Arthroscopic Treatment of Greater Tuberosity Avulsion Fractures.
ABSTRACT: Isolated fractures of the greater tuberosity of the humerus are an uncommon and frequently missed diagnosis. Mistreated and unrecognized, these fractures can cause chronic pain and diminished shoulder range of motion and function. Operative treatment options include open reduction and internal fixation, as well as arthroscopic-assisted reduction and internal fixation. The purpose of this Technical Note is to describe a bridging arthroscopic technique for the treatment of bony avulsions of the supraspinatus tendon.
Project description:Although some literature may suggest that acute nondisplaced lesser tuberosity fractures should undergo nonoperative management, there is a body of evidence that supports surgical stabilization of these injuries due to concern for fracture displacement, nonunion and malunion, anteromedial impingement, and possible biceps tendon subluxation or dislocation. In this Technical Note, we introduce a novel technique for arthroscopic fixation of lesser tuberosity avulsion fractures using a knotless repair. In the lateral decubitus position using standard arthroscopic portals, with the addition of the biceps accessory portal, 2 ULTRATAPE sutures are fixed to the avulsed fragment in luggage-tag fashion to create a secure, knotless fixation. These are used to mobilize and anatomically approximate the lesser tuberosity to the avulsion bed and are held in place with suture anchors placed immediately adjacent to the fracture bed. This technique provides good anatomic reduction with maximal surface area for bone-to-bone healing.
Project description:Proximal humerus lesser tuberosity avulsions are uncommon injuries; however, when present, they can be debilitating for patients. As such, they pose a unique clinical challenge. These fractures were traditionally treated through an open approach to the proximal humerus; however, arthroscopic techniques continue to evolve and are increasingly used for these types of injuries. We describe our minimally invasive arthroscopic technique to repair lesser tuberosity avulsions using standard arthroscopic equipment. This method is safe, efficient, and applies basic shoulder arthroscopic techniques.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Subscapularis tendon avulsions of the lesser tuberosity are relatively rare and often missed acutely and their characteristic appearance is frequently not recognized or is misinterpreted for an osteochondroma or a neoplastic process. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES:This report reviews our experience with six adolescents who had subscapularis tendon avulsions of the lesser tuberosity. METHODS:Six male adolescents (12-15 years) presented with shoulder pain following history of trauma during amateur sport. Clinical notes including range of motion, strength tests, and pain assessment were reviewed along with imaging studies pre- and post treatment. Treatment consisted of either surgical or conservative measures. RESULTS:Two of the six patients had a large avulsion that simulated an exostosis of the proximal humerus that was misdiagnosed as an osteochondroma at two different outside institutions. All six cases were diagnosed with subscapularis tendon avulsion of the lesser tuberosity following clinical and imaging evaluation at our institution. Five of the patients underwent surgical repair and fixation of the tendon and the lesser tuberosity with suture anchors. One patient was treated conservatively. All patients had a good outcome with recovery of full shoulder strength and motion upon follow-up. CONCLUSION:Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion of lesser tuberosity avulsions in adolescents who present with loss of internal rotation and anterior shoulder pain following traumatic injuries. In addition, an osseous fragment or exostosis along the inferomedial humeral head should suggest a subscapularis tendon avulsion and also should not be confused with an osteochondroma or a neoplastic process.
Project description:Proximal humerus fractures are common fractures that may occur after ground level falls or other traumatic events resulting in a direct injury to the shoulder. Depending on the fracture morphology and the age of the patient, anatomic reduction can vastly improve outcomes, especially in fracture patterns that involve the greater tuberosity. In this case example, we performed a minimally invasive, arthroscopic reduction and fixation of a proximal humerus fracture that involved significant displacement of the greater tuberosity. The technique employed is reproducible and avoids the morbidity of a large open incision while simultaneously providing compression of the fracture fragment for excellent healing potential.
Project description:Tuberosity avulsion fractures of the fifth metatarsal are common and the lateral band of the plantar aponeurosis as the structure more likely to cause these fractures. Most tuberosity avulsion fractures heal by 8 weeks with conservative treatment. Symptomatic nonunion can occasionally occur. Internal fixation with or without bone graft is the treatment of choice for painful nonunion if conservative treatment fails. The purpose of this Technical Note is to describe the details of endoscopic management of nonunion of the tuberosity of the fifth metatarsal without diastasis. This includes endoscopic release of the nonunion site, debridement of the fibrous tissue, microfracture of the sclerotic bone surfaces, and percutaneous screw fixation.
