Alterations in endo-lysosomal function induce similar hepatic lipid profiles in rodent models of drug-induced phospholipidosis and Sandhoff disease.
ABSTRACT: Drug-induced phospholipidosis (DIPL) is characterized by an increase in the phospholipid content of the cell and the accumulation of drugs and lipids inside the lysosomes of affected tissues, including in the liver. Although of uncertain pathological significance for patients, the condition remains a major impediment for the clinical development of new drugs. Human Sandhoff disease (SD) is caused by inherited defects of the ? subunit of lysosomal ?-hexosaminidases (Hex) A and B, leading to a large array of symptoms, including neurodegeneration and ultimately death by the age of 4 in its most common form. The substrates of Hex A and B, gangliosides GM2 and GA2, accumulate inside the lysosomes of the CNS and in peripheral organs. Given that both DIPL and SD are associated with lysosomes and lipid metabolism in general, we measured the hepatic lipid profiles in rodent models of these two conditions using untargeted LC/MS to examine potential commonalities. Both model systems shared a number of perturbed lipid pathways, notably those involving metabolism of cholesteryl esters, lysophosphatidylcholines, bis(monoacylglycero)phosphates, and ceramides. We report here profound alterations in lipid metabolism in the SD liver. In addition, DIPL induced a wide range of lipid changes not previously observed in the liver, highlighting similarities with those detected in the model of SD and raising concerns that these lipid changes may be associated with underlying pathology associated with lysosomal storage disorders.
Project description:Sandhoff disease (SD) is a lysosomal ?-hexosaminidase (Hex) deficiency involving excessive accumulation of undegraded substrates, including GM2 ganglioside, and progressive neurodegeneration. Macrophage inflammatory protein-1? (MIP-1?) is a crucial factor for microglia-mediated neuroinflammation in the onset or progression of SD. However, the transmitter-mediated production of MIP-1? in SD is still poorly understood.Extracellular nucleotides, including uridine diphosphate (UDP), leaked by either injured or damaged neuronal cells activate microglia to trigger chemotaxis, phagocytosis, macropinocytosis, and cytokine production.In this study, we demonstrated that UDP enhanced the production of MIP-1? by microglia derived from SD mice (SD-Mg), but not that from wild-type mice (WT-Mg). The UDP-induced MIP-1? production was mediated by the activation of P2Y6 receptor, ERK, and JNK. We also found the amount of dimeric P2Y6 receptor protein to have increased in SD-Mg in comparison to WT-Mg. In addition, we demonstrated that the disruption of lipid rafts enhanced the effect of UDP on MIP-1? production and the disordered maintenance of the lipid rafts in SD-Mg. Thus, the accumulation of undegraded substrates might cause the enhanced effect of UDP in SD-Mg through the increased expression of the dimeric P2Y6 receptors and the disordered maintenance of the lipid rafts. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenic mechanism and therapeutic strategies for SD.
