABSTRACT: Survival after acute paediatric (0-14 years), adolescent (15-19 years) and young adult (20-39 years) leukaemia has improved substantially over the last five decades, particularly for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and acute promyelocytic leukaemia. This progress represents one of the most successful achievements in the history of medicine and has been attributed to the development of effective chemotherapy regimens, improvement in supportive care, better risk stratification, use of targeted therapies, and advances in haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Recent studies have revealed improvement in survival over time for all age groups and subtypes of leukaemia. However, these outcomes varied widely by age and are associated with sociodemographic and clinical factors. The present review concludes that survival and early death after acute leukaemia has greatly improved among young patients. However, inequalities in outcomes remain and are likely a result of multiple factors.
Project description:Acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APML) is a subtype of leukaemia arising from a distinct reciprocal translocation involving chromosomes 15 and 17, which results in the PML-RARA fusion gene. Over the past three decades, APML has been transformed from a highly fatal disease to a highly curable one. This drastic improvement is because of the introduction of a new treatment strategy with all-trans retinoic acid and, more recently, arsenic trioxide. The revolutionary treatment of APML has also paved the way for a new cancer treatment, which is genetically targeted therapy. In this review, we look into this amazing journey of transformation and provide recent advances in the management of APML.
Project description:The management of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in India remains a challenge. In a two-year prospective study at our centre there were 380 newly diagnosed AML (excluding acute promyelocytic leukaemia, AML-M3) patients. The median age of newly diagnosed patients was 40 years (range: 1-79; 12.3% were ? 15 years, 16.3% were ? 60 years old) and there were 244 (64.2%) males. The median duration of symptoms prior to first presentation at our hospital was 4 weeks (range: 1-52). The median distance from home to hospital was 580 km (range: 6-3200 km). 109 (29%) opted for standard of care and were admitted for induction chemotherapy. Of the 271 that did not take treatment the major reason was lack of financial resources in 219 (81%). There were 27 (24.7%) inductions deaths and of these, 12 (44.5%) were due to multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli and 12 (44.5%) showed evidence of a fungal infection. The overall survival at 1 year was 70.4% ± 10.7%, 55.6% ± 6.8% and 42.4% ± 15.6% in patients aged ? 15 years, 15 - 60 years and ? 60 years, respectively. In conclusion, the biggest constraint is the cost of treatment and the absence of a health security net to treat all patients with this diagnosis.
Project description:Between 1979 and 2001, an analysis of cancer survival in young people in England, aged 13 to 24 years, showed overall improvements. However, for some diagnostic groups, little or no increases were observed. The aim of this study was to analyse the regional distribution of cancer survival in teenagers and young adults in England in order to identify patterns and potential for improvements at a regional scale.We examined geographical and temporal patterns in relative survival in cancer patients aged 13-24 years in England during the time period 1979-2001. Cancer cases were grouped according to an internationally recognised morphology-based diagnostic scheme.For most diagnostic groups, there was little variation in survival between regions, except for testicular germ cell tumours (P=0.006) and colorectal carcinoma (P=0.002). For certain diagnostic groups, the temporal pattern in survival differed between regions. However, in regions that showed poor survival during the early part of the study period, greatest improvements were observed in groups such as acute lymphoid leukaemia, acute myeloid leukaemia, testicular tumours and melanoma.In conclusion, there was a reduction in the differences in survival between regions during the study period.
Project description:The promyelocytic leukaemia (protein) (PML) localizes to multiprotein complexes known as PML nuclear bodies. We found that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) co-immunoprecipitates with PML and co-localizes with PML in nuclear bodies. RNase treatment disrupts the ability of PML and GAPDH to both co-localize and co-immunoprecipitate, indicating that the association between PML and GAPDH depends on the presence of RNA. Disruption of PML bodies contributes towards reduced apoptosis in acute promyelocytic leukaemia and GAPDH induces apoptotic neuronal death. The GAPDH-PML interaction may be involved in the regulation of apoptosis.
Project description:Microarray gene expression profiles of fresh clinical samples of chronic myeloid leukaemia in chronic phase, acute promyelocytic leukaemia and acute monocytic leukaemia were compared with profiles from cell lines representing the corresponding types of leukaemia (K562, NB4, HL60). In a hierarchical clustering analysis, all clinical samples clustered separately from the cell lines, regardless of leukaemic subtype. Gene ontology analysis showed that cell lines chiefly overexpressed genes related to macromolecular metabolism, whereas in clinical samples genes related to the immune response were abundantly expressed. These findings must be taken into consideration when conclusions from cell line-based studies are extrapolated to patients.
Project description:Standard therapy for acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) includes retinoic acid (all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)), which promotes differentiation of promyelocytic blasts. Although co-administration of arsenic trioxide (ATO) with ATRA has emerged as an effective option to treat APL, the molecular basis of this effect remains unclear.Four leukaemia cancer human models (HL60, THP-1, NBR4 and NBR4-R2 cells) were treated either with ATO alone or ATO plus ATRA. Cancer cell survival was monitored by trypan blue exclusion and DEVDase activity assays. Gene and protein expression changes were assessed by RT-PCR and western blot.ATO induced an antioxidant response characterised by Nrf2 nuclear translocation and enhanced transcription of downstream target genes (that is, HO-1, NQO1, GCLM, ferritin). In cells exposed to ATO plus ATRA, the Nrf2 nuclear translocation was prevented and cytotoxicity was enhanced. HO-1 overexpression reversed partially the cytotoxicity by ATRA-ATO in HL60 cells. The inhibitory effects of ATRA on ATO-mediated responses were not observed in either the ATRA-resistant NB4-R2 cells or in NB4 cells pre-incubated with the RAR? antagonist Ro-41-52-53.The augmented cytotoxicity observed in leukaemia cells following combined ATO-ATRA treatment is likely due to inhibition of Nrf2 activity, thus explaining the efficacy of combined ATO-ATRA treatment in the APL therapy.