Project description:Arthroscopic fixation of a greater tuberosity (GT) avulsion fracture by suture bridge repair has been described in several articles. However, all of them have used arthroscopic fixation of a small sized GT fracture fragment or have not used purely arthroscopic techniques. In this Technical Note, the authors describe another technique for large displaced GT fracture fixation by arthroscopy only, without any metal fixation. Standard anterior, posterior, lateral, and posterolateral viewing portals are established with an accessory portal for suture anchor insertion. During intra-articular examination, an anteroinferior capsulolabral tear, upper one-third subscapularis tendon tear, and posterosuperior displaced bony fragment are detected. A subscapularis tendon was repaired by a single-row technique. After repair, medial row anchors are inserted into the bare area of infraspinatus tendon and the posterior edge of supraspinatus tendon. A 1-PDS suture is used to pass strands of fiberwire. As with the remplissage procedure, the fiberwire was passed with an 18-gauge needle. Following the acromioplasty, the medial row tightening was done by reducing the fracture fragment. After that, the lateral row anchor was inserted into the bicipital groove, completing the suture bridge technique. This technique can effectively treat other pathologies, has less radiation hazard, and results in fewer soft tissue injuries.
Project description:Tibial tuberosity transfer is a well-established procedure in the treatment of patellar instability and in selected cases of anterior knee pain. Several techniques have been advocated in the literature. Some of the common complications associated with this procedure have been pain and discomfort due to prominent screw heads, necessitating their removal; nonunion and delayed union of the osteotomy; and failure of fixation. Tibial fractures have also been reported in some case reports. We present our technique of tibial tuberosity transfer using two 4-mm cannulated screws for stabilization of the tuberosity fragment. We have used this technique either for isolated tibial tuberosity transfer or as part of a combined procedure along with medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction in treating patellar instability. Using this technique, we have encountered no patients with wound problems, nonunion, delayed union, or loss of fixation and only 1 patient with a metal work problem needing a second procedure for its removal. We attribute our good outcomes to the preservation of the soft-tissue attachments to the tuberosity fragment; minimal soft-tissue dissection, which allows rapid bony consolidation of the osteotomy, which in turn allows accelerated rehabilitation; and the use of 4-mm cannulated screws for fixation of the osteotomy, minimizing the potential for metal work problems.
Project description:Tibial eminence avulsion fractures are rare injuries occurring mainly in adolescents and young adults. When necessary, regardless of patient age, anatomic reduction and stable internal fixation are mandatory for fracture healing and accurate restoration of normal knee biomechanics. Various arthroscopically assisted fixation methods with sutures, anchors, wires, or screws have been described but can be technically demanding, thus elongating operative times. The purpose of this article is to present a technical variation of arthroscopic suture fixation of anterior cruciate ligament avulsion fractures. Using thoracic drain needles over 2.4-mm anterior cruciate ligament tibial guidewires, we recommend the safe and easy creation of four 2.9-mm tibial tunnels at different angles and at specific points. This technique uses thoracic drain needles as suture passage cannulas and offers 4-point fixation stability, avoiding potential complications of bony bridge fracture and tunnel connection.
Project description:We report the use of the double-pulley technique for arthroscopic fixation of the bony PASTA (partial articular surface tendon avulsion) lesion. Arthroscopic examination documented a 15-mm-long and 8-mm-wide comminuted bony avulsion with 2 main fragments. Two double-loaded suture anchors were placed with a transtendinous technique at the anterior and posterior edges of the lesion respecting the tendon insertion to the avulsed fragment. The medial sutures were retrieved through the intact supraspinatus tendon medially to the fracture. The sutures were initially coupled in a double-pulley configuration generating 2 sutures oriented from anterior to posterior; then a simple suture for each anchor oriented from medial to lateral was obtained. At the end of the procedure, the adequacy of reduction and stability of the fragments were confirmed. At 2 months from surgery, radiographic healing of the fracture was noted and integrity of the supraspinatus tendon insertion to the footprint was confirmed by arthro-magnetic resonance imaging, with full recovery of daily activities and complete active range of motion confirmed at 6 and 12 months. The double-pulley technique allows optimal reduction of bony fragments and reconstruction of normal footprint anatomy even in comminuted fractures. Moreover, it creates a waterproof reduction of the fragments, protecting the fracture site from synovial fluid.
Project description:Hamstring muscle injuries are common in athletes and mostly consist of sprains at the myotendinous junction, which often respond well to conservative treatment. Proximal hamstring avulsion injuries, though less common, can be severely debilitating. This injury is often seen in water skiers but has been described in many other sports and in middle-aged patients. Complete avulsions in young and active individuals do not respond well to conservative treatment and may require surgical repair. In contrast, many partial tears may be treated nonoperatively. However, when symptoms continue despite a trial of extensive therapy, surgery may be warranted. Traditional surgery for proximal hamstring repair is performed with the patient in the prone position with an incision made longitudinally or along the gluteal fold, followed by identification of the torn tendons and fixation to the ischial tuberosity. We describe a novel surgical technique for endoscopic repair of proximal hamstring avulsion injuries.