Project description:Sandhoff disease (SD) is caused by the loss of ?-hexosaminidase (Hex) enzymatic activity in lysosomes resulting from Hexb mutations. In SD patients, the Hex substrate GM2 ganglioside accumulates abnormally in neuronal cells, resulting in neuronal loss, microglial activation, and astrogliosis. Hexb-/- mice, which manifest a phenotype similar to SD, serve as animal models for examining the pathophysiology of SD. Hexb-/- mice reach ~8 weeks without obvious neurological defects; however, trembling begins at 12 weeks and is accompanied by startle reactions and increased limb tone. These symptoms gradually become severe by 16-18 weeks. Immune reactions caused by autoantibodies have been recently associated with the pathology of SD. The inhibition of immune activation may represent a novel therapeutic target for SD. Herein, SD mice (Hexb-/-) were crossed to mice lacking an activating immune receptor (FcR?-/-) to elucidate the potential relationship between immune responses activated through SD autoantibodies and astrogliosis. Microglial activation and astrogliosis were observed in cortices of Hexb-/- mice during the asymptomatic phase, and were inhibited in Hexb-/- FcR?-/- mice. Moreover, early astrogliosis and impaired motor coordination in Hexb-/- mice could be ameliorated by immunosuppressants, such as FTY720. Our findings demonstrate the importance of early treatment and the therapeutic effectiveness of immunosuppression in SD.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Sandhoff disease (SD) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder, resulting in accumulation of GM2 ganglioside, particular in neuronal cells. The disorder is caused by deficiency of ?-hexosaminidase B (HEX-B), due to pathogenic variant of human HEXB gene.<h4>Method</h4>This study describes clinical features, biochemical, and genetic defects among Thai patients with infantile SD during 2008-2019.<h4>Results</h4>Five unrelated Thai patients presenting with developmental regression, axial hypotonia, seizures, exaggerated startle response to noise, and macular cherry red spot were confirmed to have infantile SD based on deficient HEX enzyme activities and biallelic variants of the HEXB gene. In addition, an uncommon presenting feature, cardiac defect, was observed in one patient. All the patients died in their early childhood. Plasma total HEX and HEX-B activities were severely deficient. Sequencing analysis of HEXB gene identified two variants including c.1652G>A (p.Cys551Tyr) and a novel variant of c.761T>C (p.Leu254Ser), in 90 and 10% of the mutant alleles found, respectively. The results from in silico analysis using multiple bioinformatics tools were in agreement that the p.Cys551Tyr and the p.Leu254Ser are likely pathogenic variants. Molecular modelling suggested that the Cys551Tyr disrupt disulfide bond, leading to protein destabilization while the Leu254Ser resulted in change of secondary structure from helix to coil and disturbing conformation of the active site of the enzyme. Genome-wide SNP array analysis showed no significant relatedness between the five affected individuals. These two variants were not present in control individuals. The prevalence of infantile SD in Thai population is estimated 1 in 1,458,521 and carrier frequency at 1 in 604.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The study suggests that SD likely represents the most common subtype of rare infantile GM2 gangliosidosis identified among Thai patients. We firstly described a potential common variant in HEXB in Thai patients with infantile onset SD. The data can aid a rapid molecular confirmation of infantile SD starting with the hotspot variant and the use of expanded carrier testing.
Project description:The GM2-gangliosidoses are neurological diseases causing premature death, thus developing effective treatment protocols is urgent. GM2-gangliosidoses result from deficiency of a lysosomal enzyme ?-hexosaminidase (Hex) and subsequent accumulation of GM2 gangliosides. Genetic changes in HEXA, encoding the Hex ? subunit, or HEXB, encoding the Hex ? subunit, causes Tay-Sachs disease and Sandhoff disease, respectively. Previous studies have showed that a modified human Hex µ subunit (HEXM) can treat both Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff diseases by forming a homodimer to degrade GM2 gangliosides. To this end, we applied this HEXM subunit in our PS813 gene editing system to treat neonatal Sandhoff mice. Through AAV delivery of the CRISPR system, a promoterless HEXM cDNA will be integrated into the albumin safe harbor locus, and lysosomal enzyme will be expressed and secreted from edited hepatocytes. 4 months after the i.v. of AAV vectors, plasma MUGS and MUG activities reached up to 144- and 17-fold of wild-type levels (n?=?10, p?<?0.0001), respectively. More importantly, MUGS and MUG activities in the brain also increased significantly compared with untreated Sandhoff mice (p?<?0.001). Further, HPLC-MS/MS analysis showed that GM2 gangliosides in multiple tissues, except the brain, of treated mice were reduced to normal levels. Rotarod analysis showed that coordination and motor memory of treated mice were improved (p?<?0.05). Histological analysis of H&E stained tissues showed reduced cellular vacuolation in the brain and liver of treated Sandhoff mice. These results demonstrate the potential of developing a treatment of in vivo genome editing for Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff patients.