Project description:Gemtuzumab ozogamicin was the first example of antibody-directed chemotherapy in cancer, and was developed for acute myeloid leukaemia. However, randomised trials in which it was combined with standard induction chemotherapy in adults have produced conflicting results. We did a meta-analysis of individual patient data to assess the efficacy of adding gemtuzumab ozogamicin to induction chemotherapy in adult patients with acute myeloid leukaemia.We searched PubMed for reports of randomised controlled trials published in any language up to May 1, 2013, that included an assessment of gemtuzumab ozogamicin given to adults (aged 15 years and older) in conjunction with the first course of intensive induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia (excluding acute promyelocytic leukaemia) compared with chemotherapy alone. Published data were supplemented with additional data obtained by contacting individual trialists. The primary endpoint of interest was overall survival. We used standard meta-analytic techniques, with an assumption-free (or fixed-effect) method. We also did exploratory stratified analyses to investigate whether any baseline features predicted a greater or lesser benefit from gemtuzumab ozogamicin.We obtained data from five randomised controlled trials (3325 patients); all trials were centrally randomised and open label, with overall survival as the primary endpoint. The addition of gemtuzumab ozogamicin did not increase the proportion of patients achieving complete remission with or without complete peripheral count recovery (odds ratio [OR] 0·91, 95% CI 0·77-1·07; p=0·3). However, the addition of gemtuzumab ozogamicin significantly reduced the risk of relapse (OR 0·81, 0·73-0·90; p=0·0001), and improved overall survival at 5 years (OR 0·90, 0·82-0·98; p=0·01). At 6 years, the absolute survival benefit was especially apparent in patients with favourable cytogenetic characteristics (20·7%; OR 0·47, 0·31-0·73; p=0·0006), but was also seen in those with intermediate characteristics (5·7%; OR 0·84, 0·75-0·95; p=0·005). Patients with adverse cytogenetic characteristics did not benefit (2·2%; OR 0·99, 0·83-1·18; p=0·9). Doses of 3 mg/m(2) were associated with fewer early deaths than doses of 6 mg/m(2), with equal efficacy.Gemtuzumab ozogamicin can be safely added to conventional induction therapy and provides a significant survival benefit for patients without adverse cytogenetic characteristics. These data suggest that the use of gemtuzumab ozogamicin should be reassessed and its licence status might need to be reviewed.None.
Project description:Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are involved in human diseases, such as allergy, atopic dermatitis and nasal polyposis, but their function in human cancer remains unclear. Here we show that, in acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL), ILC2s are increased and hyper-activated through the interaction of CRTH2 and NKp30 with elevated tumour-derived PGD2 and B7H6, respectively. ILC2s, in turn, activate monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs) via IL-13 secretion. Upon treating APL with all-trans retinoic acid and achieving complete remission, the levels of PGD2, NKp30, ILC2s, IL-13 and M-MDSCs are restored. Similarly, disruption of this tumour immunosuppressive axis by specifically blocking PGD2, IL-13 and NKp30 partially restores ILC2 and M-MDSC levels and results in increased survival. Thus, using APL as a model, we uncover a tolerogenic pathway that may represent a relevant immunosuppressive, therapeutic targetable, mechanism operating in various human tumour types, as supported by our observations in prostate cancer.Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) modulate inflammatory and allergic responses, but their function in cancer immunity is still unclear. Here the authors show that, in acute promyelocytic leukaemia, tumour-activated ILC2s secrete IL-13 to induce myeloid-derived suppressor cells and support tumour growth.
Project description:Major advances in genetic and epigenetic profiling of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) have enhanced the understanding of key biological subsets of de novo and relapsed ALL, which has led to improved risk stratification of patients. These achievements have further defined critical leukaemia-associated pathways and somatic alterations that may be preferentially sensitive to treatment with kinase inhibitors, epigenetic therapy or other novel agents. Therapeutic success in childhood ALL currently relies upon refined risk stratification of patients based on (i) underlying biological and clinical characteristics, and (ii) depth of initial treatment response with appropriate modulation of chemotherapy intensity. This review describes the current mutational landscape of childhood ALL and discusses opportunities for substantial improvements in survival with implementation of molecularly targeted therapies.
Project description:The PML-RAR? fusion gene, generated by the t(15;17) chromosome translocation, is regarded as the initiating factor of acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL). In addition to the well-known effects on blocking myeloid differentiation at the promyelocytic stage, promyelocytic leukaemia-retinoic acid receptor ? (PML-RAR?) has also been reported to interfere with multiple differentiation processes, including erythroid differentiation. However, the detailed molecular mechanism by which PML-RAR? impairs erythropoiesis has not yet been fully addressed. By chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR assay, we found that PML-RAR? bound to the distal promoter region of LMO2 (LIM-only protein 2), a critical erythroid-specific transcription factor. Luciferase reporter assays and qRT-PCR results demonstrated that PML-RAR? down-regulated the expression of the LMO2 distal transcript through transrepressing its promoter activity. Analysis of gene expression profiling data from large cohorts of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients confirmed that LMO2 expressed at a markedly lower level in APL patients in comparison to non-APL AML patients. Further flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that PML-RAR? inhibited erythropoietin-induced erythroid differentiation by down-regulating LMO2 expression. Our findings reveal a previously unidentified mechanism, by which PML-RAR? interferes with erythropoiesis through directly targeting and transrepressing LMO2 expression in the development of APL.