Project description:Late-onset GM2 gangliosidosis is an autosomal recessive, neurodegenerative, lysosomal storage disease, caused by deficiency of ß-hexosaminidase A (Hex A), resulting from mutations in the HEXA (Tay-Sachs variant) or the HEXB (Sandhoff variant) genes. The enzyme deficiency in many patients with juvenile or adult onset forms of the disease results from the production of an unstable protein, which becomes targeted for premature degradation by the quality control system of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum and is not transported to lysosomes. In vitro studies have shown that many mutations in either the ? or ? subunit of Hex A can be partially rescued, i.e. enhanced levels of both enzyme protein and activity in lysosomes, following the growth of patient cells in the presence of the drug, pyrimethamine. The objectives of the present clinical trial were to establish the tolerability and efficacy of the treatment of late-onset GM2 gangliosidosis patients with escalating doses of pyrimethamine, to a maximum of 100 mg per day, administered orally in a single daily dose, over a 16-week period . The primary objective, tolerability, was assessed by regular clinical examinations, along with a panel of hematologic and biochemical studies. Although clinical efficacy could not be assessed in this short trial, treatment efficacy was evaluated by repeated measurements of leukocyte Hex A activity, expressed relative to the activity of lysosomal ß-glucuronidase. A total of 11 patients were enrolled, 8 males and 3 females, aged 23 to 50 years. One subject failed the initial screen, another was omitted from analysis because of the large number of protocol violations, and a third was withdrawn very early as a result of adverse events which were not drug-related. For the remaining 8 subjects, up to a 4-fold enhancement of Hex A activity at doses of 50 mg per day or less was observed. Additionally marked individual variations in the pharmacokinetics of the drug among the patients were noted. However, the study also found that significant side effects were experienced by most patients at or above 75 mg pyrimethamine per day. We concluded that pyrimethamine treatment enhances leukocyte Hex A activity in patients with late-onset GM2 gangliosidosis at doses lower than those associated with unacceptable side effects. Further plans are underway to extend these trials and to develop methods to assess clinical efficacy.
Project description:Sandhoff disease (SD) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by defects in the β-subunit of β-N-acetylhexosaminidase (Hex), the enzyme that catabolizes GM2 ganglioside. Hex deficiency causes neuronal storage of GM2 and related glycoconjugates, resulting in progressive neurodegeneration and death, typically in infancy. No effective treatment exists for human patients. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy led to improved clinical outcome and survival of SD cats treated before the onset of disease symptoms. Most human patients are diagnosed after clinical disease onset, so it is imperative to test AAV-gene therapy in symptomatic SD cats to provide a realistic indication of therapeutic benefits that can be expected in humans. In this study, AAVrh8 vectors injected into the thalamus and deep cerebellar nuclei of symptomatic SD cats resulted in widespread central nervous system enzyme distribution, although a substantial burden of storage material remained. Cats treated in the early symptomatic phase showed delayed disease progression and a significant survival increase versus untreated cats. Treatment was less effective when administered later in the disease course, although therapeutic benefit was still possible. Results are encouraging for the treatment of human patients and provide support for the development AAV-gene therapy for human SD.
Project description:The GM2 gangliosidoses, Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) and Sandhoff disease (SD), are fatal lysosomal storage disorders caused by mutations in the HEXA and HEXB genes, respectively. These mutations cause dysfunction of the lysosomal enzyme β-N-acetylhexosaminidase A (HexA) and accumulation of GM2 ganglioside (GM2) with ensuing neurodegeneration, and death by 5 years of age. Until recently, the most successful therapy was achieved by intracranial co-delivery of monocistronic adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors encoding Hex alpha and beta-subunits in animal models of SD. The blood-brain barrier crossing properties of AAV9 enables systemic gene therapy; however, the requirement of co-delivery of two monocistronic AAV vectors to overexpress the heterodimeric HexA protein has prevented the use of this approach. To address this need, we developed multiple AAV constructs encoding simultaneously HEXA and HEXB using AAV9 and AAV-PHP.B and tested their therapeutic efficacy in 4- to 6-week-old SD mice after systemic administration. Survival and biochemical outcomes revealed superiority of the AAV vector design using a bidirectional CBA promoter with equivalent dose-dependent outcomes for both capsids. AAV-treated mice performed normally in tests of motor function, CNS GM2 ganglioside levels were significantly reduced, and survival increased by >4-fold with some animals surviving past 2 years of age.
Project description:Sandhoff disease (SD) is a lysosomal storage disease, caused by loss of ?-hexosaminidase (HEX) activity resulting in the accumulation of ganglioside GM2. There are shared features between SD and Parkinson's disease (PD). ?-synuclein (aSYN) inclusions, the diagnostic hallmark sign of PD, are frequently found in the brain in SD patients and HEX knockout mice, and HEX activity is reduced in the substantia nigra in PD. In this study, we biochemically demonstrate that HEX deficiency in mice causes formation of high-molecular weight (HMW) aSYN and ubiquitin in the brain. As expected from HEX enzymatic function requirements, overexpression in vivo of HEXA and B combined, but not either of the subunits expressed alone, increased HEX activity as evidenced by histochemical assays. Biochemically, such HEX gene expression resulted in increased conversion of GM2 to its breakdown product GM3. In a neurodegenerative model of overexpression of aSYN in rats, increasing HEX activity by AAV6 gene transfer in the substantia nigra reduced aSYN embedding in lipid compartments and rescued dopaminergic neurons from degeneration. Overall, these data are consistent with a paradigm shift where lipid abnormalities are central to or preceding protein changes typically associated with PD.
Project description:Sandhoff disease (SD) is a lysosomal disease caused by mutations in the gene coding for the ? subunit of ?-hexosaminidase, leading to deficiency in the enzymes ?-hexosaminidase (HEX) A and B. SD is characterised by an accumulation of gangliosides and related glycolipids, mainly in the central nervous system, and progressive neurodegeneration. The underlying cellular mechanisms leading to neurodegeneration and the contribution of inflammation in SD remain undefined. The aim of the present study was to measure global changes in metabolism over time that might reveal novel molecular pathways of disease. We used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and <sup>1</sup>H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy to profile intact lipids and aqueous metabolites, respectively. We examined spinal cord and cerebrum from healthy and <i>Hexb</i><sup>-/-</sup> mice, a mouse model of SD, at ages one, two, three and four months. We report decreased concentrations in lipids typical of the myelin sheath, galactosylceramides and plasmalogen-phosphatidylethanolamines, suggesting that reduced synthesis of myelin lipids is an early event in the development of disease pathology. Reduction in neuronal density is progressive, as demonstrated by decreased concentrations of <i>N</i>-acetylaspartate and amino acid neurotransmitters. Finally, microglial activation, indicated by increased amounts of myo-inositol correlates closely with the late symptomatic phases of the disease.
Project description:Salutary responses to adeno-associated viral (AAV) gene therapy have been reported in the mouse model of Sandhoff disease (SD), a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency of ?-N-acetylhexosaminidase (Hex). While untreated mice reach the humane endpoint by 4.1 months of age, mice treated by a single intracranial injection of vectors expressing human hexosaminidase may live a normal life span of 2 years. When treated with the same therapeutic vectors used in mice, two cats with SD lived to 7.0 and 8.2 months of age, compared with an untreated life span of 4.5?±?0.5 months (n = 11). Because a pronounced humoral immune response to both the AAV1 vectors and human hexosaminidase was documented, feline cDNAs for the hexosaminidase ?- and ?-subunits were cloned into AAVrh8 vectors. Cats treated with vectors expressing feline hexosaminidase produced enzymatic activity >75-fold normal at the brain injection site with little evidence of an immune infiltrate. Affected cats treated with feline-specific vectors by bilateral injection of the thalamus lived to 10.4?±?3.7 months of age (n = 3), or 2.3 times as long as untreated cats. These studies support the therapeutic potential of AAV vectors for SD and underscore the importance of species-specific cDNAs for translational